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  • 1. Emilia Atanassova Antoaneta Stefanova Elena Tatarova 10/1 THIS COMPILATION IS MISSING THE HANDOUT FROM AMPHIBIANS (NELLY, SLAV, VASKO). PLEASE LOOK AT OTHER CLASSES HANDOUTS FROM AMPHIBIANS. Echinodermata 1.Explanation of name and symmetry (14) Echino- (phylum name – from Greek – “spiny”) + dermata (from Greek – derma = “skin”); Marine invertabrates ; Hard spiny covering; Calcite skeleton; Echinoderm larvae – ciliated; bilateral symmetry; Evolve in pentaradially symmetry; Five – rayed radial body symmetry • Bilateral symmetry – one plane that divides the organism into two halves that are often mirror images of one another • Radial symmetry - several cutting planes produce roughly identical pieces; no left or right side; only top and bottom • Pentamerism – five equal parts around central axis at 72º 2.Cladogram and derived characteristics kingdom Animalia (9); clade Deuterostomia (9); deuterostomes - common ancestor with humans-at least 558 MYA (before Cambrian explosion)(9); common to other phylum Chordata (9); Five arms, connected to a central disc (2); Ambulacral groove – groove through which food is conveyed from rays to mouth (1); Water vascular system (2) 3.Reproduction (2, 3, 4) males and females release their gametes (sperm and eggs) in the water, where they fertilize; rarely echinoderms ‘look after’ their larvae – in some brittle stars, special chambers can be developed near the stomach bags, in which the development of the young takes place, a few species of sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and sand dollars ; can reproduce asexually by splitting (they regenerate) (fun fact) – some sea stars can regenerate a whole new star from an arm, as long as it has a part of the central disc attached to it 4.Digestion Food is taken through the mouth (located in the bottom of the organism) (16); Food goes to the esophagus (16); Two stomachs – cardiac and pyloric (16); First in the cardiac stomach (16); Ability to take their cardiac stomach out (by opening a valve) (16); Next food is digested in the pyloric stomach (16); Intestines and digestive glands; Excreted through anus (16); Herbivores, Scavengers, Predators, Detritus (17) 5.Movement (9,13) contain water vascular system throughout the body - system of water tubes/canals that branch and spread in the whole body in extensions - tube feet(podia) (9,13); tube feet needed for movement, feeding, and gas exchange (9); water circulation keeps the form of the echinodermata firm ; water from vascular system spread in tube feet to "make a foot" (13); after that retracts the feet with muscles (13) 6.All types of echinodermata (14) 6,000 existing species; 6 main classes 1. Crinoidea – feather stars and sea lilies 2. Asteroidea – starfishes 1
  • 2. 3. Ophiuroidea – brittle stars and basket stars 4. Echinoidea – sea urchins 5. Concentricycloidea – sea daisies 6. Holothuroidea – sea cucumbers 7.Brittle star (15) 1,600 species Ophiuroids – “snake stars” – long flexible arms and disk-shaped body Move by wriggling their arms supported by skeleton of calcium carbonate; moved by a system of muscles; linked together by ball-and-socket joints; body and arms also protected by calcium carbonate plates. Found from Arctic and Antarctic to the tropics in deeper; sometimes found in extremely salt water – unusual for echinoderms Scavengers – feed with corpses and remains of other animals; sometimes with plankton 8.Sand Dollar Echinarachnius exentricus (5, 6) has a velvety, blue covering the shells of the sand dollar have a few characteristic slits along the edges, which has given them the name of keyhole urchins, they use those slits for more fluent movement in sand and water a secondary bilateral symmetry flat because it is not on ‘sand’ level, but it buries itself underground eats larvae, algae, and any tiny particles of food that float in water who eats sand dollars: sea stars, cod, and other bottom feeding fish 9.Sea cucumber - Synapta maculata (11,10) Classification: Biota > Animalia (Kingdom) > Echinodermata (Phylum) > Echinozoa (Subphylum) > Holothuroidea (Class) > Apodida (Order) > Synaptidae (Family) > Synapta (Genus) (10) class Holothuroidea largest species of sea cucumbers; (10,11) can reach up to 5 m long (11) grey to mid brown coloring (10) lives in Indo-west Pacific ocean; in depths from 0 to 20m (10) 10.Human uses (12) -sea cucumbers(specifically or bêche-de-mer) in Asia are dried and used for soups (picture); sea urchins' sex organs used as delicacy in Japan, Chile and some parts of Europe ; believed that hothurin (toxin by some tropical species) reduces the rate of growth of some tumors ; holothurin is dispersed in rivers to kill fish; holothurin is not toxic to humans; jewelry and souvenirs (picture); eggs of starfishes used for biological researches on development Vocabulary -central disc – the body connecting the rays of the star, contains nerve ring and nerve cords -water vascular system – a network of hydraulic canals branching into extensions -tube feet – the extensions of a water vascular system, used in locomotion, feeding and gas exchange -medreporite – with what water flows in and out of the vascular system -asteroidea – sea stars -ophiuroidea – brittle stars -echinoidea – sea urchins and sand dollars -crinoidea – sea lilies, feather stars 2
