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Air pollution katya and stoyan

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  • 1. Air Pollution Ekaterina Shaleva Stoyan Kolev 10/8
  • 2. What is Air Pollution?
    • The presence of chemicals in the atmosphere, which are not a normal part of it [1]
    • In other words, it is contaminated air [1]
    • The main sources of air pollution are ground-level ozone, particulate matter (PM), nitrogen and sulphur oxides [5]
    http://www.freewebs.com/airawareness/Factory1.jpg
  • 3. What is ground-level ozone?
    • Ozone(O3) is a gas, which forms a layer that protects the Earth from ultraviolet rays [5]
    • When ground level is created, it becomes a major air pollutant [2]
    • Sources - not emitted directly into the air; [2]
    • Health Effects- coughing, irritation of the airways, discomfort when breathing, premature aging of the lungs, increased risk of respiratory infections [2]
    • Environmental Effects- on plants and ecosystems- damaging leaves, reducing forest growth and crop yields, making plants more susceptible to certain diseases [5]
    • Economic Effects- tourism suffers, increased cost for health care services [3]
    http://www.greenfacts.org/en/ozone-o3/index.htm#3
  • 4. What is particulate matter?
    • The sum of all liquid and solid particles in the air [5]
    • PM10- big coarse particles (up to 10 micrometers in size), cause less severe health problems [4]
    • PM2.5-small fine particles (up to 2.5 micrometers in size), worse health effects [4]
    • Sources - any activity which involves burning of materials-forest fires, crushing and grinding rocks, processing metals [5]
    • Health Effects- coughing, wheezing, aggravated asthma, lung damage [4]
    • Environmental Effects- decreases visibility, harms crops and plants [5]
    http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/aaqs/pm/hair-slide3-1-450px.gif
  • 5. What are Nitrogen Oxides?
    • Group of gases composed of nitrogen and oxygen [6]
    • Most common are nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas [6]
    • Sources - motor vehicle exhaust, burning of coal, cigarette smoking, etc. [6]
    • Health Effects- headache, fatigue, dizziness, difficult breathing, throat spasms, collapse, death [6]
    • Environmental Effects- NO2 helps form acid rain, contributes to global warming, hampers the growth of plants, with VOC forms ground- level ozone [7]
  • 6. What are sulphur oxides?
    • Most common is sulphur dioxide, which together with NO2 is one of the main chemicals that cause acid rain [8]
    • Sources- mostly from power station and oil refineries, but also from volcanoes, forest fires [8]
    • Health Effects- respiratory problems, aggravation of existing cardiovascular diseases [9]
    • Environmental Effects –damage crops, forests, acidify soils and water bodies [8]
    http://www.treehugger.com/erupting-volcano.jpg
  • 7. Bulgaria’s Air Quality
    • Bulgaria has the most polluted air in the European Union [10]
    • Main pollutants- industrial development, deforestation, large number of old vehicles, coal-fired heating in smaller towns [10][11]
    • Sofia and Plovdiv experience the worst air pollution as well as the town of Pernik, which has pollution twice the permitted level (high number of metallurgy plants) [10][12]
    • Actions- member of various international environmental agreements- Air Pollution- Sulfur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Ozone Layer Protection, etc; imposes EU standards on vehicles and industry [10][11]
    http://dariknews.bg/uploads/news_images/200810/photo_verybig_299899.jpg
  • 8. Ex ample #1: Norilsk, Russia
    • World’s largest smelting complex for heavy metals causes extreme air pollution in a 60 km radius [ 13]
    • Metals in the air: nickel 500 tons per year , copper 500 tons per year , cobalt, lead, selenium [13]
    • Other gasses: sulfur dioxide 2 million tons per year, phenols, hydrogen sulfide [13]
    http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/40189000/gif/_40189950_norilsk_nickel2_map416.gif http://www.spoutnitsi.net/IMG/jpg/ARKTIKA_Norilsk_2002_468.jpg
  • 9.
