10 3 all handouts animal diversity 2010 jewett editDocument Transcript
This is a compilation of all the handouts that I have for 10-3 but I am MISSING: BIRDS (Iva
Simona Veselin). Use your textbook or other classes info to fill in info on birds. – Mr. Jewett
Meaning of the scientific name for this clade
The word amphibians comes from the Greek ’ ἀμφίβιος amphíbios . The translation of
this phrase literaly means “both lifes”, meaning that creatures can live both in water and
on land. Amphibians start their life in water, but they spend the most of their lives on land.
Amphibians have bilateral symmetry.Their axis is central and therefore have two equal
aprts- left and right
The first vertebrates that can live on land as well as in water- they are the evolutionary
link between fishes and reptiles. Also are ancestors of reptiles, birds and mammals
Amphibians developed from the lung-possessing fishes Crossopterygians (able to breathe
in water AND on land). Their first appearance was during the Devonian Period (408-387
million years ago) and about 370 years ago shared a common ancestor with humans.
The earliest known representative of amphibians is the– ichthyostegalians (5 toes, tail fin
Salamanders developed in Northern Hemisphere; Frogs inhabited Equatorial areas
Amphibians were dominant for about 75million years. Decreased in number after a dry
period; most of them evolved in reptiles
Types: The main types of amphibians are: Anures (frogs, toads),Urodels (salamanders,
tritons) and Gymnophions (with a snake-like body, without legs and with teeth, living in
Main Characteristics: Ectothermic(internal temperature, depending on external factors)they
can live both in water and land.Amphibians go through the phase of tadpoles, have webbed
feet and moist, scaleless, lacking hair skin that absorbs water and oxygen. Amphibians may
become inactive during estivation period(state of inactiveness due to hot climate), most of
them can hear vibrations in the ground
Reproduction: Amphibians reproduce by eggs which are laid by the female. These eggs are
most often laid in fresh water, but there are certain species such as the “Fejervarya raja”
which can survive even in slightly salted areas.
There are 3 main ways of reproduction:
1) External Fertilization- when the male holds the female in a specific position and
releases the sperm over the eggs immediately when the female lays them.
2) Many salamanders reproduce through this way. The male deposits a certain amount of
sperm, which the female later accepts in her cloaca.
3) Caecilinias and tailed frogs deposit sperm directly into the female, fertilizing the eggs.
Circulatory and Respiratory System: Heart contains a ventricle and two atria, the single
ventricle meaning not high efficiency of the system. In the ventricle oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood are not mixed due to a specific mechanism of contractions of the two
atria at different times. However, skin is also a respiratory organ through which amphibians
absorb additional oxygen. It works in the same mechanism as gills, and requires constant
Locomotion: Those with short legs (salamanders) walk or run as the body is close to the
ground. Those with long legs (frogs and toads) leap and hop.Tadpoles, since they have no
legs, only swim. If they have long toes that are separated by webbing that reaches the toe tips,
Human uses/interactions with the Amphibians: Amphibians are often used in medicine for
testing product on them and in lab experiments. In some countries frogs are delicatessen.
However, as a whole humans tend to destroy the habitat of amphibians.
1.Estivation: State of inactivity during the hot, dry months of summer.
2.Gill: A bodily organ capable of obtaining oxygen from water.
3.Vertebrate: An animal having a spinal column
4. metamorphosis- a biological process by which an mammal physically develops after its
5. Bromeliads - family of flowering plants the pineapple belongs to
6. ectothermic - with internal temperature depending on external factors
7. cloaca- posterior opening, serving as intestinal, reproductive and urinary tracts
8. caecilians- order of amphibians
9. ventricle- part of the hearth which pumps blood out of the heart
10. atrium- a blood collection chamber of the heart
Tiger Salamander Strawberry Poisonous Dart Ambystoma Maxicanum
Ambystoma tigrinum Frog
March 28th, 2010
What are reptiles?
Reptiles are one of two groups of animals (the other group is the mammals) that survived from the
amniotes. Amniotes were tetrapods that could live in much drier environments than other early tetrapods
and also lay what is called an amniotic egg which had amnion membranes around the embryo and so do
mammals, birds and reptiles. To put it simply, reptiles are the
survived amniotes that have no fur or feathers.