  • 3. - holothuroidea – sea cucumbers -concentrisycloidea – sea daisies Arthropoda 1. Scientific Name, Symmetry, Relatives - Any invertebrate of the phylum Arthropoda, having a segmented body, jointed limbs, and usually a chitinous shell that undergoes moltings - All arthropods are bilaterally symmetrical and possess a segmented body covered by an exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armour and a surface for muscle attachment - The Onychophora and the Tardigrada are the closest living relatives of the arthropods. 2. Characteristics - Most arthropods have some limbs for locomotion and other limbs specialized for grasping, swimming, or eating - Arthropods have a tough exoskeleton composed of chitin - Arthropods have an open circulatory system - While aquatic arthropods have gills, most air-breathing arthropods have a system of air tubes called tracheae to carry air directly to their tissues. - Most arthropods lay eggs, some hatch as miniature adults and many insects hatch as grubs or caterpillars, which metamorphose into adult forms by entering an inactive phase in which the larval tissues are broken down and re-used to build the adult body - These species move by walking, flying, swimming (they are the largest phylum in the animal kingdom) - Arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, have a nervous system made up of a series of ganglia, connected by a ventral nerve cord made up of two parallel connectives running along the length of the belly. 3. How do they fit in the evolutionary tree? -Phylum Sipuncula, phylum Echiura are closest relatives - Also they are the ONE OF THE first with bilateral symmetry, not radial and we have the same subkingdom, which is eumetazoa Arachnids 1. Scientific name, symmetry: • Comes from “arachne” which in Greek is spider • Mainly terrestrial • Over 100,000 species : spiders, harvestmen, scorpions, ticks, mites, solifugaes • bilaterally symmetrical, have an exoskeleton. 2. How do they fit in the evolutionary tree? • Phylum Sipuncula, phylum Echiura are closest relatives • Like segmented worms, the bodies of arthropods are made up of repeating segments 3. Derived Characteristics 3
  • 4. • They have 4 pairs of legs • 2 other pairs: pedipals, which help in feeding and sometimes in breathing, and chelicerae which contain the venom • No wing or antennae • Their body consists of two parts: the cephalothorax and the abdomen • Exoskeleton and internal cartilage- like structure 4. Reproduction, Movement, Nervous System, digestive system: • Poison glands • Silk gland • Book lung • Gonophores( exit for eggs) • Some arachnids have oxygen contain blood other not depending on respiration system • Meat eaters, some inject digestive juices into their victims • Two kind of eyes: lateral and median ocelli • Sensory hairs • Two gonads located in the abdominal • The male transfers sperm in spermatophore • They lay eggs • Representative Organism: Tarantulas Crustacea 1. Scientific name, symmetry: - Various aquatic arthropods, including lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles, characteristically having a segmented body, a chitinous exoskeleton, and paired, jointed limbs - bilaterally symmetrical, have an exoskeleton 2. How do they fit in the evolutionary tree - Phylum Sipuncula, phylum Echiura are closest relatives - Like segmented worms, the bodies of arthropods are made up of repeating segments 3. Derived Characteristics - A hard exoskeleton made of calcium - no internal skeleton - A pair of green glands excretes wastes - The circulatory system is open; there is no heart and the "blood" is pumped by vessels into sinuses 4. Reproduction, Movement, Nervous System: - The nervous system consists of a primitive ventral nerve cord and ganglia system (similar to those of an earthworm) 4
  • 5. - The abdominal segments have swimmerets (swimming legs), some of the species use their exoskeleton to get out of the mud, since some of them walk on the bottom of the ocean - These species also have jointed legs - The sexes are separate. Eggs are attached to the swimmerets (swimming legs) of the female. The first pair is enlarged in the male (it is used to pass sperm to the female). - Representative Organism: Crabs Insecta 1. Scientific name, Symmetry: • Insectum From Greek: threaded • More than 6 million species(estimated not more than 50 mil) • bees, ants, flies, beetles, butterflies, mosquitoes • Bilateral symmetry, Chitinous exoskeleton 2. How do they fit in the evolutionary tree? • Superphylum Ecdysozoa, Panathropoda are close relatives • Segmented skeleton 3. Derived Characteristics • 3 pairs of legs • 1 up to 2 pair of antennas • 