<=A blood fluke
These Handouts have been modified from their original versions by Mr. Jewett.
Highlights have been added for important information for the test, and some citations and
less-important information has been removed, to shorten the document.
Hristo Dimitrov 10/5
A Short Lesson in Heminthology
- Bilaterally Symmetrical / Lophotrochozoa
- 4 out of 18 phyla Lophotrochozoa - Worms [lat. Vermes]
- 4 phyla worms - Platyhelminthes; Rotifera; Lophophorates; Annelida. [Farabee]
- Most diverse bilaterian clade in terms of body plan
- Bilateral symmetry - have dorsal and ventral sides; anterior and posterior end;
- Triploblastic [Campbell]
- May develop a structure called lophophore – ciliated tentacles, aids feeding
- May go through stage of trochophore larva
- 4 classes: Turbellaria, Monogenea, Trematoda, Cestoda A planaria
- Acoelomates – animals that lack body cavity
- Ganglia - nervous system [Campbell] => Response to stimuli
- Gas exchange occurs by diffusion across body via protonephridia
- Gastrovascular cavity with 1 opening – distributes food to the animal’s cells
- Asexual [fission]/sexual [copulation] reproduction
- Most of the species are hermaphrodites
- Lack of circulatory system
- Use muscles/cilia to swim and move
- Moist environment – marine and freshwater; parasitic; larvae affect hosts [Campbell]
Annelids [Segmented worms]
- 3 classes: Oligochaeta, Polychaeta, Hirudinea A leech
- Live in sea/ freshwater habitats/soil
- Segments are surrounded by muscle which aids moving
- Segments possess metanephridia – excretory tubes, omit wastes via pores
- Closed circulatory system
- Segmented ganglia
- Cerebral ganglia – brain-like cluster of nervous cells
- Wastes removed till the earth because of the undigested material obtained by feces
- Exchanging of sperm=>cocoon=>combines eggs with sperm=>embryo develops
- Regeneration of injured parts
- Parapodia with chaetae [Campbell]
Three guys from our clade
- Beef tapeworm – Taenia saginata, live in intestines of a host, feed with nutrients,
reproduction=>feces=>contamination=>intermediate hosts; eggs=>larvae=>worm;
- - Planarian – Dugesia lugubris; intertidal zone at the water's edge; feed with bacteria; asexual
(fission)/sexual reproduction; parasitic; hermaphrodites; copulation (cross-fertilization) => cells are shared => new
eggs are formed;
- Earthworm – Lumbricus terrestris ; live in crust; feed with minerals and chemicals in soil; cross-
fertilization=>cocoon=>embryos develop / asexual reproduction; improve texture of soil; till
- May cause illnesses in hosts (human intestines)
- Some species used in medicine (Schitosoma mansoni) – blood fluke and Hirudo medicinalis – leech.
- Used for fishing
- Aid farmers while producing enzymes that till earth
• Fun Fact that is worth the Gummy Worms
Worms range from _____ micrometers to _____ meters!
1. Heminthology – study of worms [Heminthology]
2. Triploblastic – body of three layers - ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. [Triploblastic]
3. Acoelomates – organisms, that lack body cavity [Campbell]
4. Lophophore – ciliated tentacles [Campbell]
5. Ganglia – dense clusters of nervous cells found in three parts of worms’ bodies [Campbell]
6. Protonephridia – cells, that function as excretory vessels [Protonephridia]
7. Copulation – cross-fertilization [Campbell]
8. Parapodia- extension of the body wall [Rouse]
9. Coelom- fluid filled cavity that protects the gametes in annelids[Rouse]
10. Chaetae- stiff bristles that help worms attach [Campbell]
26 Mar 2010
The Phylum of Mollusca
Meaning of “Molluscus”:
The word “Molluscus” has a Latin origin and means “thin-shelled”. Molluscus itself
was derived from Aristotle’s term τᾲ μαλάκια, meaning “the soft things”. 
Symmetry of Mollusca:
All known mollusca have bilateral symmetry. 
Mollusca in the tree of evolution:
Humans shared a common ancestor with mollusca 550 000 000 years ago and the most
closely related group from our list is arthropoda with 50 000 000 years interval.
Derived characteristics of Mollusca:
Mollusca are very diverse;
therefore the term “generalized mollusc”
has been introduced to depict the derived
characteristics of this phylum.
The "generalized mollusc" has a
single shell (1) on top, secreted by a
structure called, mantle (2), which is
directly under it. The base of the
generalized mollusc is called a “foot” (3), a
single muscular structure, used for
Nervous system of a “generalized mollusk”: Mollusca have 2 pairs of nerve cords:
visceral and pedal. The visceral pair is responsible for the internal organs, while the pedal
is responsible for movement. These pairs are linked to 2 corresponding nerve masses
(ganglia) at the two opposite sides of the body that coordinate signals. 
Locomotion of a “generalized mollusk”:
The method of locomotion varies a lot across species. Most commonly
herbivorous forms glide, contracting their muscular foot in a wave fashion. However,
carnivorous forms of the phylum have developed more complex foot and therefore, more
complex and/or effective movement: jet propulsion e.g. Other species may concentrate on
maneuverability or the ability to burrow rapidly, depending on their “lifestyle”. 
Gas exchange, food intake, waste disposal:
Most molluscs have either one or two gills (the aquatic ones). Land molluscs have
a lung and breathe through a respiratory spore. Most molluscs have radulae, aka toothy
tongue-like projections, which area used for scraping bacteria off rocks. Waste
elimination happens via the anus, which is at the back of the mollusc.
Some of the famous mollusca we might know are: the snail, the slug, and the
squid. However, there isn’t just one “species” of those – there are many. And here are
some of the interesting species. First of all, the giant tiger land snail, which is the largest
species of shelled land snail known. Scientific name Achatina Achatina. Their biggest
shells are of a sice of 30 x 15 cm. In Ghana, Africa, they are pests, since they endanger
the forests with their size and numbers. They also eat wall paint.
Second, Elysia chlorotica, a green sea slug. This is one of the thieving slugs. It
steals chloroplasts from plants it eats, so that it can use them later on in photosynthesis.
Third, Pickfordiateuthis pulchella, the smallest known squid, which is with an
average length of 2,2 cm. In contrast, the longest squids range up to 17 metres in length.
Snails are almost always considered to be pests, and as such are exterminated. Sea
slugs are adored for their variety of colors, and some of them are used as “aquarium
cleaners”, slugs that destroy unwanted aquarium imposters. The squids are probably the
most notorious type of molluscs; there are even sailor stories for them – the Kraken, etc.
The hunt for the largest squid is always ongoing, which has endangered some of the
species of giant squids.
Fun Trivia Question (answer, rather):
Mollusca is the largest marine phylum, containing about 23% of all marine organisms.
The Gastropoda mollusc class is second only to the insect one to number of species. The
Gastropoda class contains snails and slugs. 
mollusca - мешести
gastropoda – коремоноги
bivalvia – безглавови/миди
cephalopoda – главоноги
mantle – a structure in mollusca secreting CaCO3 and a unique protein for stiffness to
create the shell
visceral – related to internal organs
ganglion – a mass of nerve cells, ancestro of the brain
radula – toothed chitionous ribbon used for feeding
presented by: Botty,
Elia, Nadezhda 10/5
BIRDS (Class Aves) - Птици
Braces - pairs, couples
Cephalopod – a marine mollusk (like octopuses, squids, etc.)
Crustacean – an arthropod with hard shell and segmented body that lives
primarily in water
Falconry – hunting of trained falcons (or other birds)
Fledgling – a very young bird that has enough feathers to fly out of the nest
Gonads – organs in animals that produce gametes, especially a testis or ovary
Incubation – The process when a bird warms her eggs in order to hatch them.
Ovary – Either of the two female reproductive organs
Talon – the claw of a bird
Urinary bladder – a membranous sac for temporary retention of urine
• Does this group have symmetry? If so, what kind?
Bilateral symmetry-one imaginary cut divides the animal into two mirror images (two wings two legs).
• How does this phylum fit into the evolutionary tree (cladogram)?
