Bioaccumulation betty neda aleks

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Bioaccumulation betty neda aleks

  1. 1. Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Neda Valcheva Alex Popov Elizabeth Karlova 10/6
  2. 2. Bioaccumulation [1] <ul><li>the accumulation of a substance in a biological tissue </li></ul><ul><li>u p-take and retention via any route </li></ul><ul><li>a necessary process for organisms’ survival </li></ul><ul><li>considered to be of concern when substances are present at harmful levels </li></ul><ul><li>bioaccumulation factor (BAF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ratio – in a steady state situation – of the concentration of the chemical inside an organism to the concentration in its food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[4] </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Bioconcentration [1] <ul><li>occurs when an organism takes up and concentrates a chemical directly from the surrounding environment </li></ul><ul><li>bioconcentration factor (BCF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ratio of the chemical’s concentration in an organism compared to the surrounding water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[5] </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bioaccumulation vs. Bioconcentration [1 ] <ul><li>Bioconcentration & bioaccumulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its physical and chemical properties, including solubility in water and in fat, molecular weight, and ease of metabolism or degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions, including water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of the organism, including its ability to metabolise the chemical and its fat (lipid) content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bioaccumulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How readily the organism absorbs the chemical from its food </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Biomagnification [1] <ul><li>accumulation and transfer of substances via the food web, with an increase of concentrations in organisms at successive trophic levels </li></ul><ul><li>biomagnification factor (BMF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ratio of the concentration of a substance in the predator compared with the prey </li></ul></ul>[6]
  6. 6. Pollutants [3] <ul><li>Organochlorines </li></ul><ul><li>Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) [7] </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Metals - m ercury, cadmium, lead , tin </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury [8] </li></ul>
  7. 7. Case Study #1: Clear Lake [3] <ul><li>(in 1949) DDD: Used to kill the midges in the lake </li></ul><ul><li>1 DDD / 7 million water parts </li></ul><ul><li>99% midges – killed; reappeared overtime </li></ul><ul><li>5 years later: Used more DDD </li></ul><ul><li>Killed Western Grebes as a result </li></ul><ul><li>3 years later (1957): The same happened again </li></ul><ul><li>What caused this? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Case Study #1: MAP Clear lake!
  9. 9. Case Study #2: Britain [3] <ul><li>1960: Decrease in the sparrow hawk population! </li></ul><ul><li>Due to organochlorine pesticides that plagued the birds’ prey </li></ul><ul><li>They began laying eggs with very fragile shells </li></ul><ul><li>What really happened??? </li></ul><ul><li>After that, from 1963 to 1986 the pesticides were replaced => Increase in the population again! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Case Study #2: MAP
  11. 11. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Bioaccumulation: Definitions and Implications.&quot;  Euro Chlor : 1-2.        Eurochlor.org . Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.eurochlor.org/       upload/documents/document52.pdf> </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Biomagnification.&quot;  Monterey Institute for Technology and Education . Monterey       Institute for Technology and Education, 2010. Web. 13 June 2010.       <http://www.montereyinstitute.org/noaa/lesson13/l13la1.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, Brian. &quot;Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification.&quot;  Bio Factsheet  1997, 14th       ed.: 1-3. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.williamhoward.cumbria.sch.uk/       intranet/Science/KS5/Abiology/Factsheets/factsheets172/Bio%20Press%20Fac tsheets/       14%20bio%20accumulation.pdf>. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMAGES </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>http://www.esd.ornl.gov/BMAP/pics/logo1.JPG </li></ul><ul><li>http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-031-03/images/fig02b.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://web.bryant.edu/~dlm1/sc372/readings/toxicology/biomagnification.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.umbi.umd.edu/~sowers/images/RecyclePCB.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://blog.deborahblum.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/mercury_drops_large.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>9. http://www.mallardhouse.com/images/Map-Regional.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>10. http://www.neilhair.com/wp-content/uploads/0_map_britain_1987_enlarged.jpg </li></ul>

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