1 up to 2 pair of wings(optional) • 3 segments of the skeleton • Use trachea (not lungs) • Have a “heart” which is more like a pump, no veins, arteries 4. Reproduction, Movement, Nervous System • Ganglia nerve system, primitive form of a brain • Most successful class of animals due to its abilities in movement: swimming, gliding,floating, jumping, running, , flying, • 2 types of reproduction: incomplete and complete metamorphosis • Egg/embryo-larva-pupa, adult (complete); though series of molts, in which the insects grows bigger (incomplete) - Representative Organism: Ants. Vocabulary: Crustacean- Any member of the 45,000 arthropod species in the subphylum Crustacea. Zoea- the free-swimming larva of a crab or related crustacean Megalopa- The final larval stage found in decapod crustaceans Ocelli – simple eye, which contain one lens Cephalothorax – Fusion of the thorax and the head 5
  • 6. Abdomen- The “bottom” of the arachnids which contains the heart, the lung and the digestive and reproduction systems Spermatophore – bags which contain semen. Victoria Karkelanova Trachea – part of the respiratory system Gonophores- genital pore in some invertebrates and especially some insects. Joanna Shuleva 10/1 Chitin- a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, it is the main component of the exoskeletons of arthropods such as crustaceans and insects. Christina Tantcheva Fish 1. Scientific name (7) : ichthyoid – from Greek ichtys /fish/ ichtyology – ichtys /fish/ + logos /reason/ (Greek) Phylum Chordata Class Osteichthyes – “bony fish” (ray-finned fish and lobe-fins fish; majority of fish belong to this class) Class Condrichthyans – cartilage skeleton (mostly sharks, rays and their relatives) 2. Symmetry -bilateral symmetry 3. Cladogram Major Clades of Chordates. Derived Characters. 6
  • 7. p.699 / Biology Campbell and Reece - 500 million years ago humans shared an ancestor with fish 4.What makes a fish a fish? A fish is any aquatic vertebrate animal that is covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. Most fish are ectothermic. (exception: great white sharks are warm-blooded) 5. How do fish reproduce? (8) - sexually - female fish lays eggs outside her body where the male fish sprays milt (liquid, which contains sperm cells) when he finds them - eggs are fertilized - the egg contains yolk, which is where the food for the embryo is contained - after the new born fish hatches the egg the yolk might remain a little longer - very few fish carry the eggs in their bodies - a fish may lay from 1500 to 5000 eggs depending on the type of fish, how heavy it is and how big are its eggs 6.Respiration and Circulation a) respiration (10) 7
  • 8. - oxygen is extracted from water, which is harder and consumes more energy than extracting it from air - fish have special structures called gills, which have a lid and are rich in blood vessels - fish open their mouth for water to enter and then it goes to the gill where oxygen from water is exchanged for carbon dioxide through diffusion; then the lid of the gill opens and water leaves; the extracted oxygen enters the blood system b) circulation (11) - single circuit ( heart-gills – body- heart) - fish have 2 chambered heart ( upper atrium and lower ventricle) and 2 accessory chambers; all 4 chambers are contained in a single pericardial sac - the circuit is used for transporting oxygen, nutrients and wastes 7.How do fish move? (9) - snake-like varieties of fish move by pushing themselves in a wave-like fashion through the water – this is a very slow type of movement (ex. eels) - fish with streamlined bodies and a stiff caudal fin or tail move faster by swinging their tail from side to side - pectoral and pelvic fins enable difficult maneuvers and act as breaks - little is known about dorsal and anal fin function, but it’s hypothesized that they help balance during steady swimming 8. Representatives a) Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) a.k.a. Great White/ White Death - the world's largest known predatory fish, (1) at the top of the ocean’s food chain (2) - cartilaginous fish (skeleton-cartilage, not bone) (2) - habitat: cool, coastal waters (oceans) (3) - adaptations: acute hearing, sharp eyesight, good sense of smell (using them for hunting) (2), torpedo- shaped body (good swimmers) (3), Several rows of teeth (3), one extra sense: have organs that sense the electromagnetic fields generated by animals (3) - eat sea lions, seals, small toothed whales, and even sea turtles (3) - the great white shark is warm-blooded, “because its body temperature is not constant but is internally regulated.” (1) - endangered species (the only surviving species of its genus) (1) - interactions with humans: humans are not a target, sharks are just “sample biting” (3); shark attacks on humans are rare (2); - we eat them, they don’t. (They just bite.) 8
