History Of Anatomy


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History Of Anatomy

  1. 1. Introduction and History of Anatomy/Levels of Organization
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Anatomy- From Greek “to cut open” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of the structure of the body, either regionally or systematically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology – branch of biological science dealing with the function of organs and organ systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of Anatomy <ul><li>Probably began with early examinations of sacrifice victims. </li></ul><ul><li>First documented by Egyptians ~1600 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian anatomical papyrus showed organs (including blood vessels) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hippocrates <ul><li>Greek physician who studied anatomy, and speculated physiology </li></ul><ul><li>“ Father of Anatomy” </li></ul><ul><li>Much of his work remains today </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocratic oath taken by doctors at graduation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hippocrates’ Beliefs <ul><li>Sickness was not a divine punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine should be ethical (Hippocratic oath) </li></ul><ul><li>Patient confidentiality </li></ul>
  6. 6. Galen <ul><li>2 nd Century AD </li></ul><ul><li>Compiled anatomical studies of earlier writers </li></ul><ul><li>Also performed vivisection on animals </li></ul>
  7. 7. Medicine during Medieval Times <ul><li>When Rome fell, little was done to advance the studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Desecration of the body was taboo </li></ul><ul><li>Cadavers were no longer used </li></ul>
  8. 8. 16 th Century Contributions <ul><li>Began to compile extensive drawings of dissections of executed cadavers </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered the physiology of circulatory system </li></ul>
  9. 9. 17 th and 18 th centuries <ul><li>Few dissections were allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Only certain scientists were allowed to perform them </li></ul><ul><li>Tickets were sold to others wishing to see and draw the dissected bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors literally traveled from dissection to dissection </li></ul>
  10. 10. 19 th Century <ul><li>Began studying developmental anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>England became the center of anatomical research </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy Act of 1832 provided adequate supply of corpses </li></ul><ul><li>Gray’s Anatomy first published 1858 (for traveling doctors) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Modern Anatomy <ul><li>Use of new technology provided further understanding of both structure and function of organs and organ systems </li></ul><ul><li>CAT scans, X-rays, Genetic tests, MRI </li></ul>
  12. 12. Future of Anatomy <ul><li>Health related studies are now centered around molecular biology </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for genetic and molecular indicators of disease </li></ul><ul><li>New assays conducted more in vitro vs. in vivo </li></ul>
  13. 13. Levels of Organization
  14. 14. Starting with the largest <ul><li>Organism (in this case humans) </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of organ systems which function together </li></ul>
  15. 15. Organ system <ul><li>Organs which work together to perform a certain function </li></ul><ul><li>I.E. Cardiovascular system </li></ul>
  16. 16. Organ <ul><li>Collection of tissues that work together to form an organ system </li></ul><ul><li>ie. Heart, blood, vein, capillary, etc. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tissue <ul><li>Cells which work together to form an organ </li></ul><ul><li>I.E. Cardiac muscle tissue, elastic tissue surrounding veins and arteries </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cell <ul><li>Work together to form a tissue </li></ul><ul><li>IE. RBC, WBC, cardiac muscle cell </li></ul>
  19. 19. Molecule <ul><li>Work collectively to form a cell </li></ul><ul><li>IE. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid </li></ul>
  20. 20. Atom <ul><li>Most basic that anything can be broken down into and still exhibit characteristics of itself </li></ul><ul><li>Ie. Nitrogen, oxygen, carbon </li></ul>