The Fungi
Fungal Anatomy <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Body of almost all fungi is a  mycelium , an interwoven mass of thr...
The Filamentous Body of a Fungus (a) Mycelium (b) Individual Hyphae (c) Hyphal Cells (cutaway) Cell Walls Septum Pore Cyto...
Chytrid Filaments Male Female
Fungal Nutrition <ul><li>Three major types of heterotrophic nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saprophytic—digestion of dead ...
Fungal Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual spore formation...
 
Fungal Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Typically occurs under conditions of environmental change or stress </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Zygomycete Life Cycle (a) Zygospore germinates Sporangia Spores (haploid) (b) Photo of Sporangia Hyphae of opposite mating...
Zygomycete Life Cycle (b) Hyphae of opposite mating types (+ & -) fuse. NUCLEI FUSE Diploid Zygospore formed MEIOSIS Zygos...
Classification of Fungi <ul><li>Fungi have been assigned to four phyla based upon the way they produce sexual spores </li>...
 
The Chytrids <ul><li>Chytrids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are aquatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce both asexually a...
 
The Chytrids <ul><li>Most feed on dead aquatic material </li></ul><ul><li>Some species are parasites of plants and animals...
Zygomycetes <ul><li>Most live in soil or on decaying plant or animal material </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce both asexually a...
Zygomycetes <ul><li>During sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hyphae of different mating types come into contac...
 
 
 
Ascomycetes <ul><li>Live in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce both ase...
Ascomycetes <ul><li>During sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hyphae of different mating types come into contac...
 
Ascomycetes <ul><li>Better known examples include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the food-spoiling molds </li></ul></ul><ul...
Some Ascomycetes (a) Scarlet Cup Fungus (b) Morel
Basidiomycetes <ul><li>Live in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Usually reprodu...
Basidiomycete Life Cycle Haploid 1 n Diploid 2 n Mushroom gills bear reproductive basidia. Basidia on gills Haploid Nuclei...
Basidiomycete Life Cycle Haploid 1 n Diploid 2 n Basidia on gills Basidiospores (haploid) “ +” Mating Strain “ -” Mating S...
Basidiomycetes <ul><li>Better known examples include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushrooms (some are edible, others are poisonou...
Some Basidiomycetes (a) Giant Puffball  (b) Shelf Fungi
Fairy Rings <ul><li>A fairy ring is a circular pattern of mushroom growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fairy rings form at the leadin...
A Mushroom Fairy Ring
Symbiotic Relationships <ul><li>A  symbiosis  is a close interaction between organisms of different species over an extend...
Lichens <ul><li>Lichens  are symbiotic associations between fungi (usually an ascomycete) and algae or cyanobacteria  </li...
Lichens: Symbiotic Partnerships Algal Layer Fungal Hyphae Attachment Structure
Lichens <ul><li>Grow on a wide variety of materials (soils, tree trunks and branches, rocks, fences, roofs, and walls) </l...
Lichens Covering a Rock
Mycorrhizae <ul><li>Mycorrhizae  (singular, mycorrhiza) are symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots  </li></u...
Mycorrhizae Enhance Plant Growth Mycorrhizae
Recyclers <ul><li>Fungi are Earth’s undertakers, feeding on the dead of all kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal  saprophytes...
Fungi Attack Plants <ul><li>Fungal parasites cause the majority of plant diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascomycete parasit...
Corn Smut
Fungi Cause Human Diseases <ul><li>Athlete’s foot, jock itch, and ringworm are caused by fungi that attack the skin </li><...
Yeasts Candida  sp.
Fungi Produce Toxins <ul><li>Claviceps purpurea  (an ascomycete) produces several toxins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infects rye...
Penicillium
Fungi Contribute to Gastronomy <ul><li>Certain ascomycete molds impart flavor to some of the world’s most famous cheeses <...
Fungi Contribute to Gastronomy <ul><li>Beer is derived when yeasts ferment sugars in germinating grains (usually barley); ...
Truffles
Fungal Ingenuity <ul><li>The truffle has evolved an effective adaptation for dispersal of its spores </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Pilobolus : An Explosive Zygomycete
Fungal Ingenuity <ul><li>Arthrobotrys  cleverly traps and “strangles” microscopic roundworms called nematodes to obtain nu...
The Nemesis of Nematodes Special hypha with noose Unfortunate nematode
The End
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Fungi APBio