  • 9. - Fun fact: “Great whites can detect one drop of blood in 100 L of water and can sense even tiny amounts of blood in the water up to 5 km away.” (3) - Fun fact #2: swim up to 69 km/h; can weigh more than 2 T (2) b) Clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris) a.k.a. Clownfish - Ray-finned fish - habitat: warm waters (Indian, Pacific Ocean, Barrier Reef, Red Sea) (4) - live in symbiosis with sea anemones: feed on small invertebrates which might harm the anemone, provides nutrients to the sea anemone with fecal matter (4) - lifespan: 3-6 years (5), range: 10 cm max (4) - all clownfish are born male but as they mature one dominant becomes female as well as primary defender (5) - Interaction with humans: the clownfish is an aquarium fish c) Electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) - habitat: Amazon river, basins in South America - feed on invertebrates; adult eels eat fish and small mammals - have elongated cylindrical body (~2 m; 20 kg) - developed sense of hearing - have vascularized respiratory organ in oral cavity - rise to surface every 10 min to gulp air - generate powerful electric shocks (for hunting and self-defense) - fun fact: electric shock up to 500 volts can be produced (deadly for an adult human) Vocabulary: fish - any aquatic vertebrate animal, covered with scales, equipped with two sets of paired fins, several unpaired fins and ectothermic milt – liquid that contains sperm cells yolk – contains food for the embryo gills - have a lid and are rich in blood vessels; water goes there so that oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide through diffusion fin – thin flat part sticking out from the fish’s body, helping it move ichthyoid – from Greek ichtys /fish/ osteichthyes – “bony fish” pericardial sac – heart; location of the chambers and atrium ectothermic- cold-blooded 9
  • 10. Stamatova, Zhanet Dimitrova, Tanya Kalinov, Dimiter Section 10/1 March 23, 2010 Birds (Handout) (Domain – Eukaryota; Kingdom – Animalia; Phylum – Chordata; Class – Aves (Birds)) 1. Name (meaning): “Ave” (pl. “aves”) = 1) hail (Latin), 2) bird, fowl (Spanish), 3) plumed/feathered animal (Potrtugese) 2. Symmetry - bilateral 3. Cladogram and connections to humans and other groups - appeared about 150 MYA - evolved from dinosaurs (therapods – most common ancestors) - Archaeopteryx – earliest bird known - Most closely related to mammals - 270 MYA – humans shared common ancestor with birds 4. Characteristics - Vertebrate - Tetrapod ( 4 appendages), but bipedal (“two running legs”) and have forelimbs – wings (most can fly / exclude: ratites and penguins) - Endothermic (warm-blooded), with four chambered heart - Unique digestive and respiratory systems - Egg-laying (hard shelled) - Lightweight strong skeleton - Appearance i. feathers ii. beak with no teeth 10
  • 11. 5. a) Reproduction and Life Cycle • Reproduction - most male birds – no external sexual organs - male birds – two testes; enlarge during breeding season; left is larger (asymmetry) - female birds – ovaries, usually the left functions better - sexual act – female moves her tail to the side; male bird mounts on female from behind, or positions very close - since there is no phallus (erected penis) in most male birds, he moves his cloacae (behind, the place where feces and urine goes out) very close to hers - once in the female, the sperm is stored in the cloacae from one week up to a year - the fertilized egg is laid and continues to develop as an egg in the nest - the egg is then kept warm by the male/female parent – incubation - young birds are fed by their parents until they can feed on their own - they learn how to fly, and soon leave the nest - in about one year (period depends on species) they find a partner and mate • Life Cycle (of Penguins) - March – travel approximately 100 km inland to find partner - April – find their partner through singing (one partner in life) - they mate, and in two weeks female lays one (sometimes two) egg - male - takes the egg for two months, as she goes for food - August – egg hatches, male and female take turns to feed it - December – all families go to the sea - a penguin has to be 5 years old to mate b) Food Obtaining and Digestion Digestive system – simple, so that they can pass food quickly; thus minimize the extra weight, and gain energy from food more quickly. a. Types: i. diurnal – active during the day ii. nocturnal – active during the night, and sleeping during the day iii. crepuscular – active during twilight b. Food: nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, small animals (including other birds  No teeth - consume food that can be swallowed whole - generalists – eat variety of foods 11
