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AP Bio Ch 1 PowerPoint
 

AP Bio Ch 1 PowerPoint

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Introduction to Life on Earth

Introduction to Life on Earth

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  • Life on Earth is confined to a thin film encompassing Earth's surface: the biosphere. Earth, seen from the Moon, is an oasis of life in our solar system.

AP Bio Ch 1 PowerPoint AP Bio Ch 1 PowerPoint Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Life on Earth
  • Levels of Biological Organization I Subatomic Electron Neutron Proton Nitrogen Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen DNA Glucose Water Nucleus Chloroplast Mitochondrion Nerve Cell Atomic Molecular Organelle Cellular O H H CH 2 OH
  • Levels of Biological Organization II Tissue Nervous Tissue Brain Nervous System Pronghorn Antelope Organ (Organ) System Organism
  • Levels of Biological Organization III Population Herd of Pronghorns Hawk Water Earth’s surface Community Ecosystem Biosphere Pronghorns Hawk Grass Pronghorns Snake Bushes Soil Air Snake
  • Principles Underlying All Science
    • All events can be attributed to natural causes
      • Explanations don’t invoke deity (sorry creationists)
      • But should not specifically exclude deity (since we can’t prove it either way)
    • Natural laws apply at all places and all times
    • People perceive events in similar ways
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  • The Scientific Method
    • Make observation (something unexpected happens)
    • Propose hypothesis
      • Potential explanation for observation
      • Must lead to “if/then” predictions
    • Design & execute experiment
      • Controlled test of predictions
      • Designed to challenge hypothesis
    • Draw conclusion (supported or not)
  • Scientific Theories
    • A general statement about how things operate
    • Derived through inductive reasoning
    • Has survived thorough challenges
    • Never permanent or final “truth”
      • Always provisional (tentative)
      • Always subject to change or replacement
    • Used to propose hypotheses ( deductive reasoning )
  • Evolution: Unifying Theories of Biology
    • All species evolved from previous species
    • Theories of origin that emerged from inductive reasoning
      • Evolutionary theory emerges from data (true science)
      • Creationism imposes itself on data (not science but doctrine of faith)
    • Extremely vital web linking all biological information
    • When environment changes:
      • Species must adapt to new conditions
      • Some can’t and go extinct
      • Dinosaurs
        • Experienced changes 65 mya
        • Were unable to adapt fast enough
        • Globally extinct
    Changing Conditions
  • Characteristics of Living Things
    • Complex, organized & made of cells
    • Must get materials & energy
    • Homeostasis maintains internal conditions
    • Growth
    • Respond to stimuli
    • Reproduce themselves
    • Capacity to evolve
    • Salt; Organized but simple
    • Oceans; Complex but unorganized
    • Water flea; Organized and complex
    • Cells are the basic unit of organization in living things
    Characteristics: 1. Complex, Organized, Cells
  • Characteristics: 2. Respond to Stimuli
    • Changes in internal environment
      • Temperature
      • Water level
      • Blood sugar level
    • Changes in external environment
      • Seek food and water
      • Avoid bitterness
      • Plants grow toward light
  • Characteristics: 3. Homeostasis
    • Organized systems disintegrate
    • Preventing disintegration requires energy
    • Homeostasis means “staying the same”
      • Sweating when hot; shivering when cold
      • Thirsting when water is low
  • Characteristics: 4. Acquire Materials and Energy
    • Homeostasis requires energy
      • Opposes natural trend to disintegration
      • Obtained from external source
    • Homeostasis requires physical repair
      • Parts break down
      • New materials required for repair
    • Food supplies material and energy
  • Characteristics: 5. Growth
    • Violates homeostasis
      • Homeostasis “staying the same”
      • Growth = homeostasis plus extra
    • Organism grows in size/mass
    • Must acquire more than needed for homeostasis
    • Genetically programmed
      • Timing
      • Size
      • Shape
  • Characteristics: 6. Reproduction
    • Reproduce themselves in kind (heredity)
    • Perpetuation of parents’ genetics
      • Genetic info stored in DNA chemical
      • Variation
        • Offspring similar to both parents
        • Offspring different from either parent
      • Simple code with complex error correction system
    • Genetic composition of population changes (evolves)
      • Differential survival (natural selection)
      • “Selects” advantageous adaptations
    • The more time, the more change
    • Eventually become much different
    Characteristics: 7. Evolution DNA
    • Made of Cells (well, at least 1)
    • Reproduce
    • Obtain/Use Energy
    • Respond to Environment
    • Grow/Develop
    Mr. D’s Characteristics of Life
  • Categorizing the Diversity of Life I
    • Domains Bacteria & Archaea
      • Prokaryotic
      • Mostly unicellular
    Domain Eukarya is eukaryotic
      • And other organelles
      • Cells with distinct membrane-bound nucleus
  • Categorizing the Diversity of Life II
      • Kingdom Protista unicellular
      • Kingdom Fungi multicellular, cell wall, heterotroph
      • Kingdom Plantae multicellular, cell wall, autotroph
      • Kingdom Animalia multicellular, heterotroph, no cell wall
  • Variations in Energy Acquisition
    • Plantae
      • Capture light energy
      • Use to make food from carbon dioxide
      • Photosynthetic autotrophs
    • Most others:
      • Eat other organisms to get food
      • Some absorb particles
      • Others ingest bites
      • Heterotrophs
  • The End