The clade of birds evolved from the dinosaurs, but they, in contrast to their ancestors, managed to outfox the
events, which caused the extinction of these ancient animals. They are closest to the clade of crocodiles and
alligators, as they share a common ancestor in the face of the clade of Archosaurs. The first common ancestor
between the birds and our species is the amniote clade that dates about 340million years ago
• Explain derived characteristics that are unique to that clade.
The unique derived characteristics of this clade are related to the adaptation of flying. For example, birds lack
urinary bladder. Most female species have only one ovary; the gonads of both male and female representatives
are small, except during the breeding period (the organs are enlarged). Moreover, birds lack teeth. Their bones
are hollow. The most distinctive parts are the wings, which are covered with feathers. The function of the wings
resembles the techniques of the nowadays aviation. The lungs have tiny tubes leading inside and outside of
special elastic air sacs. The brain is proportionally large; very well developed motor and vision lobes; excellent
eyesight; internal fertilization; nesting of eggs.
1. Breeding Migration >> In the Spring birds fly back northward to make their nests and start breeding.
2. Territory Formation >>Males sing to protect their territory and to draw the attention of females; protection
may also include fighting or chasing.
3. Courtship/ Wooing >> Birds choose mates and form braces.
4. Building a Nest >> Only the female (or both) build the nest after the courtship has finished.
5. Mating and Laying Eggs >> The process of coupling follows and then the female lays her eggs early in the
6. Incubation >> The female warms the eggs while the male protects the nest and brings food.
7. Nestlings >> When the chicks are incubated, their parents warm them, feed them and protect them.
8. Fledglings >> The newborn birds have feathers and start searching for their food.
9. Migration >> Birds fly off toward warmer places for the winter.
10. Winter >>During the winter pairs split; there is no reproduction during this time of the year.
How Do Birds Move? Reproduction of Birds
Most birds fly. They move their wings in the air in order to Birds reproduce sexually. Most males don’t have external
lower the pressure and increase the velocity. Except for sex organs, but they have two testes which enlarge during
flapping their wings upward and downward, there is an the breeding period. The female birds’ sexual organs
additional rotation of the wings for providing the thrust. include only one (left) ovary and oviduct. Sperm is stored
The numerous feathers on the bodies are very light and the female’s cloaca and this may continue a week or as
flexible. Muscles allow these feathers to move in different long as a year. This period varies between the species.
Scientific name: Phoebastria Scientific name: Aptenodytes become fertilized and eventually will be laid.
ways and direct the bodies. The bones of birds are hollow Then eggs Scientific name: Haliaeetus
which makes most of the species very light. Birds that can’t Then they need to be leucocephalusincubated. When the
fly can walk or hop. Laysan
Common name(s): Other species such as ducks have the
Common name(s): King Penguin
chicks are born, they Common small, defenseless, don’t
are too name(s): Bald eagle
ability to swim. TheyAlbatross De membranes between in dense colonies and can’t fly. For these reasons the parents
albatross (English); have special Habitat: lives have feathers Habitat: near the costs of seas,
their fingers which help them move through the water.the costmust rarely
Laysan (Spanish) usually near (and take care for their offspring; theyhas nests provide
rivers, and lakes; need to
Good swimmers often have the ability to dive. In theacase inland);protection; warmth and food in order sticks, leaves, and
Habitat: a marine bird; breeds around km no distinct (constructed with to preserve their
ofannually, and the nests their diving depends on the very long breeding cycle (14
Penguins the depth of are either in nests; length generation. moss – used for a number of years)
and size of or are more complex ones
the sand the body. to 16 months for a single chick and Range: the USA, Canada, the
Range: around 437,000 breeding with a maximum of 2 chicks for 3 northern parts of Mexico
pairs (a decreasing population) in 16 years) Food: fish, small mammals, turtles,
in the USA (Hawaii Range: encountered in the sub- and birds
and US Minor Outlying Islands); Antarctic belt on islands in the Locomotion: flying
small colonies in Japan, Mexico Atlantic, Indian, and South Pacific Ecological role/niche: a good hunter