  • 12. - specialists – concentrate on specific food c. Feeding strategies i. peck for insects, fruits, seeds ii. suddenly attack from a branch iii. specific form of the beak iv. other specific adaptations – e.g. for hunting under water – waterproof wings v. kleptoparasitism – stealing food items from other birds vi. scavengers – consume corpses d. Order - Bill (beak) - Mouth - Tongue - Pharynx - the part between the mouth and the esophagus, much involved with swallowing - esophagus – a narrow tube, that carries food down the “throat” - crop - - food can be temporarily stored here - stomach o proventriculus - the first chamber of a bird's stomach; food is broken down by digestive enzymes o gizzard - the second chamber of a bird's stomach; food is broken by muscular action - intestines – (like human – long tubes, carrying food) - rectum – the last part of the large intestine; no digestion occurs here - cloacae – the behind of a bird, where the urine and feces are removed c) Locomotion - feathered wings, moved by powerful breast muscles - tail - helps birds direct the flight - light rigid skeleton and fast digestion - water birds - webbed-swimming feet - flying - a balance between two sets of forces - lift and weight, and thrust and drag - lift - generated by the flow of air over the wings - birds’ wings - not flat, shaped like an aerofoil – concave - air passes over or under the wing as the bird moves forward, or as the wind blows - the air that moves over the top of the wing – speeds up - the air going below the wing - slows down, generates more pressure and effectively pushes the wing up - a bird with air moving over its wings is pulled up from above and pushed up from below - the air passing - creates drag - the resistance the air gives to anything passing through it - some birds have wings that generate a lot of lift without producing much drag  they glide - some birds - lost their ability to fly 6. Human uses/interactions and Ecological Role/Niche - Pets - Food – direct and obtained - Entertainment – hunt - Feathers - Innovations – planes - Diseases – Chicken flu 7. Representative organisms Sphenisciformes Galliformes Falconiformers (Penguins) (Fowl) (Raptors) 12
  • 13. Habitat - inhabit southern - primary forests, deserts, - live in every kind of land hemisphere ( it is a myth scrub forests, cultivated habitat - forests, grasslands, they are found only in lands, bamboo thickets, wetlands, deserts, Antarctica) and alpine meadows mountains, farmlands, seacoasts - about 10 species inhabit - types of habitat - the temperate zone temperate, tropical, terrestrial - one species inhabits areas near the equator Range - 17 and 20 living species - large and diverse group - - 290 species of birds - about 70 genera and more falcons, eagles, hawks and than 250 species allies - nearly worldwide distribution Food habits - squids, krill, and fish - eat a variety of plant - hunt; meet eaters material (fruits, seeds, ect.) and animal material (arthropods, snails, ect.) Additional - wings – flippers - chicken-like in - sharply hooked beak with information appearance - small to large a cere (soft mass, housing bodies and blunt-wings the nostrils - long and broad wings - strong legs and feet; raptorial claws Picture Mammals 1. Scientific name for this clade: 13
  • 14. Mammalia - The young are nourished for a time by milk, or an analogous fluid, secreted by the mammary glands of the mother. 2. Bilateral symmetry – all 3. How does this phylum fit into the evolutionary tree (cladogram)? •Domain – Eukarya Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Chordata Class – Mammalia 4.Other groups most closely related • Class – Reptilia (Reptiles); Class – Aves (Birds); Class – Amphibia 5. How long ago did humans share a common ancestor with this group? • Humans are primates – one of the orders of the class • The earliest mammal is Eozostrodon – a rodent 6. Characteristics that are unique to this clade. a) Mammary Glands - these organism feed their offspring with milk b) Fur – keeps the body warm – helps maintaing homeostasis c) Three middle ear bones - transform sound vibrations into neural impulses 7. Basics of the clade i. Reproduction - Sexually f. Mammals need to move to acquire food – ii. Life cycle - Birth, offspring (pup), adult plants or other animals • Exception – monotremes – lay eggs g. Predators – need to be faster and stronger to be able to kill iii. Obtaining food and digestion - h. “Victims” – need to be faster and smaller to Heterotrophs – eating be able to escape iv. Movement i. Unique – some have skin formed between a. They move a lot their legs or fingers – used for flying b. Skeleton – structural support and movement support c. Muscles – strong myofibrils, attached to the v. Gas, food/waste exchanged with the bone to move it environment (respiration/circulation) d. Land mammals have 4 legs (or 2 legs and 2 • Respiratory system – lungs arms) e. Water mammals - sleek, streamlined bodies • Excretory system • Digestive system 8.How do they avoid predation/disease? 1. Immune system- system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells a) White blood cells- cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials 14
