Gcse history b modern world history revision bookletDocument Transcript
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 1GCSE History B Modern World History.Revision BookletA972: How far did British society change between1939 and the mid-1970’s?This unit is worth 30% of your final mark.
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 2Remember this unit tests your ability to analyse and evaluate sources,using your own knowledge to put the sources into historical context.GGlloossssaarryyCapitalism –an economic system in which the means of producing wealth are privately ownedand controlled rather than publicly.Coalition – two or more parties that share power in government.Democracy – a political system in which the people exercise power through electedrepresentatives.Discrimination – giving prejudicial treatment to either a person or a group.Grassroots – ordinary people who are the main body of an organisation’s membership.Hyperinflation – a very extreme increase in prices.Hypocrisy – being insincere by pretending to have qualities or beliefs not really held.Ideology – a set of ideas that people agree with.Imperialism – extending the rule of an empire over foreign countries, or belief in the importanceof your empire.Indigenous – belonging to an ethnic group which is native to a particular area.Legitimate – legally allowed.Nationalism – strong belief in the power of your own country.National Front – a British political party mostly active during the 1970s and 1980s, which waswidely considered to be racist.Prejudice – a pre-determined feeling, either favourable or unfavourable.Proletarian – relating to working-class people.Propaganda – production of material to strongly promote one opinion.Quota –a number or percentage, especially of people, constituting or designated as an upperlimit.Racism – the belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability, and that aparticular race is superior to others.Radical – someone who holds an extreme viewpoint.Referendum – direct vote in which the people are asked to either accept or reject a particularproposal.
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 3Tripartite System – education system which divided secondary schools into grammar schools,technical schools, and modern schools.Welfare State – system of measures designed to ensure a basic minimum standard of living forall.EExxaammcchheecckklliissttThese checklists will help you make your final preparations in the run up to your exams.General exam checklistMake sure you know in advance which paper you are sitting on which day.Switch off your mobile phone and follow your centre’s procedures for handing it in.Remember that you must not have your phone with you or switched on in the exam.If you want to take a drink into the exam, take water. That way it will not stain anything ifyou spill it (try not to!) and it will rehydrate your brain so that it performs better.Remember that you cannot take your normal pencil case into the exam. You must use atransparent pencil case.Do not try to cram everything in minutes before the exam, and avoid people who willstress you out by talking about what they have or have not learnt.Keep calmMake sure that you have spare stationery. You will be writing in black pen so you shouldbring two or three of these.You are not allowed to take notes or books into the exam, so store anything you havebrought with you somewhere safe.Subject-specific exam checklist
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 4Unit A972 examines your ability to interpret, evaluate and use historical sources. Thispaper will be about the British Depth Study.When using a source, make sure you use specific evidence from it, but also use yourown knowledge to put the source into context if the question tells you to.RReevviissiioonn cchheecckklliissttBritish depth study: How far did British society change between 1939 andthe mid-1970s?What impact did the Second World War have on the British people?The changing role and the contribution of women during the Second World War, e.g. civildefence, the land army, factory work, joining the armed forces and looking after families.The impact of these changes after the war.The experiences of children during the Second World War: the Blitz, evacuation,rationing, diet, children’s health and education, the absence of fathers.The increasing awareness on the part of the middle classes about the condition ofworking-class children.The Beveridge Report.The creation and impact of the National Health Service.What immigrants were living in Britain in 1945?Britain as a multicultural society in 1939.The experiences and impact of groups such as Italian and German prisoners of war, GIsand Commonwealth soldiers.Why did different groups migrate to Britain between 1948 and 1972?Immigration from the Caribbean, India, Pakistan and Uganda.What were the experiences of immigrants in Britain?The riots in 1958 and the activities of the British National Party (the National Front).Legislation relating to immigration and race in the 1960s and early 1970s.
