Animal APBio


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  • Animal APBio

    1. 1. The Animal Kingdom
    2. 2. What Is an Animal? <ul><li>Multicellular heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Lack a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Motile during some stage in life </li></ul><ul><li>Able to respond rapidly to external stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Able to reproduce sexually </li></ul>
    3. 3. Animal Evolution <ul><li>Most animal phyla currently populating the Earth were present by the Cambrian period (544 million years ago) </li></ul><ul><li>The scarcity of pre-Cambrian fossils led systematists to search for clues about the evolutionary history of animals by examining features of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryological development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA sequences </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Animal Evolution <ul><li>Certain features represent evolutionary milestones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The appearance of tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The appearance of body symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protostome and deuterostome development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These features mark major branching points on the animal evolutionary tree </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Appearance of Body Symmetry <ul><li>Symmetrical animals have an upper (dorsal) surface and a lower (ventral) surface </li></ul><ul><li>Animals with tissues exhibit either radial or bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>Animals with radial symmetry can be divided into roughly equal halves by any plane that passes through the central axis </li></ul>
    6. 6. Body Symmetry and Cephalization Central Axis A Radial Plane Another Radial Plane (a) Radial Symmetry Sagittal Plane Anterior Posterior (b) Bilateral Symmetry
    7. 7. Body Cavities <ul><li>Acoelomate animals lack a body cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. flatworms </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Body Cavities: The Acoelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Lining Solid Tissue Body Wall No cavity between body wall & digestive tract Cnidaria
    9. 9. Body Cavities <ul><li>Pseudocoelomate animals possess a pseudocoelom (a fluid-filled body cavity that is not completely lined with mesoderm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. nematodes (roundworms) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Body Cavities: The Pseudocoelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Pseudocoelom Body Wall Body cavity partially lined with mesoderm Partial Lining Nematoda
    11. 11. Body Cavities <ul><li>Coelomate animals possess a coelom (a fluid-filled body cavity that is completely lined with mesoderm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. annelids, arthropods, mollusks, echinoderms, chordates </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Body Cavities: The True Coelomates Digestive Cavity Digestive Tract Coelom Body Wall Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm Complete Lining Annelida
    13. 13. Embryological Development <ul><li>Bilateral animals can be divided into two main groups based on embryological development </li></ul><ul><li>Protostomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body cavity forms within a space between the body wall and the digestive cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. nematodes, arthropods, flatworms, annelids, mollusks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deuterostomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body cavity forms as an outgrowth of the digestive cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. echinoderms, chordates </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Evolutionary Tree of Major Animal Phyla Porifera No true tissues True tissues 2 tissue layers; radial symmetry Ctenophora Cnidaria 3 tissue layers; bilateral symmetry Platyhelminthes No body cavity Body cavity Pseudocoel Nematoda Rotifera Coelom Protostome development Annelida Mollusca Insecta Deuterostome development Mammalia Echino- dermata
    15. 15. The Invertebrate Phyla: Porifera <ul><li>Phylum Porifera: the sponges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple single-celled organisms living together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low specialization of cells; no tissue level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical ::::: Reproduce by budding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three major types of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial cells (cover outer body surface) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some are modified into pore cells (regulate flow of water through pores) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collar cells (flagellated cells that maintain water flow through the sponge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amoeboid cells (motile cells that digest and distribute nutrients, produce reproductive cells, and secrete spicules ) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. The Body Plan of Sponges Osculum Epithelial Cell Spicules Amoeboid Cells Pore Cell Collar Cell Pore Water Flow
    17. 17. The Invertebrate Phyla: Cnidaria <ul><li>Phylum Cnidaria: the hydra, anemones, & jellyfish – Radial symmetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells organized into distinct tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudimentary nerve network and contractile tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No true organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two distinct body plans: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyp, attached </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medusa, free swimming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One digestive opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce sexually and asexually </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Cnidarian Body: The Polyp Mouth Tentacle Body Wall Mesoglea Gastrovascular Lining Gastrovascular Cavity Foot Column
    19. 19. Cnidarian Body: The Medusa Mouth Tentacle Body Wall Mesoglea Gastrovascular Lining Gastrovascular Cavity
    20. 20. Cnidarian Weaponry: The Cnidocyte Armed Cnidocyte Body Wall Water Filament Trigger Nuclei Spent Cnidocyte
    21. 21. The Invertebrate Phyla: Platyhelminthes <ul><li>The flatworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of bilateral symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to move forward using aggregations of nerve cells, ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True organs begin to evolve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are hermaphroditic (can self-fertilize) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are free living—planarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are parasitic—tapeworm and fluke </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Flatworm Organ Systems (a) Digestive System Gastrovascular Cavity Pharynx (b1) Excretory System Excretory Canal Excretory Pore (b2) Nervous System Nerve Cord Brain
    23. 23. Life Cycle of Human Pork Tapeworm Measly pork marketed for human consumption. Larvae migrate through vessels to pig muscles & encyst there. Larvae hatch in pig intestine Pig eats food contaminated by infected feces Adult tapeworm Human eats poorly cooked pork with live cysts. Larval tapeworm liberated by digestion & attaches to human intestine. Head with hooks & suckers Tapeworm matures in human intestine, producing a series of reproductive segments. Egg-filled segments are shed from worm & passed in human feces.
