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  1. 1. The US Withdraws <ul><li>1919 – President Wilson travels around US trying to force ratification of Versailles Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Suffers stroke in October 1919, incapacitated for remainder of term </li></ul><ul><li>US Senate rejects Versailles Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>US does not join League of Nations </li></ul>
  2. 2. Postwar Britain <ul><li>1916 – Easter Rising in Dublin – Crushed by British </li></ul><ul><li>1919 – Irish Revolutionary party Sinn Fein sweeps parliamentary Elections in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Do not join Parliament in London, instead form new government in Dublin, and start guerilla war against British in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>1919-1921 – Anglo-Irish War – Irish guerillas against British police force & auxiliary forces (Black&Tans) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Irish Independence <ul><li>1921 – British & Irish Governments negotiate treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Southern 26 counties (Catholic) become Irish Free State, with acknowledgment (not allegiance) to the British Crown </li></ul><ul><li>Northern 6 counties (Protestant)– Northern Ireland – still loyal to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Irish revolutionaries (IRA) continue to operate in Northern Ireland until 1997 </li></ul>
  4. 4. The growth of mass communication <ul><li>1890’s – Gugliemo Marconi & others invent wireless telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Voice transmission perfected by 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>1920 – Radio emerged as a venue for news and entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA: Private networks/stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe: Government-owned networks </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. FILM <ul><li>1892 – Edison Laboratory invents first practical motion picture camera </li></ul><ul><li>1900-1903 – Films begin to use multiple shots and build a narrative structure </li></ul><ul><li>1915 – Birth of a Nation – first ‘epic’ motion picture – over 3 hours long – very popular – very racist </li></ul><ul><li>1920’s - film industry thriving in USA, Britain, France & Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Late 20’s – Practical sound-synchronization begins </li></ul>
  6. 6. Russia in turmiol <ul><li>1918-1920 – Russia in civil war – Finally won by Bolsheviks, who establish Communist state, Union of Sovies Socialist Republics (USSR) </li></ul><ul><li>1920-1 – Famine in USSR </li></ul><ul><li>1921 – New Economic Program (NEP) begun by Lenin – Allows for some free-market reforms to rebuild economy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Death of Lenin <ul><li>1922 – Lenin has 1 st stroke </li></ul><ul><li>1924 – Lenin dies after 2 nd stroke </li></ul>
  8. 8. Who will rule? <ul><li>1924-27 – Power struggle in USSR between Red army Founder Leon Trotsky and Communist Party secretary Josef Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin wins out </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky forced into exile, assassinated by Stalin in 1940 </li></ul>
  9. 9. The tragedy of Weimar Germany
  10. 10. A new government <ul><li>Germany drafts new constitution in city of Weimar in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>New government called the Weimar Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed by politicians on the right wing for being too weak, and by politicians on the left for being not revolutionary enough </li></ul>
  11. 11. Weimar Government <ul><li>People elected Reichstag (legislature) and President </li></ul><ul><li>Power also rested in hands of Chancellor, chosen from Reichstag </li></ul>German People President Reichstag Chancellor
  12. 12. Early Problems <ul><li>1921 – renegade army unit led by right-wing politician seizes control of German capital of Berlin – Kapp Pustch </li></ul><ul><li>Army refuses to intervene </li></ul><ul><li>German President calls for general strike to end pustch – is successful </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Problems <ul><li>1923 – French Army occupies Ruhr Valley (Industrial center of Germany) due to lack of payment of reparations </li></ul><ul><li>German economy collapses – Runaway inflation results </li></ul><ul><li>Economy rebuilds with Foreign (US) investment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cultural Center <ul><li>Architecture – Bauhaus movement </li></ul><ul><li>Film – “Metropolis”, “The Blue Angel” – Peter Lorre, Marlene Dietrich </li></ul><ul><li>Songwriting - “The Threepenny Opera” </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin – Considered the party capital of Europe </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rejoining Europe <ul><li>Rapallo - Germany accorded the USSR de jure recognition (the first such recognition extended to the Soviet government), and the two signatories mutually canceled all prewar debts and renounced war claims. Particularly advantageous to Germany was the inclusion of a most-favored-nation clause and of extensive trade agreements. The treaty enabled the German army, through secret agreements, to produce and perfect in the USSR weapons forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. </li></ul><ul><li>Locarno - 1925 - German foreign minister Gustav Stresemann proposed that France, Germany and Belgium should recognize as permanent their frontiers that was agreed at Versallies. This included the promise not to send German troops into the Rhineland and the acceptance that Alsace-Lorraine was permanently part of France. The French foreign minister, Aristide Briand, agreed with Stressemann's proposals and signed the treaty. However, as Germany refused to guarantee its eastern frontiers France sought to give Poland and Czechoslovakia they security they required by signing treaties with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Dawes Plan - presented in 1924 by the committee headed (1923–24) by Charles G. Dawes to the Reparations Commission of the Allied nations. It was accepted the same year by Germany and the Allies. The Dawes committee consisted of ten representatives, two each from Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, and the United States; it was entrusted with finding a solution for the collection of the German reparations debt, set at almost 20 billion marks. Germany had been lagging in payment of this obligation, and the Dawes Plan provided that the Ruhr area be evacuated by Allied occupation troops, that reparation payment should begin at 1 billion marks for the first year and should rise over a period of four years to 2.5 billion marks per year, that the German Reichsbank be reorganized under Allied supervision, and that the sources for the reparation money should include transportation, excise, and custom taxes </li></ul>
