Ear

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Ear

  1. 1. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Senses  Objective 5  Identify the divisions of the ear, their structures, and the functions of each.
  2. 2. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Ear  Houses two senses  Hearing  Equilibrium (balance)  Receptors are mechanoreceptors  Different organs house receptors for each sense
  3. 3. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomy of the Ear  The ear is divided into three areas  Outer (external) ear  Middle ear  Inner ear Figure 8.12
  4. 4. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The External Ear  Involved in hearing only  Structures of the external ear  Pinna (auricle)  External auditory canal Figure 8.12
  5. 5. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The External Auditory Canal  Narrow chamber in the temporal bone  Lined with skin  Ceruminous (wax) glands are present  Ends at the tympanic membrane…  … (ear drum)
  6. 6. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Middle Ear or Tympanic Cavity  Air-filled cavity within the temporal bone  Only involved in the sense of hearing  The auditory tube connecting the middle ear with the throat  Allows for equalizing pressure during yawning or swallowing
  7. 7. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bones of the Tympanic Cavity  Three bones span the cavity  Malleus (hammer)  Incus (anvil)  Stapes (stirrip)  Vibrations from eardrum move the malleus  These bones transfer sound to the inner ear Figure 8.12
  8. 8. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Inner Ear or Bony Labrynth  Includes sense organs for hearing and balance  Filled with perilymph  A maze of bony chambers within the temporal bone  Cochlea  Vestibule  Semicircular canals Figure 8.12
  9. 9. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Senses  Objective 7  Explain the function of the organ of Corti.
  10. 10. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organs of Hearing  Organ of Corti  Located within the cochlea  Receptors = hair cells on the basilar membrane  Gel-like tectorial membrane is capable of bending hair cells  Cochlear nerve attached to hair cells transmits nerve impulses to auditory cortex on temporal lobe
  11. 11. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organs of Hearing Figure 8.15
  12. 12. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mechanisms of Hearing Figure 8.16a–b
  13. 13. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Special Senses  Objective 6  Describe how the equilibrium organs maintain balance
  14. 14. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organs of Equilibrium  Receptor cells are in two structures  Vestibule  Semicircular canals Figure 8.14a–b
  15. 15. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organs of Equilibrium  Equilibrium has two functional parts  Static equilibrium  Dynamic equilibrium Figure 8.14a–b
  16. 16. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Static Equilibrium  Maculae – receptors in the vestibule  Report on the position of the head  Send information via the vestibular nerve  Anatomy of the maculae  Hair cells are embedded in membrane  Otoliths (tiny stones) float in a gel around the hair cells  Movements cause otoliths to bend the hair cells
  17. 17. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Function of Maculae Figure 8.13a–b
  18. 18. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dynamic Equilibrium  Crista ampullaris – receptors in the semicircular canals  Tuft of hair cells  Cupula (gelatinous cap) covers the hair cells  The cupula stimulates the hair cells  An impulse is sent via the vestibular nerve to the cerebellum Figure 8.14c

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