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Amphibians ppt 1-1 10-3 mila satchansky lewbina

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  • The word amphibians comes from the Greek ’ ἀμφίβιος amphíbios . The translation of this phrase literaly means “both lifes”, meaning that creatures can live both in water and on land. Amphibians start their life in water, but they spend the most of their lives on land.
  • Amphibians reproduce by eggs which are laid by the female. These eggs are most often laid in fresh water, but there are certain species such as the “Fejervarya raja” which can survive even in slightly salted areas. There are 3 main ways of reproduction: External Fertilization- when the male holds the female in a specific position and releases the sperm over the eggs immediately when the female lays them. Many salamanders reproduce through this way. The male deposits a certain amount of sperm, which the female later accepts in her cloaca. Caecilinias and tailed frogs deposit sperm directly into the female, fertilizing the eggs.
  • The main tool which amphibians use is their colorization. Different pigments in their skin cause them to form a natural disguise which protects them from predators. Amphibians can jump, when chased in this way causing the predator to lose sight and scent. Salamanders can run very fast, in this way easily escaping enemies. Some of the techniques which the amphibians use when encountering an enemy: Enlarge their body, feign death, show aggressive colorization Various kinds of amphibians have skin toxins which can cause damage to their opponents.
  • Ambystoma tigrinum is the other name for it. Reaches 15-20cm, its colorization is a mixture of green, black and grey. Live entire life on land, return to water only to breed, their habitat is underground, they can’t be seen often above ground. They chose to live in hot and dry grasslands. The tiger salamander waits for its prey until it can reach it and then captures it with its mouth. Beetles, earthworms, snails, mice and frogs are some of the targets which salamanders attack. Interesting fact: if there is not sufficient food in the pond, some of the salamander larvae can become “cannibals” and eat other larvae from their own kind. Have the ability to accept moisture through their skin
  • Transcript

