Reconstruction 1865 1876


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Reconstruction 1865 1876

  1. 1. Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction? 3. How do we integrate and protect newlyemancipated black freedmen?
  2. 2. President Lincoln’s Plan • In 1863, Lincoln announced a lenient Ten Percent Plan: • States could be re-admitted when 10% of its population swore an oath of U.S. loyalty • Pardons offered for oath-takers • Re-admitted states had to recognize the emancipation of slaves & the 13th amendment • Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan: • Radical Republicans wanted black male suffrage added & feared that Confederate leaders would take charge in the South
  3. 3. Wade-Davis Bill (1864) • Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ). Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) • Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials. • Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties. • But Lincoln vetoed the bill Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)
  4. 4.  By the end of the Civil War, the U.S. government had no plan for Reconstruction in place  This problem was compounded in 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated
  5. 5. th Amendment 13 • Ratified in December, 1865. • Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. In other words… slavery is outlawed • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  6. 6.  The irony of Andrew Johnson:  The 1st Reconstruction president was a Southern Democrat & fervent white supremacist  Johnson was elected as VP in 1864 to balance Lincoln’s ticket  He was the only southern Senator to remain loyal to the Union & hated the South’s gentry
  7. 7. “Every head of family in the United States should have one slave to take the drudgery and menial service off his family” —Andrew Johnson
  8. 8. President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) • Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan: • Appointed provisional state governors to lead state constitutional conventions • States must declare secession illegal & ratify the 13th Amendment • Southern conventions reluctantly obeyed Johnson’s Reconstruction policy but passed Black Codes • “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction” • Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation • Restricted the freedom to chose one’s employer • Restricted blacks from testifying in court • Separate penal codes
  9. 9. Black Codes •Purpose: o Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated. o Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations. •Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers [tenant farmers].
  10. 10. Growing Northern Alarm! •Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements. •Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons. •Revival of southern defiance.
  11. 11. Slavery is Dead?
  12. 12. Freedmen’s Bureau (1865) • Created to provide food, education, and other necessities for newly freed slaves • Poorly funded
  13. 13. Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes
  14. 14. Freedmen’s Bureau School
  15. 15. Congress Breaks with the President Congress and Johnson begin a fight over who will control Reconstruction • In 1866, Congress voted to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau & passed a Civil Rights Bill to protect against Black Codes • Johnson vetoed both bills, arguing that they violated states’ rights • Congress overrode both vetoes (for the 1st time in U.S. history!)
  16. 16. th Amendment 14 • Congress feared Johnson would allow violations of civil rights so it passed the 14th Amendment: • Federal gov’t must protect the civil rights of all Americans • Defined the meaning of “citizenship” for Americans • Clearly defined punishments for Southern states who violated the civil rights of African-Americans • Ratified July 1868 • Provides a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people
  17. 17.  In the 1866 mid-term elections, Johnson toured the South trying to convince voters to elect Congressmen who would reject the 14th Amendment  The plan back-fired & Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses of Congress & gained control of every northern state
  18. 18. Radical Plan for Readmission  Congress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, trumped Johnson by passing it its own Radical Reconstruction plan in 1867:  Congress could confiscate & redistribute Southern plantations  Allowed quick re-entry for states that supported black suffrage  Ex-Confederates couldn’t vote  Thaddeus Stevens the most influential of the “radical” Republicans; He opposed the Crittenden Compromise, led the impeachment charges against Johnson, & drafted the Radical Reconstruction plan used from 1867 to 1877
  19. 19.  But, Radical Reconstruction was so dependent on massive & sustained federal aid that it was not adequate to enforce equality in the South…  and Johnson obstructed Republicans’ plans by removing sympathetic cabinet members & generals
  20. 20.  Military Reconstruction Act  Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment  Divide the 10 unreconstructed states into 5 military zones
  21. 21. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 • Tenure of Office Act o The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval.  Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government.  A question of the constitutionality of this law. Edwin Stanton
  22. 22. The Impeachment Crisis •Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868. •Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction. •The House impeached him on February 24
  23. 23. The Senate Trial • 11 week trial. • Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
  24. 24. 1868 Presidential Election
  25. 25. Waving the Bloody Shirt! Republican “Southern Strategy”
  26. 26. 1868-1876
  27. 27. Grant Administration Scandals •Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption. • Credit Mobilier Scandal. • Whiskey Ring. • The “Indian Ring.”
  28. 28. The Tweed Ring in NYC William Marcy Tweed (notorious head of Tammany Hall’s political machine) [Thomas Nast crusading cartoonist/reporter]
  29. 29. Legal Challenges •The Slaughterhouse Cases (1873) •Bradwell v. IL (1873) •U. S. v. Cruickshank (1876) •U. S. v. Reese (1876)
  30. 30. Sharecropping
  31. 31. Tenancy & the Crop Lien System Furnishing Merchant Tenant Farmer Landowner • Loan tools and seed up • Plants crop, harvests in • Rents land to tenant in to 60% interest to tenant farmer to plant spring crop. • Farmer also secures food, clothing, and other necessities on credit from merchant until the harvest. • Merchant holds “lien” {mortgage} on part of tenant’s future crops as repayment of debt. autumn. • Turns over up to ½ of crop to land owner as payment of rent. • Tenant gives remainder of crop to merchant in payment of debt. exchange for ¼ to ½ of tenant farmer’s future crop.
  32. 32. Black & White Political Participation
  33. 33. Black Senate & House Delegates
  34. 34. Colored Rule in the South?
  35. 35. 15th Amendment •Ratified in 1870. •The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. •The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. •Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
  36. 36. The “Invisible Empire of the South”
  37. 37. The Failure of Federal Enforcement •Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act]. • “The Lost Cause.” • The rise of the“Bourbons.” • Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs).
  38. 38. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 • Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places. • Prohibited discrimination in jury selection. • Shortcoming lacked a strong enforcement mechanism. • No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!
  39. 39. Northern Support Wanes • “Grantism” & corruption. • Panic of 1873 [6-year depression]. • Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars. • Key monetary issues: o should the government retire $432m worth of “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War. o should war bonds be paid back in specie or greenbacks.
  40. 40. 1876 Presidential Tickets
  41. 41. 1876 Presidential Election
  42. 42. The Political Crisis of 1877 •“Corrupt Bargain” Part II?
  43. 43. •Hayes is allowed to be President if oPlaces Democrats on the Cabinet oPull Troops out of the South and end Reconstruction oFederal money for internal projects
  44. 44. Hayes Prevails
  45. 45. Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my Presidency, and he won’t give it to me!
  46. 46. A Political Crisis: The “Compromise” of 1877
  47. 47. The “Reconstruction” Amendments
  48. 48. 1. How to bring the South back into the Union? 3. How to integrate & protect newlyemancipated black freedmen? 2. How to rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
  49. 49.  Identify & explain the different Reconstruction plans:     Lincoln’s Plan The Wade-Davis Bill Andrew Johnson Plan Thaddeus Stevens & the Radical Reconstruction Plan  Rank order these plans in terms of which ones were (or would have been) most successful