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War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
War Without End
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War Without End

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • 1917 – Allies struggling to stay afloat
      • France – Army mutinies against taking the offensive
      • Italian Army suffers severe defeat at Capporetto
      • Russian monarchy collapses in revolution
  • 3.
    • February 1917 – Tsar forced to abdicate in revolution
    • New government under Alexander Kerensky, called Provisional Government
    • New Government promises to maintain war effort
  • 4.
    • New Russian government deeply split
      • Bolsheviks – “Reds” – want Communist state – opposed to continuing the war with Germany
      • Mensheviks – “Whites” – support Kerensky
    • Germany allows Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Ulyanov (AKA Lenin) to return to Russia through battle lines
    • Red leader Leon Trotsky builds military force, the Red Army
    • October (November by current calendar) – Bolsheviks seize power in Russia – Leads to civil war
  • 5.
    • German civilian prime minister resigns in 1917 – Military takes control of government, with Kaiser’s approval
    • February 1917 – German telegram (Zimmerman Telegram) to Mexican government intercepted by Britain – Offers territory to Mexico for anti-American alliance
    • March 1917 – Germany resumes Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • 6.
    • April – US President Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to Declare war against Germany
    • War declared on April 7 th
    • US will not have a large army in France for at least 1 year
  • 7.
    • December 1917 – Russian and Germans armies agree to an armistice
    • Early 1918 – Bolsheviks meet with Germans to make separate peace treaty
    • March 1918 – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - Germans take huge amount of territory from Russia and claim huge reparations
    • Treaty terrifies Allies at possible German treaty to end war on Western Front
    • Treaty frees up entire German Army for action on Western Front
  • 8.
    • Spring 1918 – Germany launches large offensive on Western Front
    • Offensive stopped at Marne River by French and US forces
    • German military aware of defeat after failure of offensive
  • 9.
    • Allies launch offensive in mid-August at Amiens
    • US launches offensive in Meuse-Argonne in September
    • Germans forced to retreat to “Hindenburg Line” – Last line of defense
    • 11/8 – Austrian emperor abdicates, Austria asks for armistice
    • 11/9 – German army commander Hindenburg tells Kaiser he is no longer supported in Germany – Kaiser abdicates, goes into exile in Holland
    • 11/10 – Germany declared a republic – begins negotiations for Armistice with Allies
  • 10.
    • 11/11 – Agreement reached on an armistice
    • Fighting ends at 11 AM on 11/11
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • Russian Civil war begins in 1918
    • Tsar & family murdered by Bolsheviks
    • Allies intervene to keep Bolsheviks from taking control of Russian ports
  • 13.
    • 1918 – Flu epidemic begins on US army bases
    • Spreads to Europe in 1919
    • 100 Million Die
  • 14.
    • January-May 1919 – Victorious Allies meet in Paris & Suburbs (Versailles & St-Germain) to negotiate peace treaties among themselves
    • BIG FOUR
    • France – George Clemenceau
    • Britain – David Lloyd George
    • US – Woodrow Wilson
    • Italy – Vittorio Orlando
  • 15.
    • Wilson – Wants peace based on FOURTEEN POINTS – all nations treated as equals, now in a worldwide organization, the League of Nations
    • Clemenceau -Wants Germany to suffer severely
  • 16.
    • 6/28/1919 – Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles under protest
    • Military reduced to 10,000 men, no navy or air force
    • Territory removed – new nation of Poland

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