Eutrophication Hristova, Aleksandra Kokinov, Radoslav Apostolov, Lachezar
Process in which t he concentration of chemical nutrients increases
T he primary productivity increases
( production of organic compounds from atmospheric carbon dioxide )
W ater quality are reduced.
Reduce of some a nimal populations .
Increase in other population s that negatively affects other species .
Bloom of dead phytoplankton and zooplankton in an area. , , 
The nitrogen that is exceeded from factories go in the seas
Cause the rapid growth of algae and cyanobacteria
Decomposing bacteria eat the dead algae and multiply
Reduce the oxygen concentration 
More about the process
Effects that are result of human activities.
Anthropogenic eutrophication is a process in which there is increase of chemical nutrients due to human activities., 
What causes anthropogenic eutrophication?
It limits the sunlight available to the organisms at the bottom
During the day dissolved oxygen greatly increases and decrease during night caused by the respiring algae.
The reduced oxygen cause the fish and other marine animals to suffocate and die
Some bacteria may produce toxins that are deadly for the other animals
These zones are called dead zones.
Some pictures of algal bloom 
Effects on the Ecosystem
Decrease of Biodiversity –
mainly in the water
Species like fish, etc. die off
due to the lack of oxygen
in the water caused by
algal blooms and increase
in bacteria consuming the O 2
Further Effects on Species
New species which
have different living
invade the environment
Algal blooms increase
toxicity which may kill
many plants and animals
(Some pictures that show the effect) 
Effects on People
The toxicity increases after the algal blooms and moves up the food chain affecting people and other living creatures
Dying of species affect people’s gathering businesses such as fishing, gathering water plants, etc.
Dying off of species such as fish and plants may cause economic problems due to the decreased trade of these products
(Some pictures that show the effect) 
Riparian buffer zones
In order to avoid eutrophication, the pollution should be intercepted before it reaches water sources.
Riparian buffer zones – they are built between the pollution source and the water source, and they are basically interfaces where nutrients are deposited in order not to be deposited in water. 
Riparian buffer zones – not effective enough => a law that should regulate the agricultural use of fertilizer and animal waste should be imposed. It should at least make the farmers clean up the waste of their animals, which if it is left alone, will get in the ground water.
These policies could be divided into four sectors 
Technologies – aim to make people use more common technologies in agriculture, rather than applying new ones.
Public participation – aim to make people aware that they also participate in this problem.
Economic Instruments – aim to give incentives for those who protect the water sources from pollution by using clean methods for agriculture.
Cooperation – Pollution may be because of, or affect several communities => they should cooperate in order to deal with the problem. 
Nitrogen testing and modeling
Farmers use technique called Soil Nitrogen testing in order to optimize the amount of fertilizer applied to crops.
It reduces both the wastes and the expenditures. 
Measures to deal with the existing problem
The most common way to deal with the problem.
Similar to the cleaning of the school yards, but aim to remove mostly organic pollution.
Began in the 1970’s in Finland, where a group of activists cleaned up several lakes and rivers from pollution that came from industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources.
May have a 90% removal efficiency
However, in some places despite the reduction due to cleanup, the pollution stayed the same => sometimes these efforts are not effective.