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AP Bio Ch 1 PowerPoint

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Introduction to Life on Earth

Introduction to Life on Earth

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  • Life on Earth is confined to a thin film encompassing Earth's surface: the biosphere. Earth, seen from the Moon, is an oasis of life in our solar system.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction to Life on Earth
    • 2. Levels of Biological Organization I Subatomic Electron Neutron Proton Nitrogen Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen DNA Glucose Water Nucleus Chloroplast Mitochondrion Nerve Cell Atomic Molecular Organelle Cellular O H H CH 2 OH
    • 3. Levels of Biological Organization II Tissue Nervous Tissue Brain Nervous System Pronghorn Antelope Organ (Organ) System Organism
    • 4. Levels of Biological Organization III Population Herd of Pronghorns Hawk Water Earth’s surface Community Ecosystem Biosphere Pronghorns Hawk Grass Pronghorns Snake Bushes Soil Air Snake
    • 5. Principles Underlying All Science
      • All events can be attributed to natural causes
        • Explanations don’t invoke deity (sorry creationists)
        • But should not specifically exclude deity (since we can’t prove it either way)
      • Natural laws apply at all places and all times
      • People perceive events in similar ways
    • 6.  
    • 7.  
    • 8.  
    • 9.  
    • 10. The Scientific Method
      • Make observation (something unexpected happens)
      • Propose hypothesis
        • Potential explanation for observation
        • Must lead to “if/then” predictions
      • Design & execute experiment
        • Controlled test of predictions
        • Designed to challenge hypothesis
      • Draw conclusion (supported or not)
    • 11. Scientific Theories
      • A general statement about how things operate
      • Derived through inductive reasoning
      • Has survived thorough challenges
      • Never permanent or final “truth”
        • Always provisional (tentative)
        • Always subject to change or replacement
      • Used to propose hypotheses ( deductive reasoning )
    • 12. Evolution: Unifying Theories of Biology
      • All species evolved from previous species
      • Theories of origin that emerged from inductive reasoning
        • Evolutionary theory emerges from data (true science)
        • Creationism imposes itself on data (not science but doctrine of faith)
      • Extremely vital web linking all biological information
    • 13.
      • When environment changes:
        • Species must adapt to new conditions
        • Some can’t and go extinct
        • Dinosaurs
          • Experienced changes 65 mya
          • Were unable to adapt fast enough
          • Globally extinct
      Changing Conditions
    • 14. Characteristics of Living Things
      • Complex, organized & made of cells
      • Must get materials & energy
      • Homeostasis maintains internal conditions
      • Growth
      • Respond to stimuli
      • Reproduce themselves
      • Capacity to evolve
    • 15.
      • Salt; Organized but simple
      • Oceans; Complex but unorganized
      • Water flea; Organized and complex
      • Cells are the basic unit of organization in living things
      Characteristics: 1. Complex, Organized, Cells
    • 16. Characteristics: 2. Respond to Stimuli
      • Changes in internal environment
        • Temperature
        • Water level
        • Blood sugar level
      • Changes in external environment
        • Seek food and water
        • Avoid bitterness
        • Plants grow toward light
    • 17. Characteristics: 3. Homeostasis
      • Organized systems disintegrate
      • Preventing disintegration requires energy
      • Homeostasis means “staying the same”
        • Sweating when hot; shivering when cold
        • Thirsting when water is low
    • 18. Characteristics: 4. Acquire Materials and Energy
      • Homeostasis requires energy
        • Opposes natural trend to disintegration
        • Obtained from external source
      • Homeostasis requires physical repair
        • Parts break down
        • New materials required for repair
      • Food supplies material and energy
    • 19. Characteristics: 5. Growth
      • Violates homeostasis
        • Homeostasis “staying the same”
        • Growth = homeostasis plus extra
      • Organism grows in size/mass
      • Must acquire more than needed for homeostasis
      • Genetically programmed
        • Timing
        • Size
        • Shape
    • 20. Characteristics: 6. Reproduction
      • Reproduce themselves in kind (heredity)
      • Perpetuation of parents’ genetics
        • Genetic info stored in DNA chemical
        • Variation
          • Offspring similar to both parents
          • Offspring different from either parent
        • Simple code with complex error correction system
    • 21.
      • Genetic composition of population changes (evolves)
        • Differential survival (natural selection)
        • “Selects” advantageous adaptations
      • The more time, the more change
      • Eventually become much different
      Characteristics: 7. Evolution DNA
    • 22.
      • Made of Cells (well, at least 1)
      • Reproduce
      • Obtain/Use Energy
      • Respond to Environment
      • Grow/Develop
      Mr. D’s Characteristics of Life
    • 23. Categorizing the Diversity of Life I
      • Domains Bacteria & Archaea
        • Prokaryotic
        • Mostly unicellular
      Domain Eukarya is eukaryotic
        • And other organelles
        • Cells with distinct membrane-bound nucleus
    • 24. Categorizing the Diversity of Life II
        • Kingdom Protista unicellular
        • Kingdom Fungi multicellular, cell wall, heterotroph
        • Kingdom Plantae multicellular, cell wall, autotroph
        • Kingdom Animalia multicellular, heterotroph, no cell wall
    • 25. Variations in Energy Acquisition
      • Plantae
        • Capture light energy
        • Use to make food from carbon dioxide
        • Photosynthetic autotrophs
      • Most others:
        • Eat other organisms to get food
        • Some absorb particles
        • Others ingest bites
        • Heterotrophs
    • 26. The End

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