    • 1. Amphibians Mila Daskalova Dimitar Satchansky Lewbina Ilkova 10/3
    • 2. Meaning of the scientific name for this clade
      • The word amphibians comes from the Greek ’ ἀμφίβιος amphíbios (8)
      • The translation of this phrase literaly means “both lifes” (8)
      • Amphibians start their life in water, but they spend the most of their lives on land(8)
      http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d9/Spea_hammondii_1.jpg/200px-Spea_hammondii_1.jpg
    • 3. Symmetry
      • The amphibians have bilateral symmetry
      • Central axis
      • Two equal parts  left and right (9)
    • 4. Evolution
      • The first vertebrates that can live on land as well as in water (3)
      • The evolutionary link between fishes and reptiles (3)
      • Ancestors of reptiles, birds and mammals (3)
      • From the lung-possessing fishes Crossopterygians (able to breathe in water AND on land) (3)
      • Salamanders developed in Northern Hemisphere; Frogs inhabited Equatorial areas (3)
    • 5. Evolution
      • Appeared during the Devonian Period (408-387 million years ago) – about 370 million years ago shared a common ancestor with humans (1)
      • Earliest known representative – ichthyostegalians (5 toes, tail fin with scales) (1)
      • Dominant for about 75million years (1)
      • Decreased in number after a dry period (1)
      • Most of them evolved in reptiles (1)
    • 6. Types
      • There are 3 types amphibians
      • Anures (frogs, toads)
      • Urodels (salamanders, tritons)
      • Gymnophions (with a snake-like body, without legs and with teeth, living in tropical climates) (11)
      http://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources-rx/images/caecilin_gower-43199-1.jpg
        • http://inkart.net/animals/images/large/fire_salamander.jpg
      http://www.aquariumofpacific.org/images/olc/golden_dart_frog600ar.jpg
    • 7. Main Characteristics
      • cold-blooded (9)
      • live both in water and land (9)
      • Tadpole (9)
      • webbed feet (12)
      • can hear vibrations in the ground (9)
      http:// www.erodent.co.uk/GardenPond/PondPhotos/Tadpole8.jpg http://www.itsnature.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/wallaces-flying-frog.jpg
    • 8. Main Characteristics
      • may become inactive during estivation period (9)
      • have small lungs or none because they can take oxygen vie their skin (9)
      • moist, scaleless skin that absorbs water and oxygen , lacking hair (12)
      http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3072/2749701721_88199a97b0.jpg
    • 9. Reproduction
      • Reproduce by eggs ,laid by the female(6)
      • 3 main ways:
      • a) external fertilization (6)
      • b) Deposition of sperm outside the female(6)
      • c) Deposition of sperm inside the female(6)
      • Eggs are most often laid in fresh water, some exceptions exist such as “Fejervarya raja” (6)
      http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/frog-life-cycle.gif
    • 10. Circulatory & Respiratory Systems
      • Heart contains a ventricle and two atria, the single ventricle meaning not high efficiency of the system
      • In the ventricle oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are not mixed due to a specific mechanism of contractions of the two atria at different times
      • Skin is respiratory organ through which amphibians absorb additional oxygen. However, it works in the same mechanism as gills, and requires constant moisture (2)
      http://www.mbscientific.com/CircSysAmphibian.gif
    • 11. Protection Various kinds of protection -Colorization (7) -Jumping (by some frogs) (7) -Fast movement( by salamanders) (7) -Enlargement of the body, feign death (7) -Skin toxins (7) http://images.livescience.com/images/071030-leaf-frog-04.jpg
    • 12. Locomotion
      • those with short legs (salamanders)- walk or run-the body is close to the ground
      • those with long legs ( frogs and toads )- leap and hop
      • Tadpoles - no legs- only swim
      • Gliding- if they have l ong toes that are separated by webbing that reaches the toe tip s
    • 13. Human Uses/Interactions
      • - Used in medicine for testing product on them
      • -Used in labs for dissections
      • -Humans tend to pollute their habitat
    • 14. Tiger Salamander *Abystoma tigrinum, reaches 15-20sm, colored in green, black and grey(5) *Entire life on land, only breed in water, mainly live underground.(5) *Live in hot and dry grasslands(5) *Waits for its prey and captures it with mouth( beetles, earthworms, snails, mice)(5) *If there is not enough food for the larvae they can turn to “canibalism” (5) http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/staticfiles/NGS/Shared/StaticFiles/animals/images/primary/tiger-salamander.jpg http://mylittlebubble.me/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/tiger_salamander_380.jpg
    • 15. Strawberry Poisonous Dart Frog
      • Dendrobates pumilio
      • Poisonous, indicated by the bright colored skin
      • 17-24mm long
      • In rainforests in Central America especially Costa Rica
      • Female transports tadpole on back, Males protect territory, fight up to 20 minutes
      • on hind legs
      • Females approach males
      • Up to 5 eggs
      • 6-8 weeks later tadpoles turn
      • into frogs (12)
      Information and facts on frogs. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.lookd.com/frogs/ evolution.html>. http://free-extras.com/images/red_frog-93.htm
    • 16. Axolotl
      • Ambystoma Maxicanum
      • Name comes from Aztec: „atl” - „water”; „xolotl” - „monster”
      • Very large, never-growing-up tadpole
      • Larval form of Mexican mole
      • salamander, never metamorphoses
      • Dark grey or white with black eyes
      • Small lungs and reproductive system
      • Can't live out of water
      • Southern part of Lake Xochimilco,
      • the canal system to it and the system
      • around Lake Chalco (4)
      http://i48.photobucket.com/albums/f236/photolu2/Axolotl.jpg
    • 17. Fun Fact
      • Tadpoles are cannibals!!!
      • RAWR!
    • 18. Work Cited
      • 1. Information and facts on frogs. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.lookd.com/frogs/evolution.html>.
      • 2. &quot;The Evolution of Amphibians.&quot; Scribd. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.scribd.com/doc/ 11337901/The-Evolution-of-Amphibians>.
      • 3. Evolution in a Nutshell. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/27885/amphi_ev.htm>.
      • 4. &quot;Axolotl.&quot; The Nature Conservancy. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.nature.org/animals/ amphibians/animals/axolotl.html>.
      • 5. Edwards, Wally. &quot;Tiger Salamander&quot;. Ministry of Environment. March 29, 2010 http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wld/frogwatch/whoswho/factshts/tigersal.htm
      • 6. McLaughin, Rob. &quot;Apmhibian morphology and reproduction&quot;. March 29, 2010 http://www.aquatic.uoguelph.ca/amphibians/books/book2/bookframe1.htm
      • 7. Campbell, Megan. &quot;Apmhibian predator defences&quot;. March 29, 2010 http://fwf.ag.utk.edu/mgray/wfs493/Lectures/Students/Campbell.pdf
      • 8.. &quot;Amphibians&quot;. USGS. March 29, 2010 <http://www.mcwdn.org/Animals/Amphibian.html>
      • 9. &quot;Amphibians - Body, Used, Water, Process, Earth, Life, Characteristics, Form, Animals, Oxygen, Air, Plant, Change, History, Characteristics, Life Cycle, Three Major Groupings.&quot; Science Clarified . Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.scienceclarified.com/Al-As/Amphibians.html>.
      • 10. &quot;Getting to Know Amphibians.&quot; animals.jrank.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010.
      • <http://animals.jrank.org/pages/2/Getting-Know-Amphibians.html>.
      • 11. &quot;Introduction to Amphibian Biology.&quot; www.amphibiainfo.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29
      • Mar. 2010. <http://www.amphibiainfo.com/biology/>.
      • 12. Lyon, Heather. &quot;Why amphibians are unique in the animal world .&quot;
      • www.helium.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010.
      • <http://www.helium.com/items/
      • 701459-why-amphibians-are-unique-in-the-animal-world>.

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