Biomagnification & bioaccumulation_2

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Biomagnification & bioaccumulation_2

  1. 1. Lora Kyulaflieva Nikolina Yankova Martin Maksimov
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Bioaccumulation </li></ul><ul><li>Biomagnification </li></ul><ul><li>Bioaccumulation vs Biomagnification </li></ul><ul><li>What types of substances bioaccumulate and which do not? </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of DDT in tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of mercury in fish </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bioaccumulation <ul><li>Def: accumulation of substances in the environment, before they are taken in by the first organism in a food web (1) </li></ul><ul><li>The accumulation of organic chemicals in an organism (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Substances enter through epidermal contact or other processes (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Result: The concentration of the substance in the organism is > then the one in the environment (2) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bioaccumulation <ul><li>Bioaccumulation depends on many environmental, biological and physical factors (3) </li></ul><ul><li>More hydrophobic subst. =>more likely to bioaccumulate (4) </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Methlymercury </li></ul><ul><li>Bioconcentration- refers to the uptake only of water (2) </li></ul>
  5. 5. ” Madd as a hatter”
  6. 6. <ul><li>Affinity for fat </li></ul><ul><li>Not soluble in water (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Low biodegradability (2) </li></ul><ul><li>F irst-generation organochlorine pesticides (e.g., DDT, chlordane, and toxaphene), PCBs, dioxins, brominated flame retardants and some organo-metal compounds (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger molecules can not bioaccumulate (6) </li></ul>Which substances bioaccumulate?
  7. 7. Biomagnification <ul><li>T he tendency of pollutants to become concentrated in successive trophic levels </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 (5) </li></ul><ul><li>Producers need inorganic nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants resemble inorganic nutrients and producers take them </li></ul><ul><li>Result – higher concentration of pollutant in the producer than in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 (5) </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when the producer is eaten </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutant stored and absorbed in the body of the consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Build up in the fatty tissue of the consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Result – pollutant can not leave the body of the consumer </li></ul>
  8. 8. Biomagnification <ul><li>Conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>The pollutant must be long-lived. </li></ul><ul><li>The pollutant must be concentrated by the producers. </li></ul><ul><li>The pollutant must be fat-soluble. (5) </li></ul><ul><li>Which substances biomagnify? </li></ul><ul><li>Novel organic substances – POPs </li></ul><ul><li>Some metals – Mercury, Cadmium (6) </li></ul>Effects of Biomagnification: Detrimental Most dangerous for predators Polar bears, humans , eagles , and dolphins – top predators (6)
  9. 9. To ease up magnification >>>
  10. 10. Bioaccumulation vs Biomagnification <ul><li>Both describe the increase of the amount of a substance in an organism (1,3) </li></ul><ul><li>Bioaccumulation occur within a single organism (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Biomagnification occurs across trophic levels (3) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Concentration of DDT in tissue <ul><li>How does it occur – persistent and lipid soluble </li></ul><ul><li>How does it pass through a food chain (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a pesticide – from insects to fish, birds and then larger animals (5) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Concentration of mercury in fish <ul><li>Fish absorb mercury efficiently – don’t excrete it (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger the fish – more the mercury </li></ul><ul><li>Some have been banned for (4) consumption for they present a risk of intoxication (5) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Works cited <ul><li>&quot;Bioaccumulation&quot;. Wikipedia. 13.06.2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioaccumulation>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Bioaccumulation&quot;. Toxics US Gov. 13.06.2010 <http://toxics.usgs.gov/definitions/bioaccumulation.html>. http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/102/2bioma95.html </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Biomagnification and Bioaccumulation&quot;. Tripod. 13.06.2010 <http://domchemct.tripod.com/index.html>. http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Example_of_biomagnification </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Biomagnification&quot;. 13.06.2010 <http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/D/DDTandTrophicLevels.html >. http://www.dowcorning.com/content/publishedlit/01-1128-01.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Environmental Biology - Ecosystems &quot;. 13.06.2010 <http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/102/ecosystem.html>. http://www.pollutionissues.com/A-Bo/Bioaccumulation.html </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Food Chain/Biomagnification&quot;. 13.06.2010 <http://science.jrank.org/pages/2801/Food-Chain-Web-Biomagnification.html>. </li></ul>

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