  • 15. 2. Physical adaptations- such as good insulation, and by special forms of behavior such as hibernation and migration 3. Keen senses and Rapid responses 4. Armaments made of Keratin- horns, spines, and quills 5. Camouflage- use their natural coloring to blend in with their surroundings 6. Some mammals feed in groups in order to avoid predators 7. Alarm signals- some mammals use different signals in order to inform one another of upcoming danger 9.Maintaining control (nervous system) I. Nervous system-Mammals have the most complex nervous system on the planet, with humans being the most advanced a) Central nervous system (CNS)- the part of the nervous system that coordinates the activity of all parts of the bodies i. Brain-The brain is the largest part of the central nervous system. It regulates many different functions of the body of a mammal. The brain processes all incoming external stimuli, and tells the body what to do in response. In most mammals, these responses are automatic and unconscious. ii. Spinal Cord-linking the brain to the rest of the body b) Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- made up of only connecting nerves c) Somatic nervous system-controls both the muscles and the information that is processed by the skin and other receptors d) Autonomic nervous system- affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration All mammalian brains possess a neocortex, a brain region that is unique to mammals. Dolphin • Habitat - Coastal waters, bays, lagoons, and some rivers • Stemella coeruleoalba • Eat - mostly fish • Range - Oceans worldwide • Locomotion- a) Normal speed of 23-25 mph d) can make sharp turns easily b) fast and active swimmer e) can jump to great heights c) can travel on its belly, on its back or f) seem to be almost indefatigable even on its side • Ecological niche-eat smaller fishes • The bottlenose dolphin can detect sounds at • Life cycle-birth, calf, adult frequencies more than seven times what a human can hear. Cheetah •Living range – mostly the savannas (grasslands) of southern and western Africa •Acinonyx jubatus 15
  • 16. •Eats - calves, impalas, gazelles, antelope, •Locomotion – the fastest land animal calves, hares o Can run up to 113 km/h o Larger heart – more rapid physical o Only short bursts response o Extra light (as weight) – light bones, little o Disadvantage – little fats – little energy fats storage o Special paw pads and retractable claws  A lot of heat produced o Big nostrils – more oxygen  Little stamina •Ecological niche – speed •Life cycle – birth, cub, adult o Cubs are often being eaten by larger cats – solution = more cubs  •Cheetah are often killed for their beautiful fu 16
  • 17. Brown Bear • Ursus arctos • Range- North America, South America, Europe, and Asia • Habitat- Mountain, forest, and arctic wilderness • Eat- plants, fruits, nuts, insects, fish, birds, and small to large mammals • Locomotion- walk with the podials and metatarsals (the soles of the feet) flat on the ground • Ecological niche-eat smaller animals and plants • Life cycle-birth, cub, adult • Bears have a keen sense of smell that is seven times more powerful than that of dogs. Vocabulary 1. Brain-The brain is the largest part of the central nervous system. It regulates many different functions of the body of a mammal. The brain processes all incoming external stimuli, and tells the body what to do in response. In most mammals, these responses are automatic and unconscious 2. Central nervous system (CNS)- the part of the nervous system that coordinates the activity of all parts of the bodies 3. Hibernation- state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower metabolic rate. Hibernating animals conserve food, especially during winter when food is short, tapping energy reserves, body fat, at a slow rate 4. Immune system- system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells 5. Keratin- refers to a family of fibrous structural proteins, when assembled in bundles, it is tough and insoluble forming hard, unmineralized structures found in reptiles, birds, amphibians, and mammals. They are rivalled as biological matter in toughness only by chitin. 6. Monotremes-are mammals that lay eggs (Prototheria) instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria) 7. Neocortex-part of the brain of mammals made up of six layers, which is involved in higher functions such as sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning, conscious thought and language. 8. Parasympathetic nervous system-works to regain homeostasis after the body has undergone a flight or fight response. During the time your body is in a state of flight or fight response, your main organs, such as your heart, change in order to prepare your body for the dangerous situation 9. Somatic nervous system-controls both the muscles and the information that is processed by the skin and other receptors
  • 18. 10. Spinal Cord- The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies within the vertebral canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge, the spinal cord consists of nerve fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain, in other words it links the brain to the rest of the body