Arthropods 10 1 peter yasen zahari

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  • 1. Arthropods Yasen Nikolov Peter Menkov Zachary Ninov 10/1
  • 2. What are they?
    • They have a segmented body, jointed limbs and usually a chitinous shell that undergoes moltings
    • Bilaterally symmetrical with a segmented body
    • Domain: Eukarya
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Subkingdom:Eumetzoa
    • Phylium:Arthropoda
    • They are the first species that had bilateral symmetry
  • 3. General characteristics
    • Tough exoskeleton composed of chitin
    • Open circulatory system
    • The aquatic arthropods have gills and the air breathing have tracheae to carry air directly to their tissues
    • Most of them lay eggs, some hatch as an adult and others go through metamorphosis.
    • They move by walking, flying, swimming.
    • They have a nervous system made of series of ganglia connected by a ventral nerve cord made up of two parallel connectives running along the length of the belly.
  • 4. Arachnids
  • 5. In General
    • The name comes from “arachne”, which in Greek means spider
    • They are from the arthropod phylum
    • Over 100,000 species : spiders, harvestmen, scorpions, ticks, mites, solifugaes.
    • They are mainly terrestrial
    • Meat eaters, some inject digestive juices into their victims
    • Thy lay eggs
  • 6. Anatomy
    • They have 4 pairs of legs
    • 2 other pairs: pedipals, which help them feed and sometimes in breathing, and chelicerae which contain the venom
    • No wing or antennae
    • Their body consists of two parts: the cephalothorax and the abdomen
    • Poison glands, Silk gland, Book lung, Gonophores (exit for eggs)
    • Two kind of eyes: lateral and median ocelli
    • Sensory hairs
  • 7. Tarantulas
    • From the family Theraphosidae
    • Found in tropical and dessert arias
    • They all produce venom and silk
    • In body size they range from 2.5 to 30 cm. the biggest one is named Goliath
    • Their main sensatory organs are the hairs on their body
    • Unique blood with oxygen containing protein which isn’t closed
    • They eat small animals even small mammals
    • They use their “teeth” mainly for penetrating not poisoning.
    • Their main sensatory organ are the hairs on their body, also the use silk to make area in which they sense movement
    • Unique blood with oxygen containing protein which isn’t closed
    • The eat small animals even small mammals
    • They use their “teeth” mainly for penetrating not poisoning.
  • 8. Crustacea
  • 9. General
      • Various aquatic arthropods, including lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles, characteristically having a segmented body, a chitinous exoskeleton, and paired, jointed limbs
      • bilaterally symmetrical , have an exoskeleton
      • Phylum Sipuncula , phylum Echiura are closest relatives
        • The sexes are separate. Eggs are attached to the swimmerets (swimming legs) of the female. The first pair is enlarged in the male (it is used to pass sperm to the female).
  • 10. Anathomy
    • The nervous system consists of a primitive ventral nerve cord and ganglia system
    • A hard exoskeleton made of calcium - no internal skeleton
    • A pair of green glands excretes wastes
    • The circulatory system is open; there is no heart and the "blood" is pumped by vessels into sinuses
      • The abdominal segments have swimmerets (swimming legs) , some of the species use their exoskeleton to get out of the mud, since some of them walk on the bottom of the ocean
  • 11. Crabs
      • Habitat- oceans, lands with sand
      • They eat pieces of dead fish (remains), water plantations, plankton and hatchling turtles
      • Crabs walk sideways using their jointed thoracic appendages as levers by both exten tion and retracti on
      • Crabs play an important role in the food web- their extinction can cause the extinction of other species such as sea turtles and shorebirds
      • Crabs are hatched from eggs, and the hatchling is called Zoea, then it goes through a larval stage and turns into Megalopa, which evolves into a juvenile that becomes an adult and the cycle is finished
  • 12. Insecta
  • 13. General Characteristics
    • Insectum From Greek: threaded
    • More than 6 million species(estimated not more than 50 mil)
    • bees, ants, flies , beetles , butterflies , mosquitoes
    • Bilateral symmetry, Chitinous exoskeleton
    • Segmented skeleton
    • 3 pair of legs
    • 1 up to 2 pair of antennas
    • 1 up to 2 pair of wings
  • 14. Anatomy
    • Superphylum Ecdysozoa, Panathropoda are close relatives
    • Ganglia nerve system, primitive form of a brain
    • Most successful class of animals due to its abilities in movement: swimming, gliding , floating, jumping, running, flying .
    • 2 types of reproduction: incomplete and complete metamorphosis
    • Egg/embryo-larva-pupa, adult (complete); though series of molts, in which the insects grows bigger (incomplete)
    • Use trachea (not lungs)
    • Have a “heart” which is more like a pump, no veins, arteries
  • 15. Ants
    • Formicidae family
    • 12500 species
    • In the same order with bees, wasps
    • Habitat- land
    • Ants eat primary leaves , also meat, eggs, oil,
    • Well organized, form colonies, each ant has a specific role in the colony
    • Good communication, even though they see no further than 30 cm
    • Hatched from eggs, from the “queen”
  • 16. Vocabulary
    • Crustacean- Any member of the 45,000 arthropod species in the subphylum Crustacea.
    • Zoea- the free-swimming larva of a crab or related crustacean
    • Megalopa- The final larval stage found in decapod crustaceans
    • Ocelli – simple eye, which contain one lens
    • Cephalothorax – Fusion of the thorax and the head
    • Abdomen- The “bottom” of the arachnids which contains the heart, the lung and the digestive and reproduction systems
    • Spermatophore – bags which contain semen.
    • Trachea – part of the respiratory system
    • Gonophores- genital pore in some invertebrates and especially some insects.
    • Chitin- a long-chain polymer of a N -acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, it is the main component of the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects.
  • 17. Works Cited
    • “ A rthropod .&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica . 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 29 Mar. 2010 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/36943/arthropod >.
    • “ C rustacea n .&quot; The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition . 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Mar. 2010 < http://www.encyclopedia.com >.
    • “ Insecta.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition . 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Mar. 2010 < http://www.encyclopedia.com >.
    • &quot; Arachne .&quot; Encyclopædia Britannica . 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 29 Mar. 2010 < http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/31787/Arachne >.
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