The oldest common ancestor we had with reptiles was 530
MYA. There are many extinct reptiles but today they are
represented by the following 3 orders:
r Crocodilia (alligators and crocodiles) - 23 species
• Sphenodontia (tuataras from New Zealand) - 2 species
• Squamata (lizards, snakes, and worm lizards) ~ 7,900 species
• Testudines (turtles and tortoises) ~ 300 species
Reptiles have a bilateral symmetry. They are most closely related to the mammals (Mammalia). Some of
their distinguishable characteristics include:
• Reptiles have scales that contain the protein keratin (also found in human nails).
• Most reptiles lay their eggs on land.
• Their scales protect their skin from extreme dryness or abrasion.
• Fertilization occurs internally after which the egg shell is concealed.
• A lot of reptiles, especially lizards and snakes, are ectothermic. This is to say that they do not use their
metabolism to regulate body temperature but instead adapt and use the environment (for example, the sun).
• Birds (descendants of reptiles), on the other hand, are endothermic – they are able to control body tempera-
ture through their metabolism.
How they move…
Most alligators, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles use their four legs to walk, however, the bigger they get, the
slower. A lot of crocodiles, and larger lizards or turtles, moves quite slow and often slide their bellies on the
ground. There are no flying reptiles but some species (like the common flying dragon) can glide through the
air. Of course, snakes and leg-less lizards slither on the ground in an S motion. Some lizards with legs will
also slither if the terrain is too grassy. Most reptiles are excellent swimmers. Crocodiles and alligators use
their tails to swim, while snakes move the same way in water. Turtles are slower swimmers because they use
their legs to slowly propel in the water.
How they reproduce…
Most reptiles are first fertilized internally and then lay eggs, the act of oviposition, on land and the eggs
hatch under the sun. Other reptiles are viviparous, or in other words they bear live young and the mother
provides nutrients. There are also some reptiles that are called gravid – the mother lays eggs inside herself,
they hatch and then she gives birth. Very little reptiles reproduce asexually.
What about their nervous system?
It contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the cerebrum and cerebellum (forebrain and motor
control part of brain respectively) are slightly larger. Sense organs are developed except for snake‘s lack of external
ears; also, there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Brain analysts suggest they are less intelligent than mammals or birds.
Their brain in proportion to body is much smaller than one in mammals; crocodiles are an exception – they have a
more complex nervous system.
Three Interesting Organisms
Pelochelys cantorii – Cantor‘s giant soft-shelled turtle
• fresh water turtle; has a broad head and small eyes close to the tip of its snout
• grow up to 2m in length
• predator – feeds on crustaceans, mollusks and fish
• spends 95% of its life burried and motionless, moving only its eyes and mouth protruding from the sand;
surfaces only 2 times a day to take a breath
• lays 20-28 eggs in February or March on riverbanks
• found in inland, slow-moving fresh water rivers and streams
Ophiophagus hannah – King Cobra
• world‘s longest venomous snake – 5,6 m
• spread throughout Southeast Asia and India; in forested areas
• fierce, agile and produces large amount of potent venom in a single bite
• moves by sliding
• predator – may also eat other snakes; mice; lizards
• lays eggs
• very dedicated parent – deposits 20-40 eggs; the female stays with its eggs; incubates its eggs at 28C by
putting them in a mound (small hole in sand, dirt, mud, etc.)
• easily irritated – when attacking rises up to 1/3 of its body length
Crocodylus porosus – Saltwater crocodile
• largest of all living reptiles
• found in Northern Australia, India, Southeast Asia
• 1300kg and more than 6 meters
• Diet – only meat – sharks, wild boar, dingos, kangaroos, monkeys, domestick animals
• No natural predators
We are a reason for the endangerment of a lot of reptiles. Skin from crocodiles and alligators is incredibly
expensive since it is quite high in the hierarchy of modern clothes among the rich. Their skins are used for
making belts, wallets, handbags, etc. Not only do we wear them, but we also eat them. A lot of people
around the world are fond of eating crocodiles, lizards, snakes, turtles, etc. They are actually considered
delicacies in a lot of countries. Snake’s venom plays an important role in modern day medicine. We use their
venoms to counter diseases and viruses.