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  • Fungi APBio

    1. 1. The Fungi
    2. 2. Fungal Anatomy <ul><li>Multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Body of almost all fungi is a mycelium , an interwoven mass of threadlike filaments called hyphae (singular, hypha) </li></ul><ul><li>Chitin cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Hyphae of most species are divided into many cells by partitions called septa (singular, septum); each cell possesses one or more nuclei </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pores in the septa allow cytoplasm to stream from one cell to the next </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. The Filamentous Body of a Fungus (a) Mycelium (b) Individual Hyphae (c) Hyphal Cells (cutaway) Cell Walls Septum Pore Cytoplasm Haploid Nuclei
    4. 4. Chytrid Filaments Male Female
    5. 5. Fungal Nutrition <ul><li>Three major types of heterotrophic nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saprophytic—digestion of dead organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic—digestion of live organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic—mutual benefit of two independent organisms </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Fungal Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual spore formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haploid mycelium produces haploid asexual spores by mitosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spores germinate and develop into a new mycelium by mitosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Results in the rapid production of genetically identical clones </li></ul>
    7. 8. Fungal Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Typically occurs under conditions of environmental change or stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighboring haploid mycelia of different, but compatible mating types come into contact with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two different hyphae fuse so that the nuclei share a common cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The different haploid nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygote undergoes meiosis to form haploid sexual spores </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Zygomycete Life Cycle (a) Zygospore germinates Sporangia Spores (haploid) (b) Photo of Sporangia Hyphae of opposite mating types fuse to form zygospore. Haploid 1 n Diploid 2n
    9. 10. Zygomycete Life Cycle (b) Hyphae of opposite mating types (+ & -) fuse. NUCLEI FUSE Diploid Zygospore formed MEIOSIS Zygospore germinates Diploid 2 n Haploid 1 n
    10. 11. Classification of Fungi <ul><li>Fungi have been assigned to four phyla based upon the way they produce sexual spores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chytridiomycota (chytrids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygomycota (zygote fungi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascomycota (sac fungi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basidiomycota (club fungi) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 13. The Chytrids <ul><li>Chytrids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are aquatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce both asexually and sexually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form flagellated spores that require water for dispersal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure 22-4 , p. 426, illustrates the chytrid fungus Allomyces in the midst of sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul>
    12. 15. The Chytrids <ul><li>Most feed on dead aquatic material </li></ul><ul><li>Some species are parasites of plants and animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One chytrid species is a frog pathogen believed to be a major cause of the current worldwide die-off of frogs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primitive chytrids are believed to have given rise to the other groups of modern fungi </li></ul>
    13. 16. Zygomycetes <ul><li>Most live in soil or on decaying plant or animal material </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce both asexually and sexually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual spores are thick-walled zygospores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During asexual reproduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haploid spores are produced via mitosis in black spore cases called sporangia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae </li></ul></ul>
    14. 17. Zygomycetes <ul><li>During sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygospore , a tough, resistant structure that can remain dormant for long periods until conditions are favorable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meiosis occurs as the zygospore germinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulting spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae that can enter either the asexual or sexual cycle </li></ul></ul>
    15. 21. Ascomycetes <ul><li>Live in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce both asexually and sexually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual spores form in saclike asci </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During asexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haploid spores are produced via mitosis at the tips of specialized hyphae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spores disperse and germinate to form new haploid hyphae </li></ul></ul>
    16. 22. Ascomycetes <ul><li>During sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse, resulting in the formation of a fruiting body </li></ul></ul>
    17. 24. Ascomycetes <ul><li>Better known examples include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the food-spoiling molds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morels and truffles (edible delicacies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillium , the mold that produces penicillin (the first antibiotic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeasts (single-celled fungi) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 25. Some Ascomycetes (a) Scarlet Cup Fungus (b) Morel
    19. 26. Basidiomycetes <ul><li>Live in a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Usually reproduce sexually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual spores form in club-shaped basidia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During sexual reproduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two hyphae of different mating types come into contact and fuse, resulting in the formation of a fruiting body </li></ul></ul>
    20. 27. Basidiomycete Life Cycle Haploid 1 n Diploid 2 n Mushroom gills bear reproductive basidia. Basidia on gills Haploid Nuclei Fusion forms diploid zygote. MEIOSIS Basidiospores (haploid)
