Each element is pure, it has its ownunique type of atom, which isidentified by its atomic number.(1 – 118)Everything is made up from theseelements or combinations thereof
The smallest particle of an elementis an atom. The atom is the basic building blockof matter It usually has no electric charge orhas a neutral charge The atom is actually mostly emptyspace!
The atom consists of 3 subatomicparticles that differ in theirlocation, electrical charge andrelative mass.▪Proton▪ Neutron▪Electron
The Proton Found in the nucleus of the atom.The largest particle, almost equalin mass to the Neutron.It is a positively charged particle(p+)
The Neutron Also found in the nucleus.Almost equal in mass to theProton.It has no charge (n0) it is NEUTRAL
The Electron Found outside the nucleus in the”Electron Cloud” and also in theoutermost energy level “The Valence” Much smaller than the proton orneutron, having almost no mass. It is negatively charged (e-)
The outer energy levelelectrons for each typeof atom. Number from1 – 8. They create a type of“shell” around the atomthat allows for atomicbonding. At 8 valence electrons,an atom can not bond
Every atom hasa name andcorrespondingnumber called“The AtomicNumber” on the“Periodic Tableof Elements”The AtomicNumber is equalto the number ofprotons in theatom’s nucleus.It can’t everchange
The number ofProtons in thenucleus is also(99.99% of thetime) the same asthe number oftotal electrons inthe electron cloud+ valenceThis is why atomshave no electricalcharge.An equal numberof positive andnegative chargesproduces aneutral charge
The mass of anatom (AtomicMass) comesfrom the Nucleusof the atomIn the nucleus, onewill find all theprotons andpossibly neutronsEach proton has amass of 1 AtomicMass Unit, eachNeutron also has amass of 1 AMU
The list of atoms and their properties arepresented on the Periodic Table ofElementsEach atom has a box with a uniquesymbol to represent it on the PeriodicTableThe Symbol uses a capital letter andsometimes a lower case letter torepresent each atom
How do I find out the number of valenceelectrons? Just look at the Group/Familynumber’s singles digit. The one’s digit in the group number isthe number of valence electrons foreach atom in that group/family
How do I find the number of Neutrons inthe nucleus of an atom? Round the atomic mass to an evennumber (Mass Number) Subtract the atomic number from themass number
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