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 5Enoch Powell’s speech in 1968.What contribution had immigrants made to British society by the early 1970s?The emergence of a multicultural society by the mid-1970s.What was the impact of the National Health Service on people’s lives?What was life like for most women in the 1950s?Women in the 1950s.How were women discriminated against in the 1960s and early 1970s?What factors led to changes in the roles of women?The impact of the introduction of the Pill, the ‘women’s liberation’ movement.Abortion.The 1969 Divorce Law Reform Act.The 1975 Sex Discrimination Act.How much change had taken place for women by 1975?What was it like growing up in the 1950s?Why were there changes in the lives of teenagers in the 1960s?The impact of increased affluenceThe impact of US culture on British teenagers.The introduction of comprehensive education and university expansion.How did teenagers and students behave in the 1960s and early 1970s?Student protests in the 1960s.Youth culture, e.g. Mods and Rockers.The growing popularity and impact of rock music, clothes and fashion.Teenagers as consumers.The reactions of the authorities to these changes.How far did the lives of all teenagers change in the 1960s and early 1970s?
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 6RReevviissiioonn ffllaasshhccaarrddssBritish depth study: How far did British society change between 1939 and the mid-1970s?1 Immigration during the Second World WarPrisoners of war – over 300,000.Work-permit schemes.Atlee government recruited around 345,000.GIs and Commonwealth soldiers.2 Immigration after 1948Empire Windrush492 passengers from the Caribbean.Also ships from India/Pakistan afterindependence.3 Causes of immigration 1948–72The British Nationality Act.Likelihood of finding work.Romantic vision of Britain.Economic problems and violence at home.4 The British Nationality Act1948.Confirmed right of Commonwealth citizensto settle in Britain.5 Likelihood of finding workLabour shortages.Recruiting campaigns in the West Indies.Worked in expanding industries such asLondon Transport and the NHS.6 Romantic vision of BritainTaught at school to regard Britain as the‘mother country’ during the Empire.British monarch was their monarch.Taught British history at school.7 Economic problems at homeProblems included poverty, unemploymentand a high birth rate.E.g. Pakistan – construction of Mangla Dam8 Violence at homeDisruption in India and Pakistan when theygained independence.2 million people died in this violence.
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 7in early 1960s. Hungarian Revolution 1956.9 Stages of experiences of immigrantsA gradual, uneasy welcome.Increased tension – riots in 1958.Conservative government got tougher onimmigration laws.10 The Notting Hill Race Riots1958.300–400 people attacked West Indians inNotting Hill, London.Police arrested 140, mainly white, people.
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 811 Commonwealth Immigrants Act1962.Restrictions on immigration from theCommonwealth.Harold Macmillan’s government.12 Race Relations Act1965.Discrimination illegal in public places.Race Relations Board and NationalCommittee for Commonwealth Immigrantshandled racial complaints.
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 9Why summarise?Revision can seem daunting. How do you learn a year’s worth of topics?There is no way you will be able to memorise absolutely everything. The skill of summarising istherefore really important. You need to make sure you prioritise and learn the main events,individuals and ideas.How summarising can helpSummarising enables you to learn the key ideas, without unnecessary detail. If you know howthe mark schemes work for each type of question you will have an idea of the kind of detail yoube required to recall.Methods of summarisingA good place to start might be to go through your notes and highlight all the importantpoints.Alternatively, you could complete mind maps of each of the key questions. There isguidance on how to complete these in the student book.Using bullet points is a good way to summarise ideas without adding too much detail.This helps you to remember the key ideas without over-complicating them.Revision flashcards are an excellent way to summarise and memorise key ideas.Storyboarding can be a useful summary technique to help you remember key events.Some people remember images better than writing so this method could really help yourrevision.Timelines also help to summarise key events in order to demonstrate how they fittogether. Adding images will to timelines may help you remember key ideas.You could try annotating your notes, by adding brief explanations or images thatrepresent key themesYou could also create summary tables (see the example below).SSuummmmaarriissiinngg sskkiillllss