    21. 28. Basidiomycete Life Cycle Haploid 1 n Diploid 2 n Basidia on gills Basidiospores (haploid) “ +” Mating Strain “ -” Mating Strain Basidiospores germinate forming hyphae (haploid). + - Hyphae fuse, but haploid nuclei remain separate in binucleate cells Hyphae aggregate to form mushroom
    22. 29. Basidiomycetes <ul><li>Better known examples include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushrooms (some are edible, others are poisonous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puffballs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelf fungi (decomposers of wood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stinkhorns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rusts and smuts (plant parasites) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeasts </li></ul></ul>
    23. 30. Some Basidiomycetes (a) Giant Puffball (b) Shelf Fungi
    24. 31. Fairy Rings <ul><li>A fairy ring is a circular pattern of mushroom growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fairy rings form at the leading edge of an expanding underground fungal mycelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wider the diameter of the ring, the older the mycelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some fairy rings are estimated to be 700 years old </li></ul></ul>
    25. 32. A Mushroom Fairy Ring
    26. 33. Symbiotic Relationships <ul><li>A symbiosis is a close interaction between organisms of different species over an extended period of time </li></ul><ul><li>The fungal member of a symbiotic relationship may be harmful (a parasite of plants or animals) or beneficial (lichens and mycorrhizae) </li></ul>
    27. 34. Lichens <ul><li>Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi (usually an ascomycete) and algae or cyanobacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungus provides photosynthetic partner with shelter and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic partner provides fungus with food (sugar) </li></ul></ul>
    28. 35. Lichens: Symbiotic Partnerships Algal Layer Fungal Hyphae Attachment Structure
    29. 36. Lichens <ul><li>Grow on a wide variety of materials (soils, tree trunks and branches, rocks, fences, roofs, and walls) </li></ul><ul><li>Are able to survive environmental extremes (newly formed volcanic islands, deserts) </li></ul><ul><li>Are very diverse in form </li></ul>
    30. 37. Lichens Covering a Rock
    31. 38. Mycorrhizae <ul><li>Mycorrhizae (singular, mycorrhiza) are symbiotic associations between fungi and plant roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungus provides plant with water, minerals, and organic nutrients it absorbs from the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant provides fungus with food (sugar) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>80% of plants with roots have mycorrhizae </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship may have helped plants colonize land </li></ul>
    32. 39. Mycorrhizae Enhance Plant Growth Mycorrhizae
    33. 40. Recyclers <ul><li>Fungi are Earth’s undertakers, feeding on the dead of all kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal saprophytes (feeding on dead organisms) release extracellular substances that digest the tissues of the dead and liberate carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus compounds, and minerals that can be reused by plants </li></ul>
    34. 41. Fungi Attack Plants <ul><li>Fungal parasites cause the majority of plant diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascomycete parasites cause Dutch elm disease and Chestnut blight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rusts and smuts are basidiomycete parasites that cause considerable damage to grain crops </li></ul></ul>
    35. 42. Corn Smut
    36. 43. Fungi Cause Human Diseases <ul><li>Athlete’s foot, jock itch, and ringworm are caused by fungi that attack the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Valley fever and histoplasmosis are caused by fungi that attack the lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection occurs when victim inhales spores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most vaginal infections are caused by the yeast Candida albicans </li></ul>
    37. 44. Yeasts Candida sp.
    38. 45. Fungi Produce Toxins <ul><li>Claviceps purpurea (an ascomycete) produces several toxins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infects rye plants and causes ergot disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of ergot poisoning include vasoconstriction of blood vessels, vomiting, convulsive twitching, hallucinations, and death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First antibiotic to be discovered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to combat bacterial diseases </li></ul></ul>
    39. 46. Penicillium
    40. 47. Fungi Contribute to Gastronomy <ul><li>Certain ascomycete molds impart flavor to some of the world’s most famous cheeses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roquefort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camembert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stilton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gorgonzola </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yeasts are used in the production of wine, beer, and bread </li></ul><ul><li>Wine is produced when yeasts ferment fruit sugars; ethyl alcohol is retained, while CO 2 is released </li></ul>
    41. 48. Fungi Contribute to Gastronomy <ul><li>Beer is derived when yeasts ferment sugars in germinating grains (usually barley); ethyl alcohol and CO 2 are retained </li></ul><ul><li>Bread rises when yeasts ferment sugar that has been added to bread dough; both ethyl alcohol and CO 2 escape during baking </li></ul><ul><li>Some fungi are consumed directly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushrooms (a basidiomycete) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morels (an ascomycete) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truffles (an ascomycete) </li></ul></ul>
    42. 49. Truffles
    43. 50. Fungal Ingenuity <ul><li>The truffle has evolved an effective adaptation for dispersal of its spores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Releases an odor which causes pigs and other animals to dig it up, scattering spores to the winds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The zygomycete Pilobolus has evolved bulb tops that blast off, spreading spores </li></ul>
    44. 51. Pilobolus : An Explosive Zygomycete
    45. 52. Fungal Ingenuity <ul><li>Arthrobotrys cleverly traps and “strangles” microscopic roundworms called nematodes to obtain nutrients </li></ul>
    46. 53. The Nemesis of Nematodes Special hypha with noose Unfortunate nematode
    47. 54. The End
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