The AtomThe AtomNotesNotes
The AtomThe AtomFrom the Greek prefix A- meaning“not”And the Greek Root –tomos meaning“cut””Together meaning “uncuttable”T...
DemocritusDemocritus
Ancient Greek Model ofAtomsThe ancient Greeks were one of theearliest cultures to investigate the conceptof the atom.Dem...
Democritus’ “Atom” DemocritusDemocritus believed that all matterconsisted of extremely small particles thatcould not be d...
Democritus’ “Atom”He believed there were different types ofatoms with specific sets of properties. Theatoms in liquids, f...
AristotleAristotle
Aristotle’s “Atom”Aristotle did not think there was a limit tothe number of times matter could bedivided. He thought tha...
Aristotle’s “Atom”Fire was a combination of hot and dry.Water was a combination of cold and wet.
DaltonDalton
Dalton’s Model of the AtomDalton proposed the theory that all matteris made up of individual particles, calledatoms, whic...
Dalton’s Model of the AtomCompounds contain atoms of more thanone element.He developed a theory to explain why theelemen...
The Dalton ModelThe Dalton Model
J. J. ThomsonJ. J. Thomson
J. J. Thomson’s Model of theJ. J. Thomson’s Model of theAtomAtomIn Thomson’s experiments with beams ofcharged particles i...
J. J. Thomson’s Model of theJ. J. Thomson’s Model of theAtomAtomIn Thomson’s experiments with beams ofcharged particles i...
The Thomson ModelThe Thomson ModelIn Thomson’s modelof the atom, thenegative chargeswere evenly scatteredthroughout an at...
RutherfordRutherford
Rutherford’s Model of theRutherford’s Model of theAtomAtomTo account for these results, Rutherfordhypothesized that the p...
Rutherford’s Model of the AtomRutherford’s Model of the Atomand Gold Foil Testand Gold Foil Test
Niels BohrNiels Bohr
The Bohr Model of the AtomThe Bohr Model of the AtomIn Bohr’s model, electrons move withconstant speed in fixed orbits ar...
The Bohr Model of the AtomThe Bohr Model of the AtomEvidence for discrete, unique energylevels comes from the light given...
The Bohr ModelThe Bohr Model
ChadwickChadwickDeduced the existence of neutronsfrom experiments in which a chargedobject did not deflect the path ofpar...
Schrodinger &Schrodinger &HeisenbergHeisenberg
Schrodinger & Heisenberg’sSchrodinger & Heisenberg’sElectron Cloud ModelElectron Cloud ModelAn electron in an atom can mo...
Scientists discovered that electronsare less predictable than in Bohr’smodel of fixed orbits. They use anelectron cloud m...
The electron cloud represents allthe orbitals in an atom. An orbital isa region of space around thenucleus where an elect...
An electron configuration is thearrangement of electrons in theorbitals of an atom. The most stableelectron configuration...
The Electron Cloud ModelThe Electron Cloud Model
The Nature of Science Each scientist wascorrect for his timeand ability to makeobservations. As improvements intechnolog...
The Nature of ScienceThe Nature of Science As the ability toAs the ability tomake bettermake betterobservationsobservatio...
Notes lab 04 the invisible atom
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Notes lab 04 the invisible atom

  1. 1. The AtomThe AtomNotesNotes
  2. 2. The AtomThe AtomFrom the Greek prefix A- meaning“not”And the Greek Root –tomos meaning“cut””Together meaning “uncuttable”The ancient Greeks wanted to learn aboutthe smallest particle of matter
  3. 3. DemocritusDemocritus
  4. 4. Ancient Greek Model ofAtomsThe ancient Greeks were one of theearliest cultures to investigate the conceptof the atom.Democtitus and Aristotle , two Greekphilosophers came up with two alternatetheories
  5. 5. Democritus’ “Atom” DemocritusDemocritus believed that all matterconsisted of extremely small particles thatcould not be divided.He called these particles atoms (from theGreek “ατοµος”, meaning “uncut” or“indivisible”).
  6. 6. Democritus’ “Atom”He believed there were different types ofatoms with specific sets of properties. Theatoms in liquids, for example, were roundand smooth, but the atoms in solids wererough and prickly
  7. 7. AristotleAristotle
  8. 8. Aristotle’s “Atom”Aristotle did not think there was a limit tothe number of times matter could bedivided. He thought that all substances were builtup from only four elements—earth, air,fire, and water. These elements were acombination of four qualities—hot, cold,dry, and wet.
  9. 9. Aristotle’s “Atom”Fire was a combination of hot and dry.Water was a combination of cold and wet.