    24. 24. The Invertebrate Phyla: Nematoda (Round Worms) <ul><li>Advanced gastrovascular cavity (are bilateral) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two openings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced sensory &quot;ganglionic brain&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Lack circulatory and respiratory systems </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on diffusion for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reprouction </li></ul><ul><li>Most are harmless - Some parasitic </li></ul>
    25. 25. Heartworms in the Heart of a Dog Open heart of dog Female heartworms
    26. 26. The Invertebrate Phyla: Annelida (Segmented Worms) <ul><li>Bilateral symm. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating rings identical nerve ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory structures </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced locomotion ability </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid-filled body cavity—coelom; involved in locomotion (hydrostatic skeleton) </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Repro. Some hermaphrodites </li></ul><ul><li>Closed circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Evolved many rudimentary organ systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous, excretory, circulatory, muscular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compartmentalized digestive tract </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. An Annelid: the Earthworm Mouth Brain Pharynx Ventral Vessel Ventral Nerve Cord Hearts Esophagus Crop Gizzard Intestine Ventral Nerve Cord Anus Coelom Intestine Excretory Pore Nephridia Coelom
    28. 28. The Invertebrate Phyla: Arthropoda <ul><li>The most numerous in numbers & species </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary adaptations allow them to reside in diverse environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired, Jointed legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exoskeleton for water conservation and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-developed sensory and nervous systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient gas-exchange (gills, trachea, book lungs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-developed (open) circulatory systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense organs – compound eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reside in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats </li></ul>
    29. 29. Major Arthropod Classes: Insecta <ul><li>800,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Have three pairs of legs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually two pairs of wings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make escape from predators easier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metamorphosis eliminates competition for food between generations </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of insects </li></ul>
    30. 30. Major Arthropod Classes: Arachnida <ul><li>50,000 species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ticks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scorpions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eight walking legs </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivorous </li></ul><ul><li>Simple eyes with a single lens </li></ul>
    31. 31. Major Arthropod Classes: Crustacea <ul><li>30,000 aquatic species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crabs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crayfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shrimp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barnacles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size varies from microscopic to 12 feet (3.7 m) </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in number of appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Have two pairs of antennae </li></ul><ul><li>Generally with compound eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange gases using gills </li></ul>
    32. 32. Insect Body Plan Wing Abdomen Thorax Head Antennae Compound Eyes Mouth Parts
    33. 33. The Invertebrate Phyla: Mollusca (Snails & Clams) <ul><li>Bilateral Symmetry Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Moist muscular body without a skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Found in aquatic or moist terrestrial habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Body protected by limy shell or obnoxious taste </li></ul><ul><li>Complex, concentrated, ganglionic brain </li></ul><ul><li>Open circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastropoda—snails and sea slugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelecypoda— scallops, oysters, mussels, & clams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cephalopoda—octopuses, squid, nautiluses </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. A Generalized Mollusk Tentacle Eye Mouth Radula Foot Ganglia (brain) Digestive Tract Gonad Nerve Cords Heart Coelom Shell Mantle Anus Gill
    35. 35. The Invertebrate Phyla: Echinodermata (Sea Stars, Urchins) <ul><li>Bilateral as larvae – Radial as adult </li></ul><ul><li>Deuterostome development </li></ul><ul><li>Coelomate </li></ul><ul><li>Possesses an endoskeleton of CaCO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Lack a head and circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Simple nervous system; no distinct brain </li></ul><ul><li>Water-vascular system for slow movement </li></ul><ul><li>Can regenerate lost parts </li></ul>
    36. 36. Water-Vascular System of Echinoderms Ampulla Canals Plates of Endoskeleton Tube Feet Sieve Plate A Mussel (clam) Photo (ventral)