  17. 17. FASCISM <ul><li>A governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ITALY <ul><li>Dissatisfaction with WWI settlement – Prime Minister, Orlando, walked out of Versailles, then returned </li></ul><ul><li>Political instability </li></ul>
  19. 19. Benito Mussolini <ul><li>Born 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>Begins as a socialist newspaper writer </li></ul><ul><li>Serves in World War I </li></ul>
  20. 20. Growth of a movement <ul><li>“ I just wanted to make the trains run on time” </li></ul><ul><li>Postwar – combines political, industrial and labor movements under his control – uses roman fasces symbol (sticks tied around an ax handle) for his movement – gives movement (and ideology) its name </li></ul><ul><li>Followers known as “Black shirts” </li></ul><ul><li>1922 – followers start “March on Rome” – Mussolini invited by king to be Prime Minister </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fascist Italy <ul><li>Opposition crushed, free press suppressed </li></ul><ul><li>Government controls economy </li></ul><ul><li>All information released as propaganda touting fascism an the new ideology of the 20 th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily supported – restored stability and national pride </li></ul>
  22. 22. GERMANY
  23. 23. Adolf Hitler <ul><li>Born 1888 in Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Drops out of school in the 10 th grade </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to gain admittance into Vienna Art Academy as a painter – rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbs anti-Semitic ideology in Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>Sees Germans as a “Master race” </li></ul><ul><li>1913 – Moved to Munich, Germany </li></ul>
  24. 24. World War I <ul><li>Hitler joins German Army in 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as message runner </li></ul><ul><li>Decorated twice for bravery </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded twice – ends war in military hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Strong believer in Dolchstoss – “Stab in the back” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Postwar Delusions <ul><li>DOLCHSTOSS – popular belief in Germany that WWI was not lost on the battlefield, but was lost at home by Jewish political economic leaders (Walter Rathenau, Matthias Erzberger) and by politicians – called the “November Criminals” (Frederich Ebert, Phillip Schiedemann, Gustav Stresseman) </li></ul><ul><li>Widely believed is spite of the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Belief encouraged by those who took part in events in 1918 and knew better (Hindenburg, Luddendorff) </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge taken on those believed responsible – Rathenau & Erzberger both assassinated </li></ul>
  26. 26. Postwar <ul><li>1919 – Returns to Munich – is ordered by Army to spy on political groups </li></ul><ul><li>Attends meeting of small (~50 members) German Workers Party – Joins </li></ul><ul><li>1921 – becomes undisputed head of the rapidly-growing party – now National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Party </li></ul>
  27. 27. Early Supporters <ul><li>Gains support from returning veterans </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler blames economic problems and World War I defeat on Jews and “November Criminals” </li></ul><ul><li>Many join SA – “Brown Shirts” - Nazi’s private army </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns his movement after Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>Key Followers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Former army officers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erich Luddendorf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ernst Rohm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hermann Goering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Josef Goebbels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Julius Streicher </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Beer Hall Putsch <ul><li>November 1923 – followers becoming restless </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler starting to lose control, needs to make move </li></ul><ul><li>Promised Bavarian (state) government he will not start revolution </li></ul><ul><li>November 8 – Hitler announces start of revolution at Munich Beer Hall, then does almost nothing </li></ul><ul><li>November 9 – Nazis try to march on Munich army barracks to start a “March on Berlin “ – Fired on – many arrested – Hitler flees, arrested 2 days later </li></ul>
  29. 29. Trial and prison <ul><li>Hitler tried for treason </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed to dominate courtroom </li></ul><ul><li>Normal penalty-deportation (Hitler was NOT a German Citizen at this point) </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler given 5 years in minimum security prison – serves 9 months </li></ul><ul><li>Writes his political manifesto </li></ul><ul><li>Originally called “My 4 ½ year struggle against lies, stupidity and cowardice” </li></ul><ul><li>Re-titled “Mein Kampf” – My struggle </li></ul>
  30. 30. Rebuilding <ul><li>1925 – Out of prison – Hitler spends 3 years rebuilding splintered Nazi party </li></ul><ul><li>Decided to work for power within Weimar constitution </li></ul><ul><li>1925-1929 – Nazi party growth slows </li></ul><ul><li>German political situation stabilizes </li></ul><ul><li>Economy grows with U.S. Loans </li></ul>
  31. 31. Depression <ul><li>October 1929 – U.S. Stock Market crashes – starts worldwide depression </li></ul><ul><li>1930 – German Chancellor Heinrich Bruening – Hunger Chancellor – makes President Hindenburg rule by executive decree </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi support grows dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler also gains support from leading German industrialists (Krupp, Thyssen) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Almost President <ul><li>1932 – Hitler finally becomes German citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Runs for president – narrowly defeated by Hindenburg (age 83 and very senile) </li></ul><ul><li>1932 – Nazis are largest party in Reichstag – not a majority </li></ul><ul><li>January 1933 – Hindenburg asks Hitler to be chancellor – Appointed on 1/30/33 – Hitler calls for new election </li></ul><ul><li>February 1933 – Reichstag building burns – Communists blamed, most arrested </li></ul>
  33. 33. Nazis Gain Power <ul><li>March 1933 – Nazis actually lose seats in Reichstag </li></ul><ul><li>Reichstag passes Enabling Act, giving full power to Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties outlawed within 1 year </li></ul><ul><li>June 1934 – tensions growing between Army and SA </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler needs army support with Hindenburg near death </li></ul><ul><li>June 30 – Night of the Long Knives – Hitler kills top leaders of SA and any other possible opposition </li></ul><ul><li>August 1934 – Hindenburg dies – Hitler merges chancellor and President into one office- Fuhrer </li></ul>