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Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4
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Birds2 sofia nadya 10 4


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  • 1. Birds Sofia Marcheva Nadya Teneva 10/4
  • 2. Scientific Name and Symmetry
    • Scientific Name for birds is Aves 2
    • Comes from Latin and means birds 2
    • Class Aves belongs to the Domain Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia and Phylum Chordata 5
    • Birds have Bilateral Symmetry 3
    • Bilateral Symmetry is a symmetry around one plane; two symmetrical parts (left and right), mirror images of each other. 3
  • 3. How does this phylum fit into the evolutionary tree (cladogram)? 13
    • Birds (Aves) are a class of Dinosauria. They have a Most Recent Common Ancestor with Reptiles – clade Sauria 251 MYA; its early members were probably small lizard-like creatures.
    • Their Most Recent Ancestor with Humans is probably around 350 MYA when the animals with amniotic egg appeared. The amniotic egg is the type of egg produced by birds, reptiles, and egg-laying mammals. In this egg the embryo develops inside a membrane that is either calcium based or leathery.
  • 4.
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  • 5. Shared derived characteristics 12
    • Feathers – used for flight; have variety of shapes and forms depending on their purpose
    • Endotherm (warm-bloodness) and four chambered heart – helps for a prolonged flight (Mammals also have these, but they developed individually in the two clades
    • Large brains and expanded skulls – help sensory perception; birds have especially sharp vision; they can sense ultra violet lights; they also have good hearing abilities and atmospheric pressure detection
    • Furcula (wishbone)- bone by the fusion of the two clavicles; strengthens the skeleton; helps flight
    • Pneumatic skeleton – air sacs in bones
    • Bill- The horny part of the jaws of a bird; a beak
  • 6. How do birds reproduce? 4
    • Most male birds do not have external sex organs, but they do have testes, where sperm is produced.
    • Female birds have two ovaries, although only the left one functions
    • During copulation, the female moves its tail to the side. The male moves the opening of his cloaca to the female’s cloaca. This process is called cloacal kiss. It happens very fast sometimes in less than one second.
    • The sperm is stored in the female’s cloaca from a week to a year depending on the species. Then eggs produced by the female become fertilized by the male’s sperm.
    • The eggs continue their development in the nest.
  • 7. How do birds move? 6
      • Basically two types of flight – gliding flight and flapping flight
      • Gliding – used by larger birds; flapping – used by smaller birds
      • Many derived characteristics helping the bird to be lighter (already mentioned- furcula, pneumatic skeleton)
      • Wings – the most important characteristic; wings shaped like an aerofoil
      • Because of its shape when air passes over the wing the pressure there becomes smaller (because the same amount of air exerts pressure over bigger area), the opposite effect is experienced below the wing.
      • The shape and size of the wings changes depending on the habitat of the bird, and the flights that they make.
      • 'aspect ratio' - the ratio of wing area divided by wing breadth
  • 8. What type of nervous system is present in birds? 8
    • Central nervous system – brain, spinal chord and nerves
    • Nerves consist of neurons – cells that transmit micro-electrical pulse
    • There are two types of neurons-sensory – triggered by sense organs and motor-transmit messages from brain to muscles
    • Autonomic nervous system – control essential action – heartbeat, breathing, and digestion.
    • Very well developed areas for hearing and sight, but not so developed olfactory lobes
  • 9. Class Aves
    • Indian Peafowl
    • ( ) Falcon Dove
    • (
    • (
    • Flamingos ( ) Owl ( )
  • 10. Indian Peafowl ( Pavo cristatus )
    • also known as Blue Peafowl or Common Peafowl 7
    • range: from eastern Pakistan to India and then south from the Himalayas to Sri Lanka 9
    • national bird of India 7
    • domesticated more than 2000 years ago and exported to many countries due to its beauty 7
    • female bird – peahen , male bird – peacock 7
    • Peafowl s and pheasants - family Phasianidae 7
    • Blue Peafowl and Green Peafowl (lives in Southeast Asia) can interbreed although their natural habitat ranges do not cross 7
    • live about 30 years in captivity and 20 – in the wild 9
    • natural habitat: dry open forest 7 ; tropical forest; riparian areas 9
    • don’t fly long distances 7
    • eat young cobras (valued by Indians), insects, small reptiles , seeds, plant seedlings and fruit 7
    • drawn to garden s , where they cause problems 7
    • peahens are more attracted to peacocks with more spots on their feathers 7
  • 11. Indian Peafowl ( Pavo cristatus )
    • tail coverts (feathers that cover the base of the tail feathers) - train s . The tail feathers are hidden underneath the train and support it 7
    • When peahens come closer to a peacock, he makes a fan with his beautiful trains and makes specific sounds to attract them 9
    • Males - specific courtship dance; whoever dances the best wins the attention of the females 7
