Notes lab 05 06 nuts & bolts discovering the elements
One of the most importantunifying principles of ChemistryPatterns that develop in theelements
A table showing the elements andrelated information about them
Each box in the periodic tablerepresents one element▪It contains▪Atomic Number▪Symbol▪Average Atomic Mass
Arranged in columns called groupsor families , they are organized bythe number of outer energy level/valence electrons.
18 vertical columns divided into 8-9Groups or FamiliesThe number of valence electrons orthe reactivity level determine whichgroup an element belongs to (In most cases the singles digit in eachgroup number indicates the number ofvalence electrons)
A horizontal row of elements in ThePeriodic Table. In most families, the reactivity of theelements in the same family increasesas the period increases or moves downthe chart.
The smallest part of a compound, orelement.A molecule must contain two or moreatoms from the Periodic Table ofElements.▪CO2 = Carbon Dioxide▪CO = Carbon Monoxide▪Au2 = Gold
The atoms on the periodic tableare called elements.There are more than 110 knownelements.▪No element with an atomic numbergreater than 92 is found naturally inmeasurable quantities on earth
Element can also refer to a puremolecule.That is when a molecule has only1 element in its composition▪O2=Oxygen▪Au2= Gold
When two or more differentelements combine (bond) theyform a compound Examples▪H2O = Water▪C6H12O6= Glucose▪CO2= Carbon Dioxide
Two classifications of compounds▪Organic▪Inorganic
A compound that contains acombination of Hydrogen (H),Carbon (C) and Oxygen (O)andderived from a living thing Example▪ Glucose C6H12O6
A compound that does not containCarbon. If it does the carbon has not comefrom a previously living thing Examples▪ Carbon Monoxide (CO)▪ Carbon Dioxide (CO2)▪ Carbonates (CaCO)
The largest section located on theleft side of the “stair-step line” ofperiodic table.
These elements are▪Shiny▪Malleable▪Ductile▪Conductive▪High melting point (temperature)
Located to the right of the “stair-step line” on the table.
These elements are:▪Non-conductive▪No luster or not shiny, but dull
Found along the stair-step linebetween the metals and nonmetals.A lot like metals but not exactly
Metalloids▪Have qualities of metals andnonmetals▪Brittle , non-ductile and non-malleable
Hydrogen & Helium Hydrogen▪Classified as part of Group 1 onlybecause it has only 1 valenceelectron.▪However it has its own unique set ofproperties that set it apart from theother members of the group
Helium▪Classified as part of Group 8 mainlybecause it has no reactivity like all ofthe elements in group 8.▪Helium has only 2 valence electronsrather that the 8 all the othermembers of this group do.
Dimitri MendaleevThe “Father of the Periodic Table”,He collected all the informationavailable in the nineteenth centuryabout the elements
Arranged the elements byincreasing atomic mass and founda repeating pattern in the physicaland chemical properties
Eventually the table was rearrangedby atomic number as it was moreaccurate that way