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Amphibians 10-8 miryana bedros yuliya

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  • 1. Amphibians By Miryana Kostadinova Yuliya Barzova Bedros Dyungelyan 10/8
  • 2. Who are the Amphibians?
    • The scientific name
      • Comes from Greek: (amphi – dual, bios – life) meaning both, two ways of life.
      • The amphibians have four limbs descended from modified fins. Their skin is moist in most cases and functions in gas exchange. Many amphibians live both in water (as larvae) and on land (as adults).
    • Symmetry
      • Amphibians have bilateral symmetry.
  • 3. The Evolutionary Tree
    • How does this phylum fit into the evolutionary tree (cladogram)?
      • Domain: Eukaryota
      • Kingdom: Animalia
      • Phylum: Chordata
      • Most closely related to Reptiles and Mammals (same phylum Chrodata)
      • Shared a common ancestor with humans 550 m il l io n y ea rs ago
  • 4. Derived characteristics
    • 1. Structure of skin:
      • mucus glands, poison glands , major role in respiration
    • 2. Sensory organ in inner ear
    • 3. Bones involved intransmitting sounds to inner ear
    • 4. Green rods:
      • distinct retinal cell
    • 5. Teeth have a crown and base
    • 6. Bulging eyes
  • 5. Reproduction
    • External fertilization:
      • the male grasps the female, stimulating her to release eggs
      • the male then spills sperm over the eggs, fertilizing them
    • Takes place typically in water or moist land environments (the eggs lack a shell and dehydrate quickly in air )
    • Some species lay many eggs, and yet a lot of them die
    • Others may lay fewer eggs, but take close care for them (carry them on their back, in their mouth, stomach, or in nests)
    • Many exhibit curious and complex social behaviour during the breeding season:
      • Male frogs “sing”, as a way to defend their territory, or to attract females.
  • 6. Life Cycle
    • Life cycle – metamorphosis (from Greek meta – “change”, “mophe” – form)
    • Amphibians in captivity – around 20 yrs
    • Amphibians in nature – 10 to 40 yrs
    • Reach maturity at 3-4 yrs
    • Female amphibian – thousands of eggs, but many die or are destroyed by predators
    • Fertilized egg – tadpole (lavre) – adult amphibian
    • Egg – 1-4 mm
    • Tadpole stage (several weeks – 1 year)
    • Urodele larva: long and slender, with limbs, three pairs of gills, large mouths
    • Anuran larva: short trunks, small mouth openings, lack lungs, eyelids, jaws, legs.
    • Gymnophion larva: l limbless, slender , have distinctive gills.
    • For some amphibians – their whole life (neoteny)
    • Metamorphic changes:
    • gill breathers – lung breathers.
    • plant eaters – meat eaters.
  • 7. Locomotion
    • Anura(Frogs):
      • Generally move by jumping
      • Tibia, fibula, and tarsals: transformed into one single very strong bone
      • Radius and ulna: transformed into one bone in order to absorb the impact from landing. 17 % from the mass of frogs are muscles that help for the jumping ability.
    • Urdolela (Salamanders): swimming or movement by their four legs.
    • Gymnophiona (Caecilians): have skull that has very hard fused bones helping the animal to move through the soil. There is a connective tissue that collects the power from the muscles in the body and sends it to the front in order to have greater power to break through the soil.
  • 8. Human uses/interactions
    • Amphibians are used for medical purposes:
      • An oil called "Ha Shi Ma Yu," is used to cure nervous exhaustion.
      • T eas made from dried and powdered hynobiid salamanders have been used to cure bone fractures and malaria. Amphibians are very important for medicine manufacturing all over the world .
      • Alkaloid named E pibatidine is used to reduce pain. It is 200 times stronger than morphine but it is not addictive .
      • P arotid glands that are located behind the eye s make two very important substances: bufogenin and bufotoxin , that strongly affect the adrenal and cardiovascular system.
    • Many people eat the legs of the frogs that have great protein supply.
  • 9. Representative organisms
    • Order Anura (Frogs)
    • Order Urodela (Salamanders)
    • Order Gymnophia (Caecilians)
  • 10. Order Anura (Frogs)
    • Order Anura - lose their tail as adults.
    • Dendrobatidae frogs - poisonous, and (mostly) brightly colored
    • The Golden Poison Dart Frog ( Phyllobates terribilis ): the most poisons frog in the world.