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 10Summarising in actionHere is an example of how to summarise information:GCSE history is assessed through two exams and a controlled assessment unit. InUnit A971 you will be assessed on your ability to select, recall and deployinformation about the topics you have studied. In this paper you will be assessed ontopics about International Relations as well as the Study in Depth that you havecovered. You will also be assessed on your ability to understand concepts such ascausation to write explanations and reach and support judgements, as well as usingsources in context.Unit A972 assesses your ability to interpret, evaluate and use historical sources. Thesources will all be about the British Depth Study that you will have covered. Whenusing sources, make sure you use specific evidence to support your ideas, but alsoput the sources into context using your own knowledge.Highlighting:GCSE history is assessed through two exams and a controlled assessment unit. InUnit A971 you will be assessed on your ability to select, recall and deployinformationabout the topics you have studied. In this paper you will be assessed on topics aboutInternational Relations as well as the Study in Depth that you have covered. You willalso be assessed on your ability to understand concepts such as causation to writeexplanations and reach and support judgements, as well as using sources in context.Unit A972 assesses your ability to interpret, evaluate and use historical sources. Thesources will all be about the British Depth study that you will have covered. Whenusing sources make sure you use specific evidence to support your ideas, but alsoput the sources into context using your own knowledge.Summary tables:Unit Topics: Skills:Unit A972 British Depth Study Use and evaluate sources
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 11Type of question Commentary on expected answersWhat impression they give of a person orevent.In this type of question you need to make inferencesfrom the source and support your ideas with specificevidence.Whether (and how far) a source is usefulfor an enquiry.In this type of question you need to:1. Explain what information you can get from asource.2. Support your ideas with specific evidencefrom the source.3. Explain what the source does not tell you,using detail from your own knowledge.Whether a source is reliable for anenquiry.In this type of question you need to explain whetheror not you can trust a source. You should testreliability by either:1. Checking what the source says against yourown knowledge of the topic2. Making an informed use of the provenance,e.g. what is their interest/purpose?3. Cross-reference to other sources in the paperto check the one you are asked about4. Use the tone/language of the source to reacha judgementAlternatively you can cross reference a source toyour own knowledge or the other sources on thepaper in order to decide whether or not it is ‘typical’.Why different sources can say differentthings about a person or event.In this type of question you need to consider whateach source says and how they are different, andthen work out why they are different. Ask yourself:1. Who made it?2. When was it made?3. Where was it made?4. Why was it made?
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 12What the purpose of a source is. In this type of question you need to explain why asource was made. To do this you need to use yourown knowledge and/or cross reference to othersources to explain what the creator was trying toachieve.The crucial thing here is not to stop at explaining themessage of the source. Make sure you go on andexplain its purpose. In other words, what impact wasit designed to have on people’s thoughts or actions.How similar two (or more) sources are. In this type of question you need to use specificevidence to prove that the sources are similar andthen explain how they also differ.How far the sources support a particularviewpoint or opinion.This is a two-sided mini essay. You need to write atleast four paragraphs:1. A brief introduction.2. A paragraph agreeing with the statement,using evidence from the sources to supportyour ideas.3. A paragraph disagreeing with the statement,using evidence from the sources to supportyour ideas.4. A conclusion in which you decide whether ornot you agree with the statement. To do this,it is often a good idea either to: evaluate thesources’ reliability to decide which you cantrust, or use your own knowledge to explainyour ideas.
Ms S Williams-Young ADL-AHSL Page 13RReeaadd tthhee eexxaamm ppaappeerrA typical exam paper unit A972This is the code foryour exam you willneed to write it onyour answer book.This is the topic youhave studied for theexam.This is how long youhave to answer allthe questions.This is how long youhave to answer allthe questions.Plan your time carefully.Read the instructions carefullyIf you use extra paper you mustremember to fill in all thecorrect details and rememberto write in black pen.
Mr Davies – teacher of AHSL Page 14Types of questions.Explain why source A and source B are telling us different thingsabout the reason why people came to Britain form theCaribbean in the 1960’s?In this type of question look for NOP.NatureOriginPurposeWhen evaluating provenance, look for NOP:Nature Is it a letter, speech, diary, autobiography, textbook, cartoon, photo, painting, novel, reported conversation,obituary, newspaper article, propaganda poster etc.? What differences does this explain, if any – for instance, is one more likely to be truer than another?Origin Who wrote it, when and where? What context and how might this affect it – e.g. bias/ ‘blind-spots’/perspective (eyewitness v. hindsight).Purpose Why did the author produce the source (e.g. advertisements, propaganda, speeches to persuade/ cartoonsto get a point across in a fun way/ diaries and autobiographies to justify/ books to attack or just to record)?And how might this affect it – e.g. bias/ ‘blind-spots’/ perspective (eyewitness v. hindsight).