    • Attractive peacocks make harems with no more than 5 peahens 7
    • Nest - 3 to 5 brown eggs that hatch in 1 month 7
    • Females incubate the eggs and take care of the children (peachicks) 7
    • Small peafowls are able to feed from birth and reach maturity at 2-3 years of age 9
    • Very adaptive bird (adapts to cooler climate) 7
  • 12. American Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) 1
    • Distribution: coastal areas of the Caribbean incl . the Bahamas, Cuba, and the Yucatan peninsula ; also southern United States, the Middle East, Africa, and northern South America
    • Habitat: Saline lakes, coastal lagoons and other shallow salt water territories
    • Food: Crustaceans, mollusks, insects, algae and diatoms with carotenoid pigments
    • Live in large flocks and take part in a ritualized group displays that synchronize breeding within the flock
    • Nest in colonies; group “nurseries” take care of the young ones
    • Group migration to breeding cites
    • Filter feeding: while they walk in the water, their long neck allows them to put their bill into the water and collect both water and food; then their tongue pushes out the water and only the food is left in the bill
  • 13. American Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) 1
    • Long legs allow them to go deeper into the water than other birds and to swim well and walk in mud
    • Monogamous
    • Breeding pairs go far from the group to build a nest which must be high enough to keep the eggs and the chicks above floodwaters and to protect them from predators
    • Both the male and the female flamingo incubate the egg, which hatches in 27-31 days
    • First 12 days - fed with “crop milk” by both parents in the nest
    • Learns to walk and swim, so it is given to “nurseries”, where each parent recognizes his chicks by specific sounds and feeds it
    • After the first 6 weeks, it is able to eat feed
    • Reach maturity at 3-6 years of age
    • Live about 50 years
    • Resting: stand on one leg with their head under their wing – preserves body temperature
    • Large population decline caused by a habitat loss and hunting
  • 14. Ostrich ( Struthio camelus )
    • Flightless bird 10
    • Largest living bird in the whole world 10
    • Males: soft black feathers on the back; white primary feathers on their wings and tail; blue or pink skin 10
    • Females and young ones: brownish feathers instead of black for camouflage purposes; pinkish gray skin 10
    • Eat: shoots, leaves, flowers, seeds; can go without drinking water several days 10
    • Habitat: flat areas in Africa where the rainfall is less 10
    • Savannas and Sahel of Africa, north and south of the forest zone on the equator, Southwest Africa 11
    • Ostriches live about 40 years 10
  • 15. Ostrich ( Struthio camelus )
    • During the dry season, they nest; the female lays no more than 12 eggs for 6 weeks; they are incubated by the male and the lead female, but no more than 10% of the eggs will hatch 10
    • Only 15% of chicks live more than 1 year because of the many predators, such as the hyena and the jackal 10
    • Great vision and strong legs that enable them to run at 31 miles per hour 10
    • Ostriches are farmed all over the world 11
    • Its feathers are used for feather dusters and its skin for leather 11
    • Meat - sold around the world 11
    • In some African countries people race on the backs of ostriches 11
  • 16. Interaction between Humans and Birds 5
    • Some birds – agricultural pests
    • Human activities cause extinction of birds
    • Birds transmit diseases, some of which can infect humans
    • Poultry – domesticated birds for meat and eggs – biggest source of animal protein for humans
    • Hunting for obtaining meat or feathers
    • Guano (seabird feces) – source of P and N
    • Pets
    • Messenger pigeons – used till WWII
    • Sports – pigeon racing
  • 17. Interesting Facts
    • Ostriches don’t bury their heads in the sand!!! 10
    • In “Alice in Wonderland” the croquet mallets in the Queen’s Croquet Grounds are flamingos! 1
    • Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics used the flamingo to depict the color red. 1
  • 18. Works Cited
    • &quot;American Flamingo: Phoenicopterus Ruber.&quot; Denver Zoo. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Aves (disambiguation).&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Bilateral (left/right) Symmetry.&quot; Understanding Evolution . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Bird - Reproduction.&quot; - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Bird.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Bird Flight -.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • Drisdelle, Rosemary. &quot;Facts About Indian Peacocks.&quot; Birds . 29 Nov. 2007. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;The Earthlife Web - The Bird Nervous System.&quot; The Earth Life Web . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Indian Peafowl: Pavo Cristatus.&quot; Denver Zoo. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Ostrich (Struthio Camelus).&quot; . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Ostriches, Struthio Camelus.&quot; AvianWeb . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • &quot;Paul L. Koch Lab UCSC.&quot; UCSC Earth & Planetary Sciences . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.
    • Tellapallet . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <>.