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  1. 1. Vietnam
  2. 2. French Colony <ul><li>France takes control of Indochina as a colony in </li></ul><ul><li>1940 – Control of colony transferred to Japan </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – France tries to resume control over colony </li></ul>
  3. 3. Independence leaders <ul><li>Ho Chi Minh – Born 1890 in Vietnam, studies in Britain & France </li></ul><ul><li>1919 – Goes to Versailles conference to appeal for Vietnamese independence – refused </li></ul><ul><li>1920’s – becomes a committed Communist </li></ul><ul><li>1940’s – founder of Viet Minh, a Communist movement for independence </li></ul><ul><li>1940’s- supported by US as anti-Japanese Guerilla group </li></ul>
  4. 4. Declaration <ul><li>1945 – Ho declares Vietnam independent – Not acknowledged </li></ul><ul><li>French & Viet Minh fight for 9 years over Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>French crushed at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Peace Treaty <ul><li>1954 – Geneva Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam divided into North (Communist) and South (non-Communist) nations </li></ul><ul><li>South Vietnam led by Ngo Dinh Diem </li></ul><ul><li>Elections called for 1956 to reunite the country under one government </li></ul><ul><li>US and South Vietnam block 1956 elections </li></ul><ul><li>North & South Vietnam in constant state of war </li></ul><ul><li>North aided by Viet Cong, a guerilla group inside South Vietnam </li></ul>
  6. 6. US Involvement <ul><li>1959 – US first sends military advisors to South Vietnam to guide war against North </li></ul><ul><li>US soldiers gradually fight alongside South Vietnamese </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – Buddhist monks protest war and oppression by South Vietnamese Government by self-immolation in public </li></ul><ul><li>1963 – S. Vietnamese Army overthrows and kills Diem – Government never stable again </li></ul>
  7. 7. Greater US Involvement <ul><li>1964 – US claims naval ships attacked by North Vietnamese in Gulf of Tonkin, off Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>US Congress authorizes military force against North </li></ul><ul><li>1965-67 – large amounts of US troops pour into Vietnam, trying to fight a guerilla war </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tet and the end of US Involvement <ul><li>January 1968 -NV/Viet Cong launch offensive against US/SV – called Tet Offensive </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive is a failure militarily </li></ul><ul><li>Offensive is a huge success publically – leads to US trying to get out of Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>US withdraws troops from Vietnam in 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh dies in 1969 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Unified <ul><li>April 1975 – North launches invasion of South Vietnam-unifies nation by force </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese refugees gradually stream to US </li></ul><ul><li>Communist governments also take power in neighboring states of Laos and Cambodia </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia – Communist government (Khmer Rouge) force city inhabitants into country to be worked to death - “Killing Fields” </li></ul>
  10. 10. New Battleground in the Cold War <ul><li>1950’s US & USSR develop ballistic missiles for launching nuclear warheads </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides rush to launch payloads into space – “The Space Race” </li></ul><ul><li>1957 – USSR launches Sputnik, first satellite </li></ul><ul><li>1958 – US launches satellite, Explorer I </li></ul><ul><li>1961 – Soviets launch cosmonaut into orbit </li></ul><ul><li>1961 – US launches astronaut, does not launch anyone into orbit for another year </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Space Race <ul><li>1961 – US President John Kennedy locks the US into a manned moon landing before the 1960’s ends – intensifies space race </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Space Race <ul><li>1965 – US Finally passes USSR by having astronauts walk in space and dock spaceships </li></ul><ul><li>1967 – US & USSR both lose astronauts during missions – delay both programs </li></ul><ul><li>1969 – US astronaut walks on moon </li></ul>
  13. 13. Europe – problems on both sides <ul><li>1949 – US, British & Western European nations sign North Atlantic Treaty – NATO –Permanent Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>1966 – France withdraws from NATO </li></ul><ul><li>1968 -New Czechoslovakian prime minister – Alexander Dubcek – asked permission to reform Czech government to allow more freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet forces crush Dubcek government </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nixon and Detente <ul><li>Richard Nixon elected president of US in 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation as anti-Communist hard liner </li></ul><ul><li>Has peaceful relations with Soviet leaders - Detente </li></ul><ul><li>Visits China in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to resign in 1974 over domestic corruption </li></ul>
  15. 15. China <ul><li>1971 – UN forces Taiwan to give up seat to People’s Republic of China </li></ul><ul><li>1976 – Mao Zedong dies </li></ul><ul><li>Power struggle after his death – leadership struggle – power eventually won by moderate Deng Xiaoping </li></ul>
  16. 16. Middle East <ul><li>1967-Israel fought Arab neighbors - 6-Day War – Captures West Bank, Golan Heights and East Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>1973- Yom Kippur War -Israel turns back invasion – Captures Sinai Peninsula </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Peace Offering <ul><li>Nasser dies in 1971 – Power in Egypt goes to another former General, Anwar Sadat </li></ul><ul><li>1977 – Sadat travels to Israel to begin peace negotiations – Egypt ostracized in Arab world </li></ul><ul><li>1978 – US President Jimmy Carter negotiates peace between Israel & Egypt – Camp David Accords </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai Peninsula ceded back to Egypt </li></ul>
  18. 18. Growth of Islamic Fundamentalism <ul><li>1979- Iran – ruled by US-backed absolute monarch, the Shah </li></ul><ul><li>College students listen to tapes smuggled into the country of Islamic cleric, Ayatollah Khomeni </li></ul><ul><li>Students begin revolution that topples Shah’s Government, Khomeni returns as spiritual leader of country </li></ul><ul><li>Iran now a government bases on Islamic law – women given low/no status </li></ul><ul><li>US Embassy in Iran captured, staff held hostage for 1 ½ years </li></ul>
  19. 19. Soviet intrusion <ul><li>1979 – Soviet Union invades Afghanistan </li></ul><ul><li>Occupies for 10 years – very similar to US experience in Vietnam </li></ul>
  20. 20. New leadership in America <ul><li>1980 – Ronald Reagan elected president of US – increases defense spending – Forces Soviet Union to do same </li></ul><ul><li>1983 – US overthrows pro-Cuban government in Grenada – first victory for US since WW2 </li></ul>
  21. 21. Spread of Islamic Fundamentalism <ul><li>1981 – Islamic Fundamentalists assassinate Sadat in Egypt – protest over peace with Israel </li></ul><ul><li>1982 – Islamic terrorists destabilize Lebanese Government – Israel invades – US sent by UN as peacekeepers </li></ul><ul><li>1983 – 200+ marines killed in car bombing – US leaves Lebanon </li></ul><ul><li>US citizens & other foreigners in Lebanon taken hostage – held until 1991 </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Cold War thaws <ul><li>Tensions between US & USSR, low since mid-60’s, increase in early 80’s with arms race </li></ul><ul><li>1985 – New Soviet Ruler – Mikhail Gorbachev – Promises more openness with West and inside Soviet Union & satellite nations </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1989 – The Cold War Ends <ul><li>1989 – Communist Governments in Eastern Europe fall, with no interference from Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>November 10, 1989 – Berlin Wall Opened after refugees flood from East Germany into Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>1990 – Germany Unifies </li></ul>