  10. 10. DaltonDalton
  11. 11. Dalton’s Model of the AtomDalton proposed the theory that all matteris made up of individual particles, calledatoms, which cannot be divided.All atoms of the same element have thesame mass, and atoms of differentelements have different masses.
  12. 12. Dalton’s Model of the AtomCompounds contain atoms of more thanone element.He developed a theory to explain why theelements in a compound always join in thesame wayIn a particular compound, atoms ofdifferent elements always combine in thesame way
  13. 13. The Dalton ModelThe Dalton Model
  14. 14. J. J. ThomsonJ. J. Thomson
  15. 15. J. J. Thomson’s Model of theJ. J. Thomson’s Model of theAtomAtomIn Thomson’s experiments with beams ofcharged particles in a sealed glass tubeled him to the conclusion that atoms weremade of even smaller particlesThomson reasoned that if the charge of anatom is neutral, the atom must containparticles with both positive and negativecharges in equal amounts.
  16. 16. J. J. Thomson’s Model of theJ. J. Thomson’s Model of theAtomAtomIn Thomson’s experiments with beams ofcharged particles in a sealed glass tubeled him to the conclusion that atoms weremade of even smaller particlesThomson reasoned that if the charge of anatom is neutral, the atom must containparticles with both positive and negativecharges in equal amounts.
  17. 17. The Thomson ModelThe Thomson ModelIn Thomson’s modelof the atom, thenegative chargeswere evenly scatteredthroughout an atomfilled with a positivelycharged mass ofmatter. The model iscalled the “plumpudding” model.
  18. 18. RutherfordRutherford
  19. 19. Rutherford’s Model of theRutherford’s Model of theAtomAtomTo account for these results, Rutherfordhypothesized that the positive charge ofan atom must be concentrated in a verysmall area that he called the nucleus.Further experiments with other elementsled him to conclude that the positivecharge of an atom is determined by thenumber of protons in the nucleus.Each proton has a charge of +1.
  20. 20. Rutherford’s Model of the AtomRutherford’s Model of the Atomand Gold Foil Testand Gold Foil Test
  21. 21. Niels BohrNiels Bohr
  22. 22. The Bohr Model of the AtomThe Bohr Model of the AtomIn Bohr’s model, electrons move withconstant speed in fixed orbits aroundthe nucleus, like planets around asun.Electrons gain or lose energy whenthey move between orbits or energylevels. Energy levels are like stairs ona staircase or shelves in a bookshelf
  23. 23. The Bohr Model of the AtomThe Bohr Model of the AtomEvidence for discrete, unique energylevels comes from the light given offwhen energy is added to the atoms ofan element (such as when fireworksexplode or electricity is added to aneon light). No two elements have thesame set of energy levels, so theemission pattern can be used toidentify the element.
  24. 24. The Bohr ModelThe Bohr Model
  25. 25. ChadwickChadwickDeduced the existence of neutronsfrom experiments in which a chargedobject did not deflect the path ofparticles he produced.
  26. 26. Schrodinger &Schrodinger &HeisenbergHeisenberg
  27. 27. Schrodinger & Heisenberg’sSchrodinger & Heisenberg’sElectron Cloud ModelElectron Cloud ModelAn electron in an atom can moveAn electron in an atom can movefrom one energy level to anotherfrom one energy level to anotherwhen the atom gains or loseswhen the atom gains or losesenergyenergy.
  28. 28. Scientists discovered that electronsare less predictable than in Bohr’smodel of fixed orbits. They use anelectron cloud model to show themost likely locations for electronsas they move around the nucleus.
  29. 29. The electron cloud represents allthe orbitals in an atom. An orbital isa region of space around thenucleus where an electron is likelyto be found. Orbitals come indifferent sizes, shapes, andlocations
  30. 30. An electron configuration is thearrangement of electrons in theorbitals of an atom. The most stableelectron configuration is the one inwhich the electrons are in orbitalswith the lowest possible energies
  31. 31. The Electron Cloud ModelThe Electron Cloud Model
  32. 32. The Nature of Science Each scientist wascorrect for his timeand ability to makeobservations. As improvements intechnology cameabout, each laterscientist proved theprevious scientist(s)slightly incorrect. Now there is a totallydifferent model of theatom from the firstmodel presented byThompson. Only some of thetheories of eachscientist remain. In general…
  33. 33. The Nature of ScienceThe Nature of Science As the ability toAs the ability tomake bettermake betterobservationsobservationsimproves, theimproves, theknowledge mayknowledge mayprove or disproveprove or disprovewhat we have heldwhat we have heldto be true into be true inscience.science.

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