    37. 37. Key Features of Chordates <ul><li>Notochord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiff flexible rod extending the length of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dorsal, hollow nerve cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expands anteriorly to form brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharyngeal gill slits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May form respiratory organs or may appear as grooves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-anal tail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends past the anus </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Are Humans Chordates? <ul><li>Only one chordate characteristic, the nerve cord, is present in adult humans; however, human embryos exhibit all four… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail will disappear completely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notochord is replaced by the backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gill slits (grooves) contribute to the formation of the lower jaw </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. The Vertebrates: Chordata, Vertebrata <ul><li>Subphyla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invertebrates—lancelets and tunicates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack a head and backbone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>marine habitat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 2.5% of extant animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seven Major Classes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 41. The Lancelet: An Invertebrate Chordate Notochord Nerve Cord Gill Slits Mouth Gut Muscle Segments Tail Anus
    41. 42. The Tunicate: An Invertebrate Chordate Gill Slits Brain Mouth Gut Heart Notochord Nerve Cord Water Exit ADULT LARVA
    42. 43. The Vertebrate Classes: Agnatha & Chondrichthyes <ul><li>Agnatha—jawless fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeleton of cartilage and eellike shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpaired fins, lack scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slimy skin perforated by circular gill openings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chondrichthyes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cartilaginous fishes”—sharks, skates, & rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leathery skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respire by gills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-chamber heart </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. A Hagfish
    44. 45. Lobe-Finned Fishes <ul><li>Lungfish are found in freshwater habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Have both gills and lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to live in stagnant waters low in oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs allow them to supplement their supply of oxygen by breathing air directly </li></ul>
    45. 46. Lobe-Finned Fishes <ul><li>Some species can survive even if the water dries up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burrow into mud, Seal themselves in a mucous-lined chamber and breathe through lungs as metabolic rate slows, Resume underwater life when rains return and pool refills </li></ul></ul>
    46. 48. The Vertebrate Classes: Osteichthyes <ul><li>“Bony fishes” </li></ul><ul><li>Varied forms </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental lungs for freshwater living </li></ul><ul><li>Fleshy fins </li></ul>
    47. 49. The Vertebrate Classes: Amphibia <ul><li>Bony support for the body </li></ul><ul><li>Waterproofing for the skin and eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Moist protection of respiratory membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Development of adult lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Blooded --- External Fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Still need aquatic habitat for reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>3 chambered heart </li></ul>
    48. 50. Amphibians Live a Double Life <ul><li>Include frogs, toads, and salamanders </li></ul><ul><li>“ Double life” of amphibians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin life adapted to aquatic environment (eg tadpoles have gills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature into semiterrestrial adult with lungs </li></ul></ul>
    49. 52. The Vertebrate Classes: Reptilia <ul><li>Turtles, alligators, crocodiles, dinosaurs, birds </li></ul><ul><li>Respire through Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Internal fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Shelled amniotic egg (encapsulates embryo in a liquid filled membrane, the amnion ) </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton modified for better support and locomotion </li></ul>
    50. 53. Birds <ul><li>Appeared in the fossil record about 150 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Considered by modern systematists to be feathered reptiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx </li></ul></ul>
    51. 55. Birds <ul><li>Distinctive group of “reptiles” adapted for flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feathers (provide lift and control as well as insulation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollow bones (reduce weight of skeleton) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females have a single ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelled egg (frees female from carrying developing offspring) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain a constant body temperature (warm-blooded) </li></ul>
    52. 56. The Vertebrate Classes: Mammalia <ul><li>Warm-blooded </li></ul><ul><li>Four-chambered heart </li></ul><ul><li>Fur for insulation and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Legs for running fast to avoid predators </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary glands to nurse live-born young </li></ul><ul><li>Complex cerebral cortex—increased learning ability </li></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg-laying monotremes (platypus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsupials (opossums, koalas, kangaroos) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placental mammals (most other mammals) </li></ul></ul>
    53. 57. Mammals <ul><li>Appeared in the fossil record about 250 million years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Did not diversify and dominate terrestrial habitats until the dinosaurs became extinct (65 million years ago) </li></ul>
    54. 58. Bats, the Only Flying Mammals
    55. 59. The End