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Introduction to Life on Earth

Introduction to Life on Earth

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  • Life on Earth is confined to a thin film encompassing Earth's surface: the biosphere. Earth, seen from the Moon, is an oasis of life in our solar system.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Introduction to Life on Earth
    • 2. Levels of Biological Organization I Subatomic Electron Neutron Proton Nitrogen Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen DNA Glucose Water Nucleus Chloroplast Mitochondrion Nerve Cell Atomic Molecular Organelle Cellular O H H CH 2 OH
    • 3. Levels of Biological Organization II Tissue Nervous Tissue Brain Nervous System Pronghorn Antelope Organ (Organ) System Organism
    • 4. Levels of Biological Organization III Population Herd of Pronghorns Hawk Water Earth’s surface Community Ecosystem Biosphere Pronghorns Hawk Grass Pronghorns Snake Bushes Soil Air Snake
    • 5. Principles Underlying All Science <ul><li>All events can be attributed to natural causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanations don’t invoke deity (sorry creationists) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But should not specifically exclude deity (since we can’t prove it either way) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural laws apply at all places and all times </li></ul><ul><li>People perceive events in similar ways </li></ul>
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    • 10. The Scientific Method <ul><li>Make observation (something unexpected happens) </li></ul><ul><li>Propose hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential explanation for observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must lead to “if/then” predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design & execute experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled test of predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to challenge hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusion (supported or not) </li></ul>
    • 11. Scientific Theories <ul><li>A general statement about how things operate </li></ul><ul><li>Derived through inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Has survived thorough challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Never permanent or final “truth” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always provisional (tentative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always subject to change or replacement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to propose hypotheses ( deductive reasoning ) </li></ul>
    • 12. Evolution: Unifying Theories of Biology <ul><li>All species evolved from previous species </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of origin that emerged from inductive reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary theory emerges from data (true science) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creationism imposes itself on data (not science but doctrine of faith) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extremely vital web linking all biological information </li></ul>
    • 13. <ul><li>When environment changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Species must adapt to new conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some can’t and go extinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinosaurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced changes 65 mya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were unable to adapt fast enough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Globally extinct </li></ul></ul></ul>Changing Conditions
    • 14. Characteristics of Living Things <ul><li>Complex, organized & made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Must get materials & energy </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis maintains internal conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to evolve </li></ul>
    • 15. <ul><li>Salt; Organized but simple </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans; Complex but unorganized </li></ul><ul><li>Water flea; Organized and complex </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic unit of organization in living things </li></ul>Characteristics: 1. Complex, Organized, Cells
    • 16. Characteristics: 2. Respond to Stimuli <ul><li>Changes in internal environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood sugar level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in external environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek food and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid bitterness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants grow toward light </li></ul></ul>
    • 17. Characteristics: 3. Homeostasis <ul><li>Organized systems disintegrate </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing disintegration requires energy </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis means “staying the same” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweating when hot; shivering when cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirsting when water is low </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Characteristics: 4. Acquire Materials and Energy <ul><li>Homeostasis requires energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposes natural trend to disintegration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtained from external source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis requires physical repair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts break down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New materials required for repair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food supplies material and energy </li></ul>
    • 19. Characteristics: 5. Growth <ul><li>Violates homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeostasis “staying the same” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth = homeostasis plus extra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organism grows in size/mass </li></ul><ul><li>Must acquire more than needed for homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically programmed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. Characteristics: 6. Reproduction <ul><li>Reproduce themselves in kind (heredity) </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetuation of parents’ genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic info stored in DNA chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offspring similar to both parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offspring different from either parent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple code with complex error correction system </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. <ul><li>Genetic composition of population changes (evolves) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential survival (natural selection) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Selects” advantageous adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The more time, the more change </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually become much different </li></ul>Characteristics: 7. Evolution DNA
    • 22. <ul><li>Made of Cells (well, at least 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain/Use Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Grow/Develop </li></ul>Mr. D’s Characteristics of Life
    • 23. Categorizing the Diversity of Life I <ul><li>Domains Bacteria & Archaea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly unicellular </li></ul></ul>Domain Eukarya is eukaryotic <ul><ul><li>And other organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells with distinct membrane-bound nucleus </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. Categorizing the Diversity of Life II <ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista unicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom Fungi multicellular, cell wall, heterotroph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom Plantae multicellular, cell wall, autotroph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kingdom Animalia multicellular, heterotroph, no cell wall </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. Variations in Energy Acquisition <ul><li>Plantae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture light energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use to make food from carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic autotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most others: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat other organisms to get food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some absorb particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others ingest bites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul></ul>
    • 26. The End

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