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ATTITUDE
By-Arihant Chordia.P,Chennai (9840200004)
Facebook : www.facebook.com/Mr.Arihant.Chordia
Definition of Attitude
Originally meant as indicating physical properties such as
a position of the body, figure, or statu...
A more current definition of attitude ---
A psychological tendency that is expressed by
evaluating a particular entity wit...
Components of Attitudes
A) Affective (Emotional)
B) Behavioral
C) Cognitive (Thinking)
Evaluation
Process
Stimuli
Observable Inferred
Attitude
Cognition
Affect
Behavior
Observable
WHO
Communicator
Variables
Examples:
Credibility
Attractiveness
Status
Message
Variables
Examples:
Single personal
example...
Text (in favor
of fluoride)
versus
Factual
approach
Emotional
approach
Campaign For and Against Adding Fluoride to Drinkin...
Text (in favor
of energy
conservation
in homes)
Campaign to Make Homes More Energy Efficient
Factual
approach
Emotional
ap...
Fear Appeals
Do they work?
Create a lot of fear in
the message (within
ethical limits)
Give audience additional
informatio...
Examples of Fear Mesages
Drunk driving
Drug Use
Seat Belