Challenging Question!Come up with a detailed mind map as a table of what makes someone significant? Think about what significant means.. Think about individual people that you would regard as significant and think about why you think that
Oxford English Dictionary: 1. Sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention 2. having a large or major effect 3. important, notable or momentous
Use features from our criteria Are your reasons for each being significant very similar or are they significant for very different reasons
Who have been some of the most significant figures in History? Who is the most significant figure in History What makes someone significant in/to History? (why do we study certain figures in history?)
Hitler –Why is he significant? - Who is most significant to? - Who is he less significant to?Lenin –Why is he significant? - Who is most significant to? - Who is he less significant to?Jesus –Why is he significant? - Who is most significant to? - Who is he less significant to?
POLITICS, Can you explain how you can be significant in each of these CULTURAL, categories? MILITARY, SOCIAL REFORMERS, Can their be overlap between RELIGION these groups? (Can you be significant in more than one of ECONOMICS the groups at the same time?) SPORT SCIENCE Can you figure it out?: Which is the most significant EXPLORATION category to be significant in? TECHNOLOGICAL
If we argue that what makes someone significant is due to their impact or the changes/development they have caused over time…. Choose any of the significant figures we have looked at and explain how we can measure their impact over time
Is change different to progress or development? Progress definition: Is progress always positive? Forward and onward movement towards a goal For someone/something to progress does someone/something else have to suffer?
Write down what you already know about Martin Luther King Jr From the limited knowledge you have about Martin Luther King – summarise him in one word Also try and give your opinions on his significance as a historical figure
Born: in Atlanta, Georgia 1929 Died: assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee 1968 Wife: Coretta Scott King Profession: Pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church. Montgomery, Alabama Famous for: Being the unofficial leader of the Civil Rights movement in the USA during the 1950s and 60s. Delivered his ‘I have a Dream’ speech in Washington in 1963 Awards: awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964
‘If King had never Lived, the black strugglewould have followed a course of developmentsimilar to the one it did. The Montgomery BusBoycott would have occurred, because King didnot initiate it. Black Students…..had sources oftactical and ideological inspiration besides King.’Professor Clayborne Carson
As you can probably tell there is divided opinion over the role played by Martin Luther King in the Civil Rights Movement Some believing he was the most instrumental figure in the Movement during its key developments of the 1950s and 60s, Whilst others believe that his role was not as great as some argue and that the movement would have succeeded with or without King.
The civil rights movement was a worldwide political movement (But mainly refers to the USA) for equality of oppressed minorities (mainly on racial grounds) occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. In many situations it took the form of campaigns of Civil Resistance aimed at achieving change through non violent acts. Some activists used violent methods. The process was long and tenuous in many countries, and many of these movements did not fully achieve their goals although, the efforts of these movements did lead to improvements in the legal rights of previously oppressed groups of people.
What had happened to African Americans before the 1950s? When Did the Civil Rights Movement begin? (Page 76 of A level Book) Who was influential in starting the Civil Rights Movement? Was King involved in starting the movement? What role did King play in leading the movement? What role did King play in getting reforms? Civil rights, Social and economic reforms for Blacks. How important were other individuals? What impact did he have after his death?
Reasons for tensions – page 3 US Government structure and reasons why the South wanted slavery – page 6 and 7 Map of where black people were located – page 9
The first white settlers in American was White British and Europeans. Those in the southern states liked slavery and those on the north didn’t. When whites moved westward to new land the question of whether to allow slavery in these lands was raised. The Republican Party and its leader Abraham Lincoln were opposed to the expansion of slavery whilst the south were in favour of it. The South in Protest to Lincoln becoming President set up their own nation called the Confederation States of America (the Confederacy) Lincoln sent northern armies to bring the south back to the United States which caused the Civil War. Lincoln introduced the Emancipation Act in 1962 and was passed by Congress after his death in 1865 – this abolished slavery.
Passing of Civil Rights bills in the 19th Century - Page 12 of A level book No real change, still subordinate and live in poverty – page 13 Introduction of Jim Crow Laws and KKK – page 15 Supreme court upholds Jim Crow Laws in Plessy Vs Ferguson 1896 - page 16 First signs of black protestors/campaigners – page 17 W.E.B DuBois – First Black Civil Rights Activist? – do your own research into his significance
Once Blacks were freed from slavery, whites were looking for ways to assert their dominance and keep their lives separate from those of blacks. By separating blacks in all forms of life such as schooling, housing, bars, work, public spaces, transport – whites could still discriminate and victimise black people. De Facto Segregation – Segregation in fact rather than in the law De Jure Segregation – Segregation set out in the Laws
Between the years of 1910 and 1970 – over 6 million Blacks moved from the southern states to the northern states
Black groups and A. Phillip Rudolph - Page 28 The NAACP start to push changes – page 29 and 31
Truman – first president since Lincoln to help Blacks – page 48-9 Truman’s stance required considerable courage. In the face of threats on his life. It was a political gamble to show support for blacks in the South especially as Truman’s ideas were deliberately misrepresented Truman told his sister that he really beleived that such changes were essential for the USA’s national well being, in respect of law and order, economic advancement and its proclaimed leadership of the free world against Communism. Page 53 - his importance overall Conclusions - page 54-6
High Court Bans Segregation in Public Schools! Page 57,8,9
Good summary of change so far on page 62
Put this title in the middle of a Lincoln mind map and put these Truman important figures/institutions The NAACP around them and see if you can Randolph explain/give examples of what they have done so far for the W.E.B Dubois Civil Rights movement The Supreme Court
Rosa Parks was on a bus and there was a white man standing up as there was no seats left. The Bus driver ordered her to stand up for the white man – she refused. She was arrested and charged with violation of the Montgomery city bus segregation ordinance. Parks was an NAACP member and had been looking for a chance to challenge the laws. The NAACP wanted the church on their side to increase black support so asked Martin Luther King if they could use his church for meetings
The community agreed that King would be the best leader ( a compromise candidate) as the National NAACP didn’t want to get involved King now became the leader of the MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association) Page 140-1 of GCSE book – summarises what happens Significance? Page 65-6 of A level book
Importance of individuals – melba pattillo p69 Eisenhower doesn’t want to help but has to - 70 Very Significance – 71
Page 74 – Importance of Brown and importance of Black individuals, and NAACP
King was criticised by his friend for giving the “impression that everything depended on you” during the Montgomery bus boycott NAACP leader Roy Wilkins described King as “presumptuous and self-promoting” However, King felt he needed to publicise the cause to get people behind it Eg. In 1958 he chose a jail sentence rather than pay a $10 fine – initially he denied it was a ‘publicity stunt’ but later said… ‘sometimes it is necessary to dramatize an issue because many people are not aware of what is happening.’
Some blacks disliked King’s anti-Vietnam stance as they felt it damaged the movement and alienated President Johnson 73% of whites and 48% of blacks disagreed with his opposition to war 60% believed this had hurt the civil rights movement. I know it can hurt the SCLC but I cant ignore Vietnam.!
King didn’t believe he was the leader of Montgomery - 85 Importance of setting up the SCLC Sit ins – Did he lead? No! page 86-7 I hate Vietnam!
CORE director James Farmer explained “we planned the freedom rides to create a crisis. We were counting on the bigots in the south to do the work for us. We figured the government would have to respond if we created a situation that was headline news all over the world.” Significance – although CORE initiated the Freedom Rides, King used them to unite CORE, the SCLC and SCNC and to work together. It worked to get Attorney General Bobby Kennedy (JFK’s brother) to enforce the Supreme rulings on Interstate travel desegregation
King described Birmingham as ‘by far’ America’s ‘worst big city’ for racism – he knew that the city’s Public safety commissioner Bull O’Connor was a hot- tempered, determined segregationist who had clashed with Eleanor Roosevelt years before. ‘to cure injustices you must expose them before the light of human conscience and the bar of public opinion.’
The SCLC’s actions in Birmingham were carefully planned – King was leading rather than being led. As Police and their dogs turned on protestors, King continued to march knowing his arrest would gain national attention and inspire others. This was where he wrote his inspirational ‘Letter from a Birmingham jail.’ Birmingham was headline news – Connors water hoses tore clothes off student’s backs. The SCLC succeeded its aims of ‘filling the jails’
Birmingham was the first time King really led the movement ‘there was never a more skilful manipulation of the news media than in Birmingham.’ SCLC Staff member The Kennedy administration admitted that Birmingham was crucial in persuading them to pass the Civil Rights act of 1964. ‘we are on the threshold of a significant breakthrough and the greatest weapon is mass demonstrations.’
Page 94-5 I have a Dream! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V57lotnKGF8
Despite the success of Washington King’s Leadership was still criticised King was indecisive in deciding whether the SCLC should concentrate on educational programmes or more glamorous direct action. Harlem blacks called King an ‘Uncle Tom’ King admitted in 1965 he and the others had failed to assert the leadership the movement needed.
a landmark piece of legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public
King had fought for ‘Freedom’ in the traditional sense of a right to vote – this had been achieved by the 1964 Civil Rights Act Now he now began to define ‘freedom’ in the form of economic equality. – he now called for a better distribution of wealth in the USA. He now embarked on his ‘Poor People Campaign.’ “I got these people the right to eat hamburgers …and now I’ve got to help them get the money to buy it.”
King was finding it very hard to keep Blacks from rioting and causing violence in their frustration People were also beginning to be influenced by the growing influence of the Black Panthers/Black Power Movement. There were huge divisions between the SCLC, SNCC, CORE and NAACP as they disagreed about tactics - led to failed protest campaigns in Chicago and Meredith in 1966 Leadership of the movement was slipping from king and going towards more extremist leaders like Stokely Carmichael “Maybe we just have to admit, the day of violence is here, and we just have to give up……Blacks are very, very close to a public Split.”
The following evening, King stood on the balcony of the Lorraine Hotel and spoke with Jesse Jackson, who was standing in the courtyard below. Ralph Abernathy, another friend and civil rights leader, was stepping out of the roomIn March 1968, Kinga single shot from 100campaign for the rights theblack sanitation to join them when went to Memphis to yards away hit King in of neck.workers. On March 28, he led a March that turned violent, a sign of the increasingmilitancy of black rights movements, which contrasted to King’s nonviolent King collapsed and was taken to nearby St. Joseph’s Hospital, where emergencyteachings. surgery failed to save his life. He was pronounced dead at 7:05 p.m., an hour after being shot.He returned to Memphis on April 3 and delivered a speech now called “I’ve been tothe mountaintop,” atspeaking at Charles Mason Temple. In it, he expressed that he Robert F. Kennedy, the Bishop a campaign rally that night, echoed the idealswas not afraid of death. died for: “What we need in the United States is not that King had lived and division; what we need in the United States is not hatred; what we need in the“Well, I dont know what will happen now; weve got some difficult days ahead,” he United States is not violence and lawlessness; but love and wisdom, andsaid. “But it really doesnt another, and a feeling ofbecausetoward thosethe still compassion toward one matter to with me now, justice Ive been to whomountaintop. Andcountry,mind. Like anybody, I would like tothey a long life— suffer within our I dont whether they be white or whether live be black.”longevity has its place. But Im not concerned about that now. I just want to doGodsaftermath He’s allowed me to was characterized by widespreadlooked over, and The will. And of King’s shooting go up to the mountain. And Ive outrage andIve seen the Promised Land. I out in more than 100 cities across want you to know violence, with riots breaking may not get there with you. But I the U.S. Whiletonight, thatleadersa people,King get to the Promised Land.” civil rights we, as close to will advocated unity, militant black leaders called for a violent struggle.
Impact – page 127-8
President Johnson - passed the 1964 Civil Rights Bill page 143 – 7 Conclusions -153-4