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The World Of 1890
 

The World Of 1890

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    The World Of 1890 The World Of 1890 Presentation Transcript

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    • The old Balance of Power
      • 1815 – after final defeat of Napoleon – Congress on Vienna set up new boundaries in Europe
      • Peace kept by 5 countries:
        • Great Britain
        • France
        • Prussia
        • Austria
        • Russia
      • Interrupted in 1839 by formation of Belgium, and 1848 by revolutions across Europe
    • Great Britain
      • Constitutional Monarchy – Queen Victoria
      • Huge overseas empire
      • “ The sun never sets on the British Empire”
      • Richest nation in the world
      • “ Splendid Isolation” - Britain abstained from dealings on the European continent after 1858
    • Great Britain
      • World’s most powerful navy
      • Navy built for Two Power Standard – British fleet must be larger than any other two nation’s combined fleets
    • Germany
      • Collection of small independent states
      • United in 1860’s around one state, Prussia
      • United between 1864-1871 by chancellor Otto von Bismarck
      • United by fighting wars against Denmark, Austria and France
      • New dominant position in Europe resented by other nations
    • The Bismarckian Alliances
      • Bismarck seeks to keep France isolated
      • 1873 – DreiKaiserBund (Three Emperors League)
      • 1879 – Dual Alliance wth Austria – later joined by Italy
      • 1887 – Reinsurance Treaty with Russia
    • Year of three Emperors
      • 1888 – First German Emperor, William I dies in March
      • His son Frederich, dies in June
      • New Emperor, William II (Kaiser Wilhelm)
        • Young (28)
        • Very headstrong
        • Forces Bismarck to Resign within 2 years
    • France
      • 19 th Century – Government switches from Empire to Monarchy to Republic and back again
      • 1870 – France loses war to Prussia – loses easternmost provinces of Alsace and Lorraine – Calls for “Revanche” (revenge)
      • Left isolated after 1870
      • Builds overseas empire second only to Britain
    • Austria
      • Before rise of Prussia, the most powerful German state
      • Territory stretches across Central and Eastern Europe
      • Contains many minorities, especially poles, Hungarians, and Slavs
      • 1867 – Dual monarchy established – Gives Hungarians equal voice in Government – Becomes Austria-Hungary
    • Russia
      • Easternmost great power in Europe
      • Ruled by autocratic Tsars
      • 1858 - Lose war to British and French on Crimean peninsula
      • 1864 – Last nation in Europe to outlaw serfdom
    • Ottoman Empire
      • Controlled all of Turkey, Arabia, and Palestine
      • Ruled over Balkans
      • Known as “Sick Man of Europe”
      • Fighting to keep Russia away from Dardanelles & Bosporus straits – Supported by Britain
    • Overseas Colonies
      • 1880’s – European nations rush to stake colonial claims in Africa – “Scramble for Africa
      • 1884-5 – Bismarck calls Congress of Berlin – European nations agree how to divide Africa among themselves
      • 1890 – Only 3 independent nations – Liberia, Ethiopia, Boer Republics
    • Asia
      • Most land taken as colonies by European nations
      • Two main independent countries – Japan & China
    • Japan
      • 1867 – Meiji Restoration – Emperor assumes direct rule from warlords (Shoguns)
      • 1870’s – Japans begins to rapidly industrialize and modernize
    • China
      • Ruled by Manchu Dynasty and Dowager Empress Tzu-Chi
      • Greatly resistant to outside change
      • 1842 – China loses Opium War to Great Britain – Forced to give up city of Hong Kong and grant Britain a Sphere of Influence in China
      • Sphere of influence – European nation has effective control over area in China
      • France, Germany & Russia also granted Spheres of Influence
    • India
      • Small states under control of British Corporation, East India Company
      • 1857 – Sepoy Mutiny – Put down by British military
      • British take direct control – Queen named “Empress of India”
    • Americas
    • United States
      • !865 – Destructive Civil War Ends – leads to huge population growth and spreading industrial and agricultural growth
      • Growing industrial and world power
      • Leads in inventions – Electric light, telegraph, telephone, etc.
    • Mexico, Central and South America
      • Nations win independence from Spain in 1810-1820’s
      • Perennially weak and unstable
    • ISM’s
    • Nationalism
      • Growing desire to have all the people of one nation rule themselves in their homeland
      • Growing problem for Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire
    • Colonialism
      • Exploitation of native peoples for mother countries’ benefit