To what extent did the war bring aboutReal change for Women? (10 marks)• You now need to use the evidence youhave discovered to answer this 10 markquestion.• Lets plan the answer together as aclass…..The ‘command’ termThe key part ofthe question –what do you thinkit means in thisquestion?
Does this source reflect women’sattitudes during the War?
Are you surprised by this source?
Last Lesson we looked at….The Beveridge Report 1942The Creation of the NHSWho was William Beveridge?What was the BeveridgeReport?What did it identify?
• Create a visual representation of the proposalsmade by the Beveridge Report• There is an example in the text book on page447 – try to create one of your own so that itmakes sense to YOUThe Beveridge Report 1942
The Creation of the NHS• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCrHlAemaFw• Who created it?• When was it set up?• How many people did it help?• What was the cost of it?• Why were some doctors opposed to it?
• As your exam in January is 100% source based we need to make surewe are able to analyse any type of source (draw out as muchinformation as possible)• Questions to consider:1. What info does the source provide?2. What questions does the source raise3. From your previous knowledge what do you• believe are the answers to your questions?Source work activity!V&A Publications have assembled quite thephotographic collection of "real" British womenwearing Horrockses Fashions. In this photograph all theladies are actually Horrockses employees out on apicnic, each one wearing a different Horrockses item.
• Sub-question: What was life like forwomen in the 1950s?Key Question How far did Life Changefor women 1939-75?
What was Women’s mentality goinginto the 1950s?• Can you think of any positive and negative aspects of awomen’s lives entering the 50s?• What have they got to look forward to?• What is there to be miserable about?• Task:• Sort the comments into positive and negative aspectsof a women’s life in the 1950s• Write these in your books
1. You must have a delicious dinner ready as soon as your man getshome2. Take 15 minutes to rest just before he gets home so you are freshfor him, touch up your make-up and put a ribbon in your hair.3. Greet him with a warm smile and show sincerity in your desire toplease him4. Your goal is trying to make your home a place of peace, order andtranquillity where your husband can renew himself in body andspirit5. Don’t complain if he is late for dinner or stays out all night. Countthis as minor compared to what he might have gone through thatday.6. Catering for his comfort will provide you with immense personalsatisfactionAll women must follow the followingrules ….You have 10 minutes to learn the rules the best you can andthen you will be interviewed by a male member of the class tosee which one of you is most suitable to be his wife!
• What can we learn form the sources on page470-1?• Which of the sources do you think is morereliable? Why?• (tip: think about why the source wasproduced)Source evaluation…..
Create this timeline across pages ofyour book1950 1975Positive aspects/changesPositive aspects/lack of changesI have been very kind and have written out thekey information for the 1950s and you simplyneed to place them along your timelinePut the negative aspects on the bottom andthe more positive aspects/changes towomen’s lives
Now add the information from thefact file on page 472 to yourtimeline in the same way.
What was life like at home for women?• Page 474-5 look at theinformation and thesources to understandwhat their lives in thehome was like• Make notes
Superwoman Magazine• Source 12 page 474• This is a popular women’s magazine of the1970s• What is it suggesting women should do?• Do you think that the writer would have sauidthis 20 years before? If not how do you think itwould have chnaged?
Home Life for women• Marriage became more common in the 1950s and 1960s –womenwere also marrying younger• This led to a baby boom in the 50s and 60s - 1965 was the peakyear to be born• In the 60s new technology made a massive difference to women’slives – most people now had gas, electricity and piped water• As a result back breaking tasks like bringing in coal became a lesserfeature of women’s lives• Electricity allowed for fridges – stopped the daily shopping trip• Allowed for vacuums and washing machines – eased the hard taskof the weekly clean and washing
• These machines gave women more time - the averageminutes women spent on house work per day fell from 500in 1950 to 440 in 1960 to 345 on 1975.• Some women used the extra time for leisure activities,socialising and shopping• Most other women used the time to take on part-timework• A downside was that their were higher expectations ofwomen to be good mothers, wives, workers, friends etc• Magazines and television shows put pressure on women tobehave in certain ways – however over time magazines putless emphasis on housework and more on celebritywomen.
• Based on the information I have told you about….• Could you create a timeline of what you thinkan average day in the life of a married womenwith children would be in the 1950s?• The winner will be the one that is most realisticbased on the evidence we have but I also wantit to be quite creative and detailed – what willyou put in yours that others wont have thoughtof?
Hannah Gavron’s Study• 35% of working class wives and 21% of middle class wivesfelt they had …….• Working class women said they married to escape……• ……. Of women did not know what their husbands earned• Most felt that……was totally geared towards men• Few women saw their ……as wifeand mother• Most women regretted……• Women did not protest againstwhat they saw as injusticesbecause…….Dull and low paid jobsMarried too youngRole in lifeeducation62%They thought it would not makeany differenceNot pursuing careers
How life for Women Changed 1939-75:The Women’s MovementLearning Objectives:1. To know what changes occurred in the late 1960dand 70s2. To understand the exam questions and the markscheme
The Fawcett Society and the SixPoint GroupYou need to create mini fact files on these twogroups:1.You need to note what they campaigned for2.When they were around3.Their impact
The Women’s NationalConference 1970The women’s groups came together in 1970 and held a national conference to plan anoverall programme for action for the women’s liberation movement.They agreed 4 demands:1. Equal Pay2. Equal education and opportunity3. Twenty-four hour nurseries4. Free contraception and abortion on demandThey conference launched the women’s movement on the national scene. Opponenetsoften shortened this to ‘Women Lib’. Over the next two decades its leaders campaignedagainst discrimination in work and civil rights. They had a major impact on public opinionthrough magazines, marches and public demonstrationsOne of the most famous of protest gestures was the burning of bras. High heels and otherfemale clothing which these women argued were worn for the benefit of men.
Germaine GreerGermaine Greer was one of the leadingfeminist writers of the time and she wrote thefollowing two extractsSource 17 and 18 page 476The following extract was written by a delegatefor the Labour Women’s Conference 1969What do you think Germaine Greer would havethought about what the delegate said?If she were to write a letter in response to thiswomen what do you think it would say?
This led to……New Abortion andDivorce LawsThe women’s movement also led the campaign to legalise abortion.Before the pill there was an enormous amount of unwanted pregnanciesamong both unmarried and married women.There was an estimated 200,000 illegal abortions per year in the early1960s. These were in ‘backstreet clinics’ often in very unhygienic placeswhere infection and even death was a possibilityIn 1967 after a large campaign the Abortion Act which came to law in1968. Abortions were only available if two doctors agreed it wasnecessary.
DivorcePreviously couples could only get divorced if their had been a‘matrimonial offence’ such as adulteryThe Divorce Act of 1969 – changed this and couples could now getdivorced on the grounds that there had been a breakdown on therelationship – no one had to take the blame.The Matrimonial Property Act of 1970 recognised that women werevery important in the house and as a result if they divorced the womenwould get a share of the house and the family assetsthe divorce rate rose by 3.5 times in the early 1970s with over 100,000divorces a year.
Comparing two sources• How far does source B make source C looksurprising? Use the source and your ownknowledge to support your answer. (9)
What were the key factors that led tochange?• Firstly go back to your timeline and add in anyadditional information that we have learntthat could fit onto the timeline• Also look at page 447 for new acts that wereintroduced before the 1950s - how wouldthese have helped women?
• 478-9Look at cartoons on page
What were the Key factors forchanges?• WWI• Work• Pay• Welfare state• Contraception• Feminist writers• Government laws• Domestic technologyCan you explain how each ofthese factors helped women?What did it specifically helpthem with? Give examples