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Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
Conservation APBio
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Conservation APBio

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Conservation
    • 2. What Is Biodiversity?
      • Biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms on the planet, including their genes, ecosystems, and community interactions
      • The goal of conservation biology is to preserve biodiversity by
        • Preventing extinction of species caused by human activity
        • Maintaining large population numbers that sustain genetic diversity
        • Preserving community interactions that sustain ecosystems
    • 3. Ecosystem Services
      • Why preserve ecosystems?
        • Worth preserving for own sake
        • They support us by providing ecosystem services
    • 4.  
    • 5. Ecosystem Services
      • Ecosystem services include processes through which natural ecosystems sustain human life
        • Purify water and air
        • Replenish oxygen
        • Pollinate plants and disperse seeds
      • Provide wildlife habitat
      • Decompose wastes
      • Control erosion and flooding
      • Control pests
      • Provide recreation
    • 6. Direct Benefits
      • Hunting and fishing for food
      • Harvesting wood for heat and cooking
      • Extracting medicines from plants
        • Example: Tamiflu is based on chemicals extracted from the Chinese star anise
    • 7. Indirect Benefits
      • Indirect ecosystem services have even greater impact on human welfare and include
        • Soil formation
        • Erosion and soil control
        • Climate regulation
        • Genetic resources
        • Recreation
    • 8. Indirect Benefits
      • Soil formation
        • Rich soils that sustain agriculture can take thousands of years to build up
        • Soil harbors nitrogen-fixing bacteria and decomposers that break down wastes and recycle nutrients
    • 9. Indirect Benefits
      • Plants prevent erosion and provide flood control by
        • Blocking wind that blows away loose soil
        • Providing roots that stabilize soil and enhance its capacity to hold water
      • The consequences of destroying riverside forest and coastal marshes have been seen in recent floods in the U.S.
    • 10. 1993 – Missouri River
    • 11. 2005 Hurricane Katrina – New Orleans
    • 12. Indirect Benefits
      • Plants regulate climate
        • Provide shade, reducing temperature
        • Provide windbreaks
        • Buffer against global warming by absorbing CO 2
        • Return water to the atmosphere through transpiration, influencing water cycles
      • Plants harbor genetic resources
        • Genes identified in wild plants may be transferred into crops to enhance productivity and disease resistance
    • 13. Indirect Benefits
      • Recreation
        • 350 million people visit U.S. national parks and protected refuges annually
        • “Ecotourism” is an expanding industry
    • 14. Ecological Economics
      • Ecological economics evaluates the trade-offs that occur when natural ecosystems are damaged during human profit-making activities
      • One application is to weigh the pros and cons of draining a wetland to irrigate crops
      • Possible loss of benefits?
    • 15. Ecological Economics
      • Also used to estimate costs of disasters that could have been prevented or reduced by maintaining natural ecosystems
        • $12 billion in damage from the 1993 Missouri River flood
        • $100 billion in damages associated with Hurricane Katrina in 2005
    • 16. Ecological Economics
      • Used in government planning
      • New York City gets much of its water from the Catskills Mountains
      • Economic analysis revealed that protecting the mountain ecosystem, which purifies the water naturally, costs less than building a water purification plant
    • 17. Extinction
      • Extinction is a process that occurs slowly at a background extinction rate under natural conditions
      • The fossil record suggests that five previous mass extinctions led to the eradication of many life forms within short time periods
      • Possible causes of mass extinctions include
        • Meteor impacts
        • Rapid climate changes
    • 18. Extinction
      • Most biologists believe that human activities are now causing a sixth mass extinction
      • The current extinction rate is 100 to 1000 times the background rate predicted in the absence of people
    • 19. Extinction
      • Many species may have become extinct before being discovered, as suggested by two newly described species
        • The Australian snubnose dolphin and the Aftrican kipunji monkey
        • Only about 1000 of each remain
        • Both are threatened by human activity and might have become extinct before discovery
    • 20.  
