2011 10-5 - air pollution
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2011 10-5 - air pollution 2011 10-5 - air pollution Presentation Transcript

  • Air Pollution http://www.chrismadden.co.uk/eco/air-pollution-illustration.jpg http://www.metrolic.com/how-to-reduce-air-pollution-123801/ By Kosara Spasova Denitsa Manova Georgi Dobrev
  • No x (NO, NO2)
    • Sources:
      • Transportation
      • Burning biomass and fossil fuels
      • Burning fuels when the “nitrogen in air is heated above 1370°C”
    • Effects:
      • On people:
        • Cough, chest pain, difficulty with breathing
        • Respiratory infections
      • On the environment
        • Acid precipitation
        • Global warming
        • Photochemical smog
        • Eutrophication
    http://www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/pierofun/mexico/air-scan/nox.jpg
  • SO x
    • Sources:
      • Industries
      • Fuel combustion (mostly of vehicles that emit carbon)
      • Petroleum refineries
      • Erosion
      • Transported by wind
    • Effects:
      • On environment:
        • When reacts with water- acid rain
    • On people:
        • Reduces visibility
        • When inhaled damages the trachea and lungs
    http://www.groundworkprovidence.org/themetair/Images/SO2.png
  • Ground Level Ozone
    • Ozone(O3) – gas composed of 3 oxygen atoms bonded together
    • Protects from UV radiation but dangerous to breath
    • Sources:
      • Motor vehicles exhaust
      • Industrial emissions
      • Gasoline vapors
      • Chemical solvents
      • Natural sources
      • Nitrogen oxides under the influence of ultraviolet in sunlight
    • Effects:
      • Smog
      • Irritated eyes, persistent headaches, and increased hyper-reactivity
      • Aggravates Asthma
      • Irritates respiratory system
      • Affects growth of plants
  • Particulate Matter
    • Components of “ acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles”
    • Types:
      • PM 10--- up to 10 micrometers in diameter
      • PM 2.5--- up to 2.5 micrometers in diameter
    • http://www.epa.gov/ord/ca/quick-finder/particulate-matter.htm
  • Particulate Matter
    • Sources:
      • Burning of fossil fuels and wood
    • Effects:
      • On people:
        • Reduce visibility
        • Causes respiratory problems
        • Irregular heartbeat
        • Nonfatal heart attacks
      • On environment:
        • Changing nutrient levels in water bodies
        • Reduces environment diversity
      • Culturally:
        • Damage stones and buildings
  • Bulgaria
    • Air quality - one of the worst in the European Union
    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_NwDMVt2LHwM/TNd9zGqNlEI/AAAAAAAAACM/V2biDD2QD9I/s1600/pollution.jpg http://maps.grida.no/library/files/bulgaria_topographic_map_001.jpg
  • Sources
    • Large number of old vehicles without catalytic converters
    • Lack of restrictions on second-hand cars
    • Central heating and gas heating (cities), coal-fired heating(smaller towns and villages)
    • Metallurgic and other fabrics and plants
    http://www.novinite.com/view_news.php?id=89367
  • Bulgaria
    • Effects:
    • - Pernik - Bulgaria's most polluted town, 92 microgrammes per cubic metre dust compared to 30 in the rest of the EU
    • - Respiratory problems
    • Heart diseases
    • Reduced environment diversity
    http://topnews.in/health/files/heart-attacks_0.jpg
  • Solutions
    • Has been done:
      • Commercials, social programs
      • Jobs, activities
    • Is being done:
      • Use of solar and wind energy
    • Should be done:
      • Temporary closing of boulevards
      • Closing factories/power plants
  • Mexico City
    • Location:
      • Above 2240 meters low atmospheric oxygen levels
      • Surrounded by mountains – air is trapped
    http://kids.yahoo.com/directory/Around-the-World/Countries/Mexico/Maps
  • Sources:
    • Overpopulated – 21 million people who use:
    • Transportation
    • Services
    • Industry
    http://www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/pierofun/mexico/air-scan/df-emis.jpg
  • Mexico City
    • Effects:
    • - Extremely unhealthy/hazardous conditions especially for children
    • Solutions :
    • - Informing people about dangers
    • - Training programs, games and participatory activities
    • - Decrease of transportation
    • - Introducing the issue of sustainable consumption
    • - Promoting the use of energy saving appliances
  • How to reduce air pollution?
    • Automobiles
      • Alternatives – bicycles, public transport
      • Cleaner fuels
    • Factories/Powerplants
      • Smokestack filters/scrubbs
      • Relocation of factories, and other such facilities outside of populated areas
    • Introduction to solar panels
    • Buy food from local producer
    • Recycle
  • Works Cited:
    • &quot;Air Pollution Causes.&quot; Health and Energy . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < http://healthandenergy.com/air_pollution_causes.htm >.
    • &quot;Air Pollution in Mexico City.&quot; SBG . N.p., 16 Apr. 2002. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < http://www.sbg.ac.at/ipk/avstudio/pierofun/mexico/air.htm >.
    • &quot;Bulgarian air most polluted in Europe.&quot; EU Business . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec.      2010. < http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1236337323.03/ >.
    • &quot;Effects of Air Pollutants - Health Effects .&quot; US EPA . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec.      2010. < http://epa.gov/apti/course422/ap7a.html >.
    • &quot;How can I help reduce air pollution?&quot; EEA . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < http://www.eea.europa.eu/maps/ozone/whatcanIdo/avoid-ozone-pollution >.
    • &quot;How to Reduce Air Pollution Problems.&quot; eHow . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < http://www.ehow.com/how_5351333_reduce-air-pollution-problems.html >.
    • &quot;Ways to Reduce Air Pollution.&quot; US EPA . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < http://www.epa.gov/air/peg/reduce.html >.