lesson objectives:1. To know what the aims and personalities of the Big Three were To Know what the terms of the Treaty of Versailles were 2. To understand why it was so difficult for the Big Three to agree on the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
You should have already written down detailed explanations as to why your character would choose your decision. You now need to get into character and write down arguments for why your decision is the best one and you need to put together arguments for why choosing the other options would be disastrous for the future of world peace. We will be holding our own Conference in 30 minutes time ....
Conference Itinerary: 1. Who should be held responsible for starting the war? 2. who should pay for the damage caused by war? 3. what should happen to Germany’s armed forces? 4. What should happen to Germany’s borders? (Rhineland, Alsace-Lorraine, Saar?) 5. What should happen to Germany’s colonies? 6. The League of Nations?
Come out of character As a class we need to decide which options we would chose that would be fair and be the most likely to ensure world peace from now on
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
"The Allied and Associated Governmentsaffirm, and Germany accepts, theresponsibility of Germany and her Allies forcausing all the loss and damage to which theAllied and Associate Governments and theirnationals have been subjected as a consequenceof a war imposed upon them by the aggressionof Germany and her Allies."Article 231
Reparations:Germany were ordered to pay the FULL cost of the damage caused by the war. The bill was £6,600 million!Germany’s armed forces:1. Army limited to 100,000 men2. Germany not allowed armoured vehicles, submarines or aircraft3. Only 6 battleships
Germany lost all of its overseascolonies, which was mainly inAfrica.New Guinea went to AustraliaSamoa went to New ZealandThe Marshall, Mariana andCaroline Islands went to Japan
A League of Nations would be set up as an international ‘police force’ All major nations would be invited to be apart of it but Germany were not
The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and WAR GUILT economically CLAUSE Germany had to accept GERMANY’S MILITARY blame for starting WW1 FORCES REDUCEDNO UNION WITH AUSTRIA - Army restricted to 100,000 men. REPARATIONS - No modern weapons suchGermany forced to paymassive fine for war THE TERMS as tanks, military air force.damages - 1,000,000,000 OF THE TREATY OF - Navy could not haveMarks (6.6bn pounds). VERSAILLES battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats.GERMAN OVERSEAS 1919TERRITORRIES RHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARISEDGermany lost Chineseports [Amoy andTsingtao], Pacific Islands, GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORYand African colonies - Germany lost national territory which was given[Tanganika and German to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland.SW Africa].
Guilt clause Armaments Reparations German land loss LEague of Nations
This is a question that could easily come up in your exam so you need to be able to give a detailed answer. Pupils are able to analyse the difficulties for agreement by referring to a number of external factors which affected the participants relationships and decisions during the conference. Factors need to be presented in a structured way and there needs to be a reasoned conclusion as to which factor was of greatest significance Make sure you mention : The leader’s personalities The amount that their countries suffered Geographical position History - France and Germany Pressures from home (public)
Give two marks for each explained point – explain why this factor caused problems and how (max mark of 6) Give two marks for a clear and justified conclusion Give one mark if the answer has a good strucutre and is written well
Can you come think of any words to help us remember the following information regarding the ‘big three’Lloyd George Clemenceau Wilson1. A Realist 1. Tough and 1. He wanted a treaty2. He promised to squeeze uncompromising based on his the pips out of Germany 2. He wanted to Fourteen Points3. He knew he was going cripple Germany 2. He wanted to set up to have to Compromise 3. He wanted the a League of Nations4. He wanted to keep Rhineland, Alsac 3. He wanted a Fair British naval superiority e Lorraine treaty5. He wanted German 4. He wanted 4. He wanted freedom colonies Germany to pay of the seas (so USA the full damage could trade with caused Europe)