    • 21. Threatened Species
      • Increasing numbers of species are threatened with extinction
      • Depending on the likelihood of extinction in the near future, threatened species are described as critically endangered , endangered , or vulnerable
      • As of 2004 there are 15,589 threatened species
        • 12% of all birds
        • 23% of all mammals
        • 32% of all amphibians
        • 42% of all turtles and tortoises
    • 22. Mammals
    • 23. Threats to Biodiversity
      • Two processes are fueling the decline in Earth’s biodiversity
        • Increasing use of resources to support human lifestyles
        • Human activities that destroy habitats and pollute the environment
      • Comparison of humanity’s footprint with Earth’s biocapacity in 2002
        • Footprint: 5.4 acres (24 in U.S.)
        • Biocapacity: 4.5
    • 24. Earth’s “Ecological Capital”
      • Human depletion of the Earth’s ecological capital can be illustrated by estimating
        • Ecological footprint: surface area required to produce our resources and absorb our wastes
        • Biocapacity: actual and available sustainable resources and waste-absorbing capacity of Earth
    • 25. Earth’s “Ecological Capital”
      • Humans have exceeded the Earth’s biocapacity by 20%
      • “ Ecological deficit” degrades ecosystems, drawing on “ecological capital”
      • Deficit will grow as living standards of less-developed nations increase
    • 26.  
    • 27. Human Threats to Biodiversity
      • Humans threaten biodiversity in a number of ways
        • Habitat destruction
        • Overexploitation
        • Harmful interaction with invasive species
        • Pollution
        • Global warming
    • 28. Habitat Destruction
      • Farming activities over past 11,000 years have led to loss of ½ of total forest cover
      • ½ of tropical rain forests cut down over past 50 years for
        • Wood
        • Conversion to agriculture
    • 29.  
    • 30. Habitat Destruction
      • Other activities that lead to habitat destruction
        • Damming rivers
        • Draining wetlands
        • Building roads and housing
        • Industry
      • Some species need thousands of acres to find food and breed
      • Habitat fragmentation threatens wildlife by splitting up natural ecosystems
    • 31.  
    • 32. Habitat Destruction
      • Preserves created to protect endangered species must support a minimum viable population (MVP)
        • Smallest natural population that can persist in spite of natural events (disease, fires, floods)
    • 33. Overexploitation
      • Overexploitation involves hunting or harvesting natural populations at rates that exceed replenishment
      • Impacts 30% of threatened birds and mammals
      • Over fishing and overharvesting threatens many marine life forms
        • Cod, sharks, red snapper, swordfish, tuna, turtles
      • Unintentional trapping in fishing nets threatens
        • Whales, porpoises, dolphins
    • 34.  
    • 35. Invasive Species
      • When non-native species are introduced into an area, they can becomes invasive
      • Invasive species can displace native species and disrupt community interactions through
        • Competion for food and/or habitat
        • Direct predation
      • Island and lake communities are particularly vulnerable to invasive species
        • The mongoose, imported to Hawaii to control rats, now threatens birds
        • The Nile perch, introduced to Lake Victoria for fishing, now threatens 200 other species
    • 36.  
    • 37.  