What does the Bulgarian word рептили (reptili) mean?
Which statement about snakes is NOT true?
a. Snakes never stop growing.
b. You can tell the age of a rattlesnake by the number of its rattles.
c. Snakes are found on all continents except Antarctica.
d. There are approximately 2700 species of snakes in the world.
• fish: vertebrates
• Gnathostomes (“jaw mouth”)
i. Clade: Chondrichthyans (“cartilage fish”) (skeleton: mainly formed by cartilage,
often with calcium)
ii. Clade: Osteichthyes (“bony fish”)- bony endoskeletons with calcium phosphate
• most closely related to the group of Amphibians
• shared common ancestor with humans- Tetraodon nigroviridis
• Symmetry: have bilateral or no symmetry
2. Characteristics of fish
- jaw: catch and slice food
- forebrains: provide them with acute senses
- lateral line system: organs, sensitive to water and vibrations, enabling electrocep-
- body symmetry- their fins and tail allows them to swim efficiently
• Lay eggs: Male and female gametes join in H2O large number of eggs produced
• Internal fertilization: Male fish use reproductive organs to deliver sperm into an opening
• Algae, Sea grasses, Detritus, Sponges, Plankton
• Fish living at the bottom of the ocean: worms, small fishes
• Fish feeders: eat other types of fish
• Crustacean feeders: eat shrimps and crabs
• Invertebrate feeders: eat snails, worms, etc.
5. Nervous system
• Peripheral nervous system: connects the brain and spinal chord to the other organs
through nerves in the body
• Have brain and spinal chord
• No eyelids, Eyes on different sides of the body, Have retinal rods and cones, Big pupils
• Inner and no outer ear opening
• Have lateral line system under the top part of the body (under head’s skin): really helpful
to sense movement
• Nasal sac: smell
- abundant meals
- 10-20 tones year consumption in Japan
- proteins and carbohydrates provided: healthy for humans
- some are poisonous: deadly to mammals
- humans destroy their environment
1. Aquatic animal= animal that lives in water
2. Ectothermic= cold-blooded
3. Craniata= a clade of animals, whose representatives have a skull
4. Scale= rigid plate that grows out of and covers an animal’s skin (люспа)
5. Gill= organ fish use to breath with (хриле)
6. Fin= bony spine used for movement (перка)
7. Operculum= bony flap above the gills
8. Electroception= ability to recognize electrical impulses
9. Cloaca= posterior opening used to excrete waste products
10. Oviparous= eggs are laid outside of mother
Evolution, Diversity and Characteristics of Mammals
1. Evolution and Classification
Mammals (Mammalia) are a class of vertebrate animals. There are about 4, 500 species which all
produce milk for their offspring and which are divided in three sub-classes depending on their reproduction:
Monotremes (Prototheria) are an ancient group that lays eggs, Marsupials and Placental Mammals
(Eutherians). Monotremes are probably similar to the semi-reptile first mammals that combine some
mammal and some reptile characteristics. Though they lay eggs, they still milk their young, and this,
together with the fact thay Monotremes have hair, is why they are classified as mammals. Marsupials are
common in Australia and neighbouring islands; they give birth to undeveloped offspring who complete their
development in a ‘pouch’ in the mother’s body. Placental mammals are the latest and most common group,
comprisig the majority of species.
As they have a spinal cord, mammals belong to the phylum Chordata, consisting of all animals
having a notochord – a structure similar to a spinal cord. All chordates have complete digestive systems and
segmented bodies. Mammals have bilateral symmetry like other vertebrates – their bodies have similar right
and left halves. They are closely related to reptiles – in fact, mammals evolved from a lineage of reptiles.
Platypus, a monotreme Koala, a marsupial House dog, placental mammal
2. Derived Characteristics
• Hair – filaments supported by the keratin protein that can serve for heat insulation, protection, cam-
ouflage or sensory purposes. Different forms are fur, whiskers, horns, etc. All mammals and only
mammals have hair.
• Mammary glands – mammals are the only group in which females produce mild to provide their off-
spring with nutrients.
• Live birth – with the exception of monotremes such as the platypus and the echidna all mammals
give live birth instead of laying eggs. As the most primitive mammals lay eggs like ancestor reptiles,
this characteristic has evolved independently in mammals, though some other animal species also
give live birth.
• Differentiated teeth – several types of teeth with different functions
• 3 ear bones – at first they were part of the jaw, but now have sensory functions
• Endothermic – unlike reptiles, mammals maintain thermal homeostasis.
3. Life and Anatomy of Mammals
• Feeding: as all animals, mammals are heterotrophic – they consume other organisms to obtain their
nutrients. Fisrt mammals were probably carivores, but carnicorous, omnivorous (eating both plants
and other animals) and herbivorous groups have evolved. Carnivorous mammals are the top preditors
in most land food chains. Mammals eat fairly large quantities of food and have fast metabolism to
obtain all the energy they need. One reason is that they have to maintain their internal temperature.
• Life cycle: After fertilization (the fusion of the egg and the sperm) comes the stage of gestation, dur-
ing which a new individual is developing within the body of the female. After birth, young mammals
usually remain with one or both of their parents until they are fairly close to reaching maturity. This
may take time from a few weeks to years. There is no metamorphosis in the life cycle of mammals
• Nervous system: mammals have the most advanced and complex nervous system on Eearth; there is
a central n.s. (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral n.s. The largest brain from all animal groups. The
species that have the greatest capacity for learing are mammals; primates are the most developed in
this respect, with humans having by far the most advanced brains on the planet.
4. Significance for humans
Mammals are often used as food – for instance, pigs, sheep, cows, sometimes their meet being the
food and sometimes the milk is used. Leather and fur from mammals is also widely used to produce clothing
or for decoratiion. Mammals are usually used in lab experiments, like testing new drugs, because there
anatomy is similar to that of humans, and so effects from different substances can be observed without
exposing humans to them. Mammals can also be pets or provide entertainment, for example in circuses. In
the past mammals such as horses were often used in farms as workforce; in less developed parts of the world
this still continues. Interaction between humans and other mammals has led to the extinction of many
Monotremata- subgroup of mammals that lay eggs (platypus and echidnas)
Marsupialia- subgroup of mammals that keep their still undeveloped young in a pouch (kangaroos, koalas)
Eutheria (placental mammals) developed when born and continue developing outside their mother's (dogs,
Endothermic (warm blooded) - animals that maintain a thermal homeostasis (a fairly constant
temperature) - mammals are endothermic;
Gestation - the period during which the embryo is within the female animal's body and supported by it
Omnivore - an animal that eats both plants and other animals for food;
Pouch- the “pocket” on the kangaroo’s or other marsupial mammal’s tummy for example is called pouch. It
is basically folded skin that provides shelter for the baby.
Central nervous system - the part of the nervous system that coordinates the activity of the bodies’ parts
Notochord - a rod that extends most of the length of the body when it’s fully developed
Omnivores – organisms that eat both plants and animals
Sponges & Cnidarians Handout
• Sponges are sessile invertebrates
• Sponges are hermaphrodites
• Male sponge releases sperm and that sperm enters the female sponge
• After that a larvae is produced and after a few days the larvae roots itself and begins to grow
• Osculum – the “mouth” of a sponge
• Ostia – the pores on the sides of the sponge
• Porocyte – cells with spores that allow water to get inside the sponge.
• Sessile – permanently attached and unable to move.
• Holdfast – the “roots” of a sponge
• Invertebrate – animal without a backbone.
• Radial symmetry
• They are 98% water
• They have a simple nervous system
• They have a mouth, oral arms, tentacles, a bell, gonads and a stomach
• Both sexual and asexual
Sexual – the male releases sperm that the female swallows. Then a larvae is made that roots itself to the
bottom. That larvae grows and eventually becomes several baby jellyfishes
Asexual – the jellyfish can also grow a bud on its body, like a plant.
• Gonads – jellyfish reproductive organs
• Polyp – jellyfish larvae that roots itself to the bottom
• Bell – the top part of the jellyfish
• Nematocysts – the venom cells of a jellyfish
Basically the hydra is a very small animal that looks like a sack with tentacles. They live in fresh water only.
They reproduce both sexually and asexually, like a jellyfish. They sting, like a jellyfish.