Food: fish, crustaceans, oceans; colonies found in Prince (the most common prey are kinds of
cephalopods, a variety of Edward, South Georgia, Falkland, fish that swim in the shallows); it
invertebrates etc. also steals the prey of other birds and
Locomotion: flying Food: mainly fish (from 80 to 100 predatory mammals
Ecological role/niche: eats mainly %) and squid; also crustaceans, Life cycle changes: migrates in the
fish and a variety of invertebrates cephalopods, and krill fall to large rivers or to coastal areas
Life cycle changes: in July most Locomotion: flightless; it swims Interaction with people: * because of
albatrosses fly northwest to Japan (with average swimming speed of destroyed habitat areas and illegal
and then northeast and south back to around 10km/h) and can dive killing (usually by farmers) of bald
the islands they breed on deeper (from 100 to 300 m) and eagles, their population decreased a
Interaction with people: the first half longer than almost any other bird; lot; today they are protected and the
of the 20 century - the population on land walks or slides on its belly population has almost recovered
was decreased due to military and (a.k.a. tobogganing) * today special permit is required in
illegal hunting (for their feathers); Ecological role/niche: eats mainly order to keep it in captivity; cannot
today they are protected and their fish; enemies include giant petrels, legitimately be kept for falconry
population has almost recovered but predatory gulls, orcas, leopard Interesting fact: has sharp eyesight &
they are still endangered (because seals strong beak and talons
they get caught in fishing nets and Life cycle changes: can be found
on hooks, for instance) in its colony during every time of
the year (due to extended
breeding); sometimes migrates
Interaction with people: a lot of
penguins are kept in captivity in
different zoos; a protected animal
Mammal (mammalia or mammalis – from latin) – comes from the word mamma –
Symmetry: there are 3 kinds of symmetry throughout animals – radial,
asymmetrical and bilateral
Mammals – bilateral (if we cut the animal in the middle of its body the 2 parts are
going to be almost the same looking – symmetrical body)
How can we recognize mammals from other mammals or what makes an
animal a mammal?
• Produces milk for its children (if the animal is female)
• Has hair – all even dolphins and whales – because of their mustache
• Lower jaw – consists only of a single jaw
• Has 3 bones in the ears – stapes, incus, malleus (they were once a part
of the jaw, but during evolution period – became parts of the ears)
• Has only one main artery that curves to the left side of the heart and
becoming aortic arch
• Has diaphragm (muscle+tendon that separates the body in 2 parts)
Kingdom Phylum Subphylum Class
Animalia Chordata Vertebrata Mammalia Prototheria;
1. Dolphin – Latin Name: Delphinus
- live in ocean; sea; rivers – there are different species in every ocean in the
world, there are dolphins in the Amazon River, there are dolphins in ¾ of
the seas in the world.
- the food of dolphins is different for every species. The bigger species
dolphins eat killer whale. Some of them eat smaller fish, but a dolphin
whose weight is about 200-250kg will eat about 10-15 kilograms fish every
- Dolphins have a different way of hunting. They use the herding which is a
way of hunting done by a whole group of dolphins. They surround a school
of fish and attack them after that. Another habitat is that they often change
the temperature of water. That is why we have seen how they jump above
the water in order to change temperature. They easily migrate when they
have food shortage.
- Dolphins are fast. They can travel on their belly or their back. It can easily
jump on great heights. They travel with 35km/h.
- Every dolphin species has its unique niche. It changes due to the
environment, way of life, physical home, etc.
- Human’s interactions with dolphins are not so big. People kill dolphins and
use their fur and also they enjoy watching them in a dolphinarium. These
are the two major aspects of interaction between dolphins and Human
2. Fox - Latin Name: Fukh
- Foxes live in Europe, Asia, North and South America. They live mostly in
the forests. (wooded areas) The Arctic fox lives on the South Pole.
- The food of a fox is usually a mouse or a rat. They eat rabbits if they can
catch them, eggs and birds are also in their menu. Also they eat fruits and
- Foxes usually have a diet. They eat different food and they change it in
order to function properly. They are almost invisible because they hide
very well. A fox listens the noise of its victim and attacks it. It does not
attack big enemies. When a fox is fed enough, it hides its food in order to
have some stored for the next day.