    • 38. Pollution
      • Pollutants that threaten biodiversity include synthetic chemicals
        • Plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides
      • Enter air, water, soil
      • Accumulate in animal tissues, disrupting development or reproduction
    • 39. Pollution
      • Accumulation of high levels of some natural substances are also threats
        • Mercury, lead, and arsenic from mining and manufacturing are toxic
        • Oxidized nitrogen and sulfur released by burning fossil fuels lead to acid rain
    • 40. Global Warming
      • Burning of fossil fuels and deforestation has led to increased atmospheric CO 2 levels
      • Increase is associated with rising global temperatures
      • Global warming is associated with dramatic changes
        • Many species are shifting ranges toward poles
        • Plants and animals initiate springtime activities earlier each year
        • Glaciers, ice shelves, and ice caps are melting
        • Extreme weather patterns
    • 41. Global Warming
      • Leads to habitat destruction
      • Rapid pace of global warming taxes abilities of species to adapt to changing conditions through natural selection
      • By 2050: estimated that 1 million species will be threatened with extinction due to global warming
    • 42. Conservation Biology
      • The goals of conservation biology are to
        • Understand the impact of human activities on species, populations, communities, and ecosystems
        • Preserve and restore natural communities
        • Reverse loss of biodiversity caused by humans
        • Foster sustainable use of Earth’s resources
    • 43. Integrated Scientific Approach
      • Conservation requires integrated efforts of many
        • Ecologists, geneticists, botanists, zoologists
        • Wildlife managers
        • Environmental lawyers
        • Ecological economists
        • Social scientists
        • Educators
        • Individuals making choices and taking action
    • 44. Conserving Wild Ecosystems
      • Each threatened species faces different survival challenges, requiring unique conservation efforts
      • One approach involves the creation of core reserves and corridors
      • Core reserves are protected natural areas that preserve all levels of biodiversity
        • Exclude all but low-impact human activities
        • Must provide a minimal critical area that can sustain a minimum viable population
    • 45. Conserving Wild Ecosystems
      • Wildlife corridors are strips of protected land that link core reserves
      • Allow safe passage of animals between habitats separated by human activities, increasing size of reserves
    • 46. Conserving Wild Ecosystems
      • Reserves and corridors ideally should be surrounded by buffer zones that prohibit clear-cutting, mining, freeways and housing
      • However, a San Diego freeway underpass currently serves as a corridor for cougars
    • 47.  
    • 48. Sustainability
      • Sustainable living and development promote long-term ecological and human well-being
      • Sustainability requires
        • Diverse communities and interactions
        • Populations stabilized below the carrying capacity of the environment
        • Recycling and efficient use of raw materials
        • Reliance on renewable sources of energy
    • 49. Sustainability
      • Sustainable development fulfills present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
      • Current commercial fishing practices (e.g. netting, trawling) endanger many species
      • Sustainable fishing would require
        • Preservation of spawning grounds
        • Limiting fish catches
        • Developing technologies to avoid damag
    • 50. Biosphere Reserves
      • One approach to meeting the needs of humans in a sustainable manner has been the creation of a world network of biosphere reserves
      • Part of a program run by the United Nations
      • The goals are to
        • Maintain biodiversity
        • Evaluate techniques for sustaining development while preserving local cultural values
    • 51. Biosphere Reserves
      • Each biosphere consists of
        • A central core reserve: protected area allowing research and sustainable uses
        • A surrounding buffer zone : permits low impact activity and development
        • An outer transition area : supports settlements, tourism, fishing, agriculture
    • 52.  
    • 53.  
    • 54. Sustainable Agriculture
      • Major habitat loss has occurred due to the conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural use
      • Many current agricultural practices are unsustainable approaches
        • Failure to plant following harvest leads to soil erosion
        • Herbicides and insecticides pollute, and kill natural predators
        • Irrigation practices deplete underground water supplies
    • 55. Sustainable Agriculture
      • Many farmers now realize that sustainable practices save money and preserve land
        • No-till cropping leaves remnants of harvested crops as mulch
        • Organic farming excludes herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers
        • Natural predators used to control pests
        • Planting diverse crops reduces pest and disease infestations
    • 56.  
    • 57. Human Population Growth
      • Most of the world’s human population lives in less-developed countries and lacks basic amenities
      • 75-80 million people are added to the planet every year
      • Growth rate is incompatible with a sustainable increase in quality of life for the present 6.5 billion inhabitants
    • 58. Lifestyle and Technologies
      • Changes that humans can make to develop sustainable approaches
        • Make responsible reproductive choices
        • Reduce energy consumption and use of fossil fuels
        • Develop and use energy-saving technologies
        • Rely on renewable energy sources
        • Make consumer choices that promote sustainable practices
    • 59. The End

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