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Eutrophication

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  • 1. Eutrophication http://www.marietta.edu/~ biol/biomes/images/mangroves/florida_eutrophication_7536.jpg Menkov, Peter Stamatova, Zhanet Tantcheva, Christina Section 10/1
  • 2. What is eutrophication?
    • A process whereby water bodies receive excessive amounts of nutrients, which results in excessive plant growth (aka algal bloom) (1)
    • Anthropogenic eutrophication – the pollution that humans cause with the release of sewage effluent and fertilizers into natural waters. (2)
  • 3. What does eutrophication cause?
    • Reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxic water) by the decomposition of dead plant materials (1)
    • This can result in the death of other organisms (1)
  • 4. http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01590/pollution/culturaleutroph.jpg
  • 5. Algal Bloom (3)
    • Algal/marine/water bloom =“rapid increase in the population of algae in an aquatic system” –green, yellowish-brown or red
    • In fresh water and marine environment
    • Caused by excessive nutrients (P and N mainly)
  • 6. … So what? (3)
    • The more algae grow, the more other organisms die.
    • Bacteria feed on the dead organic matter.
    • Thus, bacteria increase in number.
    • More oxygen dissolved in water used
    • Fish and aquatic insects die
  • 7. And then…? (3)
    • Neurotoxins
    • Biological impact on wildlife
    • HABs –Harmful Algal Blooms (toxins produced by phytoplankton)
    • Accumulations of foams, scums, and discoloration of the water (4)
    http ://www.macalester.edu/environmentalstudies/threerivers/studentprojects/ENVI_133_Spr_08/Phosphorus/eutrophication.gif
  • 8. http://www.seos-project.eu/modules/oceancolour/images/algal-bloom-warning-sign.jpg
  • 9. Problems…  (9, 10)
    • Species diversity decreases
    • Dominant biota changes
    • Competition for resources, predator pressure
    • Turbidity increases – less transparency
    • Rate of sedimentation increases
    • High chemical or physical stress
    • Algal blooms
    http ://www.jamstec.go.jp/jamstec-e/tech/tech_3g/rtdeadfish.jpg
  • 10. http ://sevenhillslake.com/CulturalEutrophication.jpg
  • 11.
    • Water - injurious to health, decline in value
    • Disturbance in water flow and navigation
    • Commercially important species of fish may disappear
    • Problems with drinking water, bad taste or odor after treatment (10)
    • B lue baby syndrom e ( methemoglobinemia ) - nitrate levels above 10 mg / l in drinking water , may be life-threatenin g (8)
  • 12.
    • http ://medicalimages.allrefer.com/large/shaken-baby-symptoms.jpg
    http ://www3.aims.gov.au/ibm/pages/news/images/figure1-bc.jpg http ://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=171951
  • 13. Prevention (5, 6)
    • R educe the input of nutrients into the water basins (for example, Baltic Sea)
    • Fertilization balance
    • Reduction in P and N load
    • Monitoring to predict eutrophication
    • Hydrodynamics of the water body – especially information about nutrients
    • Precision agriculture – accurate irrigation
    • Sewage treatment – removal of nutrients
    • Prevention of erosion of soil
    • Unfertilized buffer zones near water bodies
  • 14. http ://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/graphics/news/soc0017b_lg.png
  • 15. How to deal with the effects (5)
    • Algaecides - copper sulphate, chlorine, citrate copper; kill algal and cyanobacterial cells
    • Filtration – micro-, ultra-, nano-
    • Coagulation-clarification
    • Activated carbon adsorption
    • Oxidation
    • Disinfection with chlorine
  • 16. Examples of Eutrophication (7)
    • The Baltic Sea
    • In the Baltic Sea, all the areas are affected by eutrophication
    • Number of phytoplankton increases (especially cyanobacteria)
    • This bacterium has increased, because of the increase in nutrient concentrations and due to the changes in the seasonal availability and large nutrient proportions
    • Cyanobacteria bloom (Nodularia spumigena) in the western Baltic
    http ://www.eutro.org/documents/EEA%20Topic_Report_7_2001.pdf
  • 17. The Baltic Sea (6)
    • Since harmful and toxic species are parts of the phytoplankton, the blooms of harmful algae have also increased
    • Blooms - caused losses to fish farming, deaths of fish, sea birds, dogs and cattle, and some damage to human health
    • Source of eutrophication in this area – increase in phytoplankton, consisting of many harmful bacteria causing damage to the environment
    • Impacts include:
    • reductions in biodiversity
    • reductions in the natural resources of dermersal fish and shellfish
    • reduced income from maricultures of fish and shellfish
    • reduced recreational value and income from tourism
    • increased risk of poisoning of animals including humans by algal toxins
  • 18. http ://www.rahulbasu.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/baltic_sea_map.png
  • 19. Solutions (6)
    • The Baltic Sea states and the North Sea states - decided to aim at a 50 % reduction of the N and P load from land compared to the level in the middle of the 1980s.
    • It is expected that the directives and especially the recently decided water framework Directive (the urban wastewater treatment directive, 2000/60/EC) will reduce the nutrient loads to the European coastal areas and the eutrophication impacts to an acceptable level.
  • 20. Mediterranean Sea (7)
    • Mediterranean surface waters in the open sea are classified among the poorest in nutrients (oligotrophic) of the world oceans
    • Mediterranean coastal zone - important for human activities like habitation, industry, agriculture, fisheries, military facilities, and tourist resorts
    • Most of these activities contribute to coastal eutrophication in the Eastern Mediterranea n
    http ://www.iasonnet.gr/abstracts/fig_kar1.jpeg
  • 21. Works Cited
    • &quot;Algal bloom.&quot; Science Daily . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/a/algal_bloom.htm>. (3)
    • &quot;Algal Blooms in Fresh Water.&quot; Water Encyclopedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. <http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/A-Bi/Algal-Blooms-in-Fresh- Water.html#ixzz0qB5cw2ci>. (4)
    • &quot;Eutrophicatio and Health.&quot; European Commission . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-nitrates/pdf/eutrophication.pdf>. (5)
    • &quot;Eutrophication.&quot; Guide to Water Pollution . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <http://www.water- pollution.org.uk/eutrophication.html>. (7)
    • &quot;Eutrophication.&quot; USGS . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. < http://toxics.usgs.gov/definitions/eutrophication.html>. (1)
    • &quot;Eutrophication.&quot; Wikipedia . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication>. (2)
    • &quot;Eutrophication in Europe’s coastal waters.&quot; ASSETS . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <http://www.eutro.org/documents/EEA%20Topic_Report_7_2001.pdf>. (6)
    • &quot;General effects of eutrophication.&quot; Water Treatment and Purification - Lenntech . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water- bodies/eutrophication-effects.htm>. (10)
    • &quot;Problem: Eutrophication .&quot; Wingolog . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 June 2010. <http://wingolog.org/writings/water/html/node27.html>. (9)
    • &quot;Why Is Eutrophication Such a Serious Pollution Problem?&quot; IETC . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2010. <http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/publications/ short_series/lakereservoirs-3/1.asp>. (8)