Ecological impacts of dams
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Ecological impacts of dams Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Ecological Impacts of Dams Lora Stoyanova Viara Tzvetkova Goran Georgiev 10/3
  • 2. Impact on Fishes
    • Dams obstruct fish movement,
    • especially their migration.
    • This can have a great influence
    • on the fish population in the area.
    • Very bad ecological impact for species such as bears (1)
    http://blog.mlive.com/chronicle/2008/04/07deadfish.jpg
  • 3. Water Quality
    • Water becomes still
    • with little to no flow of new
    • water – gather of pollution.
    • Alters water’s natural seasonal temperatures – affects oxygen levels and chemical reactions.
    • Huge amounts of water evaporates.(2)
    • Release of pesticides which contaminate water.
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Dam_with_water.jpg
  • 4. Water Quality - Carbon
    • Still water stores and releases a lot of carbon.
    • Vegetation starts to rot also releasing a lot of carbon as well as other greenhouse gases such as methane.
    • Carbon is both an air and water polluting agent.
    • Stored carbon forms organic pesticides which start killing the river’s species (5)
  • 5. Loss of Sediment
    • Water flow stops making the sediment sink to the bottom of the reservoir (4)
    • Overtime the sediment builds up, which rises water levels and puts pressure on dam walls.
    • The dam might not be able to hold up and can eventually bursts with the water flooding towns and killing people.
    • There is no way of removing this sediment. (1)
  • 6. Impact on People
    • Dam bursts because of sediment can lead to hundreds of death and destruction. (1)
    • The side of the dam with less water, famers struggle to keep their crops, etc. alive.
    • Fisherman suffer the reduction of fish greatly and must fish next to the dam or simply move out (3).
  • 7. Three Reasons for Dams
    • Agriculture, irrigation, and water supply
    • Energy
    • Flood management
      • Water can be saved, not wasted
      • Better irrigation systems (40% of the food is gotten from 17 % of irrigated land)
      • Better water harvesting techniques
      • Better energy efficiency
      • Renewable sources of energy (wind, sun, etc)
    • IRBM- Integrated river basin management 
      • Managing, developing, and conserving the use of water and land within a river basin
      • S ustainable use of freshwater resources
      • P reventing disastrous floods (12)
  • 8. Changed Environmental Requirements
    • Aerial photography and photogrammetry
    • Streamflow measurement and yield estimation
    • Flood hydrology
    • Spillway, diversion and outlet hydraulics
    • Geotechnical investigations
    • Site selection
    • Selection of dam type and layout (13)
  • 9. Dam Risk Assessment
    • Identification of potential hazards
    • Assessment of risk by assigning probabilities to failure modes
    • Dam break modelling (1 and 2 dimensional)
    • Identification of unacceptable risks
    • Investigation of appropriate risk reduction measures (13)
  • 10. Examples
    • Aral Sea
    • Three Gorges Dam
    http://shipbright.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/aral_sea_1989-20081.jpg http://www.indraz.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/3gorges-before-and-during.jpg
  • 11. Aral Sea
    • Location: between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
    • Since 1960- shrank a lot
    • Impact
      • in depth- more than two times less in 20 years
      • in width- a tiny water basin in the western part (11)
    http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/shrinking_of_the_aral_sea_socio_economic_impacts
    • Socio-economic and Ecological Impact
            • - A former fishing zone is now dry => many fishermen lost their jobs
      • - Different crops are now grown (cotton and rice)
      • - The remaining of the Aral sea- very polluted from drainage water
      • - Increased salinity => only one of the 20 living species in the Aral sea survived (8)
  • 12. Reason and Solution
    • Reason- rivers flowing into the Aral Sea were diverted by the Soviet Union
      • Result- water supply to the Aral sea: cut off (10)
    • Improvement
      • a dam created
      • for 2 years- level increased with 12 meter (9)
    http://www.orexca.com/aral_sea.shtml
  • 13. Three Gorges Dam
    • Location: Eastern China
    • World’s largest electricity- generating plant
    • Reasons: mostly economical, not concerning environment
      • To produce electricity
      • Flood Control (15)
    http://www.arch.mcgill.ca/prof/sijpkes/arch374/winter2001/dbiggs/chinamap.gif
  • 14. Impact
    • Advantages of dam created
      • Reduces chances of flood (controls water levels)
      • Provides electricity
      • Navigation
    • Disadvantages
      • Causes ecological changes
      • During the process of building- a lot of floods
      • Very expensive
      • In order to be built, many people moved away (14)
  • 15. Works Cited
    • &quot;The Effects of Dams.&quot; Stream Biology and Ecology . Web. 9 June 2010. <http://chamisa.freeshell.org/dam.htm>.
    • McCully, Patrick. &quot;Dams and Water Quality.&quot; International Rivers . Web. 8 June 2010. <http://www.internationalrivers.org/en/node/1638>.
    • Mirand, Ane. &quot;Dams Cutting Off 400 Million People From Food and Income «.&quot; Peak Water . 05 June 2010. Web. 9 June 2010. <http://peakwater.org/?p=1526>.
    • &quot;Sedimentation Problems with Dams.&quot; International Rivers . Web. 9 June 2010. <http://www.internationalrivers.org/en/node/1476>.
    • &quot;Tillegra Dam to Pump out CO2.&quot; Carbon Offsets Daily . Web. 9 June 2010. <http://www.carbonoffsetsdaily.com/news-channels/australasia/tillegra- dam-to-pump-out-co2-21892.htm>.
    • &quot;Water Quality.&quot; Kenyon . Web. 8 June 2010. <http://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/Dams/beb01coa.html>.
    • &quot;Why Are Dams Potentially Harmful to Fish?&quot; WiseGEEK: Clear Answers for Common Questions . Web. 8 June 2010. <http://www.wisegeek.com/why- are-dams-potentially-harmful-to-fish.htm>.
    • &quot;Aral Sea Disaster – Cause and Effect « All That Is Manfred.&quot; All That Is Manfred . Web. 15 June 2010. <http://allthatismanfred.wordpress.com/2009/09/30/aral-sea-disaster-cause-and-effect/>.
    • Antelava, Natalya. &quot;Dam project aims to save Aral Sea&quot;. BBC MMX. 8/06/010 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6538219.stm>.
    • &quot;The History of the Aral Sea&quot;. OrexCA. 8/06/2010 <http://www.orexca.com/aral_sea.shtml>.
    • Lambroschini, Antoine. &quot;Aral Sea Revived by Dam&quot;. Discovery Communications, LLC. 8/06/2010 <http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2008/06/24/aral-sea.html>.
    • &quot;WWF - Dam Solutions - Flood Management.&quot;  WWF - WWF . Web. 15 June 2010. <http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/footprint/water/dams_initiative/dams/floods/>.
    • &quot;Dams Capability.&quot;  Hydro Tasmania Consulting . Web. 15 June 2010. < http://www.hydrotasmaniaconsulting.com/files/00526-Dams-Capability.pd f>.
    • &quot;Benefits from Three Gorges Dam&quot;. Travel China Guide. 8/06/2010 <http://www.travelchinaguide.com/attraction/hubei/yichang/three-gorges-dam-project.htm>.
    • O’Hara, Laura. “The Three Gorges Dam Project”. 8/06/2010 <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~lpohara/>.