    • Effects on people:
    • -Life expectancy- 10 years smaller than anywhere in Russia;
    • -respiratory diseases; ear, nose, throat diseases;
    • -pregnancy and birth problems;
    • -lung cancer due to sulfur dioxide;
    • -responsible for about 20 percent of adult mortality and about 30 percent of adolescent mortality [13]
    • Solution:
    • Norilsk Nickel ahs spent $5mil Overhauling of dust & gas recovery & removal systems and plans to decrease sulfur dioxide emissions by 500% until 2015 [13]
  • 10. Example #2: London, England
    • Issue: Traffic, Factories produce PM10s [15]
    • Air Pollution: PM10s (particles smaller than 10 microns) [14]
    http://www.london-touristguide.com/images/london-europe-big.gif http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Environment/Pix/columnists/2010/2/23/1266942591039/Air-pollution--The-Houses-001.jpg
  • 11.
    • Effects on people:
    • -PM10s- small enough to be inhaled in the deepest parts of the lungs, main cause for lung diseases and heart attacks [14]
    • -accounted for the death of 3000 Londoners annually [15]
    • Solution:
    • Boris Johnson, London mayor is in the process of issuing a ban on all taxis over 10 years old, which will probably reduce the crisis by half [15]
  • 12. Works Cited
    • “ Air Pollution- Criteria pollutants”. Science.jrank.org . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http :// science . jrank . org / pages /154/ Air - Pollution . html > [1]
    • “ Health risks of Ozone Pollution”. Cleanairtrust.org . 1999. June 7 2010 < http ://www.cleanairtrust.org/ozone.htm l > [2]
    • “ Econimic & Environmental Impacts of Ground Level Ozone”. Valleyairnow.com. June 7, 2010 < http://www.valleyairnow.com/economicimpact.html > [3]
    • “ What is particulate matter”. Airinfonow.com . June 7, 2010 < http://www.airinfonow.com/html/ed_particulate.html > [4]
    • Greenfacts.org. 2001-2009. June 7, 2010 < http:// www.greenfacts.org/en/index.htm > [ 5]
    • “ Nitrogen Oxides”. Toxtown . June 7, 2010 < http :// toxtown . nlm . nih . gov / text _ version / chemicals . php ? id =19 > [ 6]
    • Tucker, Tyler.“Nitrogen Oxide & The Environment”. Belleville.k12.wi.us . 2005. June 7, 2010 < http ://www.belleville.k12.wi.us/bhs/health/environment/nitrogen_oxide.htm > [7]
    • “ Sulphur dioxide”. Environment Agency . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http :// www . environment - agency . gov . uk / business / topics / pollution /433. aspx > [8]
  • 13.
    • “ Sulphur Dioxide”. Ace.mmu.ac.uk . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http :// www . ace . mmu . ac . uk / eae / acid _ rain / older / Sulphur _ Dioxide . html > [9]
    • “ Bulgarian air…”. Eubusiness.com . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http :// www . eubusiness . com / news - eu /1236337323.03/ > [10]
    • “ Environment of Bulgaria”. Mapofworld.com . 2009. June 7, 2010 < http://www.mapsofworld.com/bulgaria/environment.html > [11]
    • “ Bulgaria Suffers…”. balkaninsight.com . 2007. June 7, 2010 < http :// www . balkaninsight . com / en / main / news /26238/ > [12]
    • “ Norilsk, Russia”. Worstpolluted.org . 2010. June 7, 2010 < http://www.worstpolluted.org/projects_reports/display/43 > [13]
    • “ Particulate…”. Gbuapcd.org . June 7, 2010 < http://www.gbuapcd.org/pm10.htm > [ 14]
    • Ft.com . 2010. June 6, 2010 < http ://www.ft.com/cms/s/e947eef0-6f71-11df-9f43-00144feabdc0,Authorised=false.html?_i_location=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ft.com%2Fcms%2Fs%2F0%2Fe947eef0-6f71-11df-9f43-00144feabdc0.html&_i_ referer = > [15]