- 35-40 inches long. 13 inches of this length is the tail of the fox. Its weight
is 5-7 kilograms. It is a fast mammal and it can jump a long distance.
- A fox is a predator in the food chain due to the fact it attacks rabbits and
mice. The main enemy is the human because people kill a lot of foxes
every year. There are foxes which move into the cities in order to farm
food from the bins.
- Winter Mating Season; Autumn Dispersal Season; Spring Moult
and Birth Season; Summer Area Spreading
- Human use foxes only for their fur because a lot of leather jackets are
made of it. We do not eat foxes
and we don’t use them for anything, but fur.
3. Bat – Latin Name: Chiroptera
- Bats live in all continents in the world. They live in the forests, also in
caves. They like the night and the warm climate.
- Most of the rats eat insects. They hunt by their feeding buzz. There are
some bats which eat mice and other animals with the size of a mouse
- Bats do everything during the night. They can’t function properly during
the daylight. They stand with their head down. They are blind and they
understand what they should do because of the amazing sound reactions
they have. The feeding buzz helps them to hunt.
- Flight styles vary. Most of them like higher flights in open spaces. The
ones who fly near the ground have short wings and they are different from
the other kind. They have better sound orientation.
- They are predators in the food chain. They are the most abundant
mammal in a rain forest. Their biggest enemies are the insects.
Adult ( 1 year bat) Baby Bat ( Can’t stand alone) Baby Bat (Can
Stand) Teen Bat (Abundant – Common , Rich, Have a lot of
Rabies – A disease which can cause heart attacks
Herding – Hunting by a whole group surrounding the victims
Moult – change of feathers
Bilateral – symmetrical
Asymmetrical – opposite to bilateral
Radial – in a round shape
- Can Fly)
- Rabies is the most important problem about bats. It’s a very bad disease
which comes from the bats in forests
o How do mammals reproduce?
o The fertilization of mammals is internal, meaning that the embryo
grows and develops inside the mother’s organism. Most mammals
are viviparous, meaning they give birth to living offspring that
develop within the mother's body. Depending on the animal’s race,
the duration of the gestation (pregnancy; in mammals it takes place
in the womb) varies in length. In smaller animals, the period of
gestation is shorter (it may take up to 2 weeks). In comparison, the
pregnancy in larger animals lasts longer. The Indian elephant, for
example, keeps the embryo for about 500 days before it is born.
Gestation can be divided into 3 phases:
Development of the embryo.
Development of the fetus (the embryo in its later stages of
development before it is born). This stage is marked with an
increase in the embryo’s size.
The last step is the birth of the fetus.
o How do they obtain and digest food?
o Depending on their eating habits, mammals are divided into 3 main
groups: carnivores (hunt live pray/feed on dead animals),
herbivores (feed on grasses, roots, leaves, fruits), and omnivores
(eat both plants and animals).
o Herbivores feed mostly on plant materials, which consist of
cellulose, water, and carbohydrates, but lack proteins and fats.
Cellulose is highly indigestible for mammals since they don’t have
the enzymes needed to break down this substance. Instead, there
is a variety of microbes that help the process of digestion. In the
internal flora the cellulose is broken down into usable sugar and
fatty acids and vitamins are released.
o Carnivores get big amounts of nutrition every day and that’s why
they can go for several days without eating any food. In order to
grip and kill their prey quickly, carnivores need long sharp teeth,
which are found at the corners of the mouth.
• How do they move?
o Most mammals travel across land and are capable of walking quite
big distances in comparison to reptiles, for example. The reason for
his ability is that mammals have homeothermic body (meaning they
are warm blooded), and their limbs are joined with their bodies. As
mammals walk or run, their legs move back and forth beneath their
body. These movements are made possible by the help of tendons.
The back of the mammals also plays an important role- it stores
energy and thus increases the efficiency of movement. There are
different types of movements used by mammals and often they
change from one type to another when walking or running. Many
land mammals can swim. Terrestrial mammals can jump, aquatic
mammals usually crawl and move more slowly and ungainly.