Mr Davies – teacher of AHSL Page 15Why was this source produced?Why was a source produced?This is one of the questions which need you refer to thePURPOSE of the source – remember that you will get this bylooking at the provenance of the source (who wrote it, andwhen).It is usually some kind of propaganda, so explain how it wassupposed to ‘work’, what effect it was supposed to have on thepeople and to what effect.It also needs you to provide as much factual CONTEXT as youcan – what was happening at the time that made it necessary toproduce this?Provide as much factual detail about the context (situation) asyou can, but remember to explain why this led to the sourcebeing produced – why it made it necessary.Use these sentence starters for your answer:1. You can see why it was produced when you look at who produced it …2. They were trying to …
Mr Davies – teacher of AHSL Page 163. The idea of the source was that … and this would encourage people to…4. This was very much needed at this time because …5. At that time, …, and so …Good Words: to include in your answer-• “however”• “this meant that”• “because”• “as a result”• “so"”• “therefore”• “this led to”b) Why was the poster in Source F distributed in Britainduringthe Second World War?Use Source F and your ownknowledge to answer thequestion(6 marks).Source F Propaganda in theSecond World War
Mr Davies – teacher of AHSL Page 18This speech was given in 1968, because agrowing number of people were worried thatimmigrants were ‘flourishing’ at the expenseof British people. Some people felt that thegovernment was helping immigrants to‘overawe and dominate the rest’, by passingacts such as the Race Relations Bill.This is a reasonable answer. The candidatehas used supporting detail from the sourcein order to explain that the speech was givenin response to growing concern relating tothe number of immigrants coming intoBritain and the support that they were seento receive from the government. Thecandidate has also used their ownknowledge.To improve this answer, the candidate wouldalso need to consider why Powell made thespeech, his purpose.General examiner commentThe aim of Unit A972 is to assess your ability to use and evaluate sources. However, to dothis, you also need to place the sources that you are presented with into their historicalcontext. Make sure that you revise and know the topics well, as this will help you answerthe questions you are asked.Normally on Unit A972 you can get at least half marks from using the source alone.However, to develop your answers further you should also use your own knowledge toexplain your ideas.Improved answerThis speech was given in 1968, because a growing number of people were worried thatimmigrants were ‘flourishing’ at the expense of British people. Some people felt that thegovernment was helping immigrants to ‘overawe and dominate the rest’, by passing actssuch as the Race Relations Bill. This act had made it illegal to discriminate on the groundsof race in public places and it had angered some people, who were worried that too manypeople were settling in Britain and now saw that the government was taking measures toprotect these immigrants. Stereotypes were brandished around that immigrants were lazyand unwilling to integrate themselves with local communities. This was something thatPowell also made reference to in his speech. Many immigrants coming to Britain werefaced with prejudices such as these, and tensions often erupted into violence, such as theNotting Hill riots.Question 2How useful is this source to a historian studying why the National Health Service wasintroduced in 1948? Use the source and your own knowledge to explain your answer.An extract from the Beveridge report, published in 1942:The second principle is that organisation of social insurance should be treated as one part only of acomprehensive policy of social progress. Social insurance fully developed may provide incomesecurity; it is an attack upon Want. But Want is one only of five giants on the road of reconstructionand in some ways the easiest to attack. The others are Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness.