    • It inhabits the lowland rainforests at the Pacific coast of Columbia
    • Around 47mm in length – one of the largest poisonous frogs
    • A frog may hold up to 1900µg of toxins - enough to kill 10,000 rats or 7 or more humans
    • Benefit in the poison: contains a component 1000 times more efficient than Morphine in treating pain
    • They have virtually no predators apart from humans because of the poison and Reproduction:
      • the female lays her eggs on the ground
      • after the fertilization both parents look after them until they are hatched
      • the male transports the tadpoles to the pool where they will be left to grow up
  • 11. Order Urodela (Salamanders)
    • Tiger Salamander ( Ambystoma tigrinum ­) : the largest representative of the Ambystomatidae family
    • Generally found in ponds, small lakes or slow moving streams in grassy cover
    • Colorful skin , costal grooves along their sides, protruding eyes, large head
    • Around 33 cm in length
    • Adults eat any small animal that can be captured and swallowed. Larvae eat aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates
    • Prey for larger animals
    • Larvae metamorphose in their first or second summer, if not they spend their whole life as larvae (neoteny)
  • 12. Order Gymnophia (Caecilians)
    • Mexican Burrowing Caecilian (Dermophis Mexicanus) : Caecilian family
    • Found in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Belize. It inhabits subtropical and tropical dry forests.
    • Mostly eats earthworms and other invertebrates with soft bodies. Also, small frogs, lizards, and blind snakes are discovered to be part of the menu of this creature.
    • The eyesight is very bad with these species, they have eyes that are so small that hardly could be seen and many experiments show that they don’t react to light changes at all.
    • As a whole, all Caecilians and Dermophis Mexicanus are very hard to be found because they live inside the soil, after heavy rains they can be observed on the surface in large numbers. They make their way through the soil by pushing with their head.
  • 13. Do you know how big is the biggest frog?
      • T he Goliath frog ( Conraua goliath ) can reach up to 30 cm
      • The Titicaca Lake frog ( Telmatobius culeus ) – up to 50cm
  • 14. Vocabulary
    • Amphibians – a class of organisms who live both in water and on land
    • Anura – an order of the Amphibia class (frogs)
    • Urodela – an order of the Amphibia class (salamanders)
    • Gymnophia – an order with legless representatives of the Amphibia class
    • Methamorphosis – a stage of life where an organism changes its form
    • Bilateral symmetry – symmetry when the two halves of sth on either side of a particular line are exactly the same
    • Tadpole – larva
    • Gill – one of the openings on the side of a fish’s head that it breathes through
    • Sexual Maturity – when an organism is ready to sexually reproduce
    • Neoteny – a way of living your whole life as a larva
  • 15. Works Cited
    • &quot;Ambystoma Tirginum.&quot; Welcome to the Idaho Museum of Natural History . Web. 22 Mar. 2010. <http://imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/bio/amph/urodela/amti/amtifram.htm>.
    • &quot;Amphibians and Humans: Information from Answers.com.&quot; Answers.com: Wiki Q&A Combined with Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Encyclopedias . Web. 22 Mar. 2010. <http://www.answers.com/topic/amphibians-and-humans>.
    • Biological Diversity 9.&quot; Estrella Mountain Commuity College . Web. 22 Mar. 2010. <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookDiversity_9.html#Class%20Amphibia>.
    • Caecilian Ecology |.&quot; Gymnophiona.org . Web. 22 Mar. 2010.
    • < http :// www . gymnophiona . org / ecology />.
    • &quot;Dendrobatidae.&quot; Tree of Life Web Project . Web. 20 Mar. 2010. <http://tolweb.org/Dendrobatidae/16956>.
    • Dermophis Mexicanus -.&quot; Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 22 Mar. 2010.
    • <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermophis_mexicanus>.
    • &quot;Index of /biology/sgilman.&quot; NEW Science at Coastal Carolina University . Web. 22 Mar. 2010. <http://kingfish.coastal.edu/biology/sgilman>.
    • &quot;Information and Facts about the Life Cycle of Amphibians.&quot; LookD . Web. 22 Mar. 2010. <http://www.lookd.com/frogs/life.html>.
    • &quot;Life History and Ecology of the Amphibia.&quot; UCMP - University of California Museum of Paleontology . Web. 22 Mar. 2010. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphiblh.html>.
    • &quot;Poison Dart Frogs - Poison Frogs.&quot; Tigerhomes.org Live Animal Webcams, White Tiger Cams, Lemur and Lion Webcams . Web. 20 Mar. 2010. <http://www.tigerhomes.org/animal/poison-dart-frogs.cfm>.
    • &quot;Systematics of the Amphibia.&quot; UCMP - University of California Museum of Paleontology . Web. 22 Mar. 2010. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibsy.html>.
    • &quot;Untitled Document.&quot; Biomechanics at UCI . Web. 22 Mar. 2010.
    • < http :// biomechanics . bio . uci . edu /_ html / nh _ biomech / caecilian / caecilian . htm >.
    • Pictures:
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/briangratwicke/2240079942/
    • http :// letzhop . files . wordpress . com /2009/03/02920 life 20 cycle 20 of 20 a 20 frog . jpg
    • http :// www . netstate . com / states / symb / amphibians / images / ks _ barred _ tiger _ salamander . jpg
    • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/66/Caecilian_wynaad1.jpg
    • http://img1.photographersdirect.com/img/12403/wm/pd1622032.jpg
    • http://www.texas-geology.com/Dallasaurus.jpg
    • http://www.arkive.org/lake-titicaca-frog/telmatobius-culeus/image-G19128.html