Mr Davies – teacher of AHSL Page 19Student answer Specific examiner commentsThis source is useful as it shows that theNHS was introduced in response to theBeveridge Report, which told thegovernment that they needed to introducesome form of social insurance which wouldtackle the five ‘giants’ of poverty, whichaccording to the source were ‘want, disease,ignorance, squalor and idleness’.This is a good answer. The candidate hasused specific evidence from the source inorder to explain what the source shows.To develop this answer further, thecandidate needs to use their own knowledgeto help explain the source and to explainwhat the source does not show.General examiner commentRead the questions on your final examinations very carefully. If they tell you to ‘use thesource and your own knowledge to explain your answer’ then you must make sure that yougive specific evidence from the source you are studying, as well as from what you havelearned about the topic.Improved answerThis source is useful as it shows that the NHS was introduced in response to the BeveridgeReport which told the government that they needed to introduce some form of socialinsurance which would tackle the five ‘giants’ of poverty, which according to the sourcewere ‘want, disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness’. The BeveridgeReport quicklybecame the guidelines the government used in developing their welfare state. Their aimwas to illuminate the five ‘giants’, which theBeveridgeReport identified. One of the meansthey used to achieve this was the introduction of the National Health Service, which wasstarted in 1948.However, this source does not tell us all the reasons why the NHS was set up. One of thefactors it does not tell us about is the effect of the Second World War. During the Blitzchildren were evacuated from their homes in urban areas to safety in rural areas. Whenthese working-class children were re-homed, they were often put in the care of middle-classpeople, who were able to observe the effects that living in poverty had on the children.Many people saw that working-class children were in need of basics, such as food, andstarted to petition the government to do something about the situation. Also, when soldiersreturned home after the end of the war people believed that the government should be
Mr Davies – teacher of AHSL Page 20doing everything they could to make the lives of these war heroes as comfortable aspossible. It was these changes in attitude and such demands from the public, which meantthat the government had to introduce the National Health Service in 1948.
Mr Davies – teacher of AHSL Page 21Question 3How similar are these two sources?Use the sources and your own knowledge to explain your answer. .Student answer Specific examiner commentsThe sources are very different: Source Cshows a Teddy boy wiping the blood off hishands after being involved in fighting.Looking at the date on the cartoon, I inferthat this cartoon is about the Notting Hillriots in 1958, in which Teddy Boys wereinvolved in attacking immigrants from theWest Indies. The figure wiping his hands onthe Union Jack shows that this teenagerdoes not care about his nation and is onlyintent on fighting and harming people.However, source D shows teenagersstaging a peaceful protest. On the banner,which some of the protesters are holding,there is the Campaign for NuclearDisarmament symbol and so this source isvery different as it shows that someteenagers were pacifists, who wished to endthe use of nuclear weapons and usedpeaceful methods to protest. This is a veryThe candidate has used specific evidence from bothsources in order to show how the two sources aredifferent.To develop the answer further, the candidate wouldalso need to explain what the similarities betweenthe two sources are.They also need to compare and contrast the sourcemore directly, rather than simply dealing with thesources as two separate entitles.Source C:A cartoon from 1958, showing a Teddyboy wiping blood off his hands onto theUnion Jack.Source D:A photograph showing a sit-in protest inLondon, 1961.
Mr Davies – teacher of AHSL Page 22different image to that shown of the thuggishTeddy Boy in source C.General examiner commentWhen asked how similar two (or more) sources are many students are able to demonstratesimilarities or differences. To get the highest marks you must explain both.Improved answerThe sources are very different: Source C shows a Teddy Boy wiping the blood off his hands afterbeing involved in fighting. Looking at the date on the cartoon, I infer that this cartoon is about theNotting Hill riots in 1958, in which Teddy Boys were involved in attacking immigrants from the WestIndies. The figure wiping his hands on the Union Jack shows that this teenager does not care abouthis nation and is only intent on fighting and harming people.However, source D shows teenagers staging a peaceful protest. On the banner, which some of theprotesters are holding, there is the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament symbol and so this sourceis very different, as it shows that some teenagers were pacifists, who wished to end the use ofnuclear weapons and used peaceful methods to protest. This is a very different image to thatshown of the thuggish Teddy Boy in source C.However, there are similarities between the two sources as both show that there was an increasein youth culture and a huge change in the behaviour of teenagers during this era. Many youngpeople aligned themselves with youth-based subcultures, such as the Teddy Boys (as shown insource C), Mods and Rockers or with organisations, such as the CND (source D). Both of thesetrends show that teenagers were beginning to break away from traditional values, questioningpeople in authority and expressing their own views, either through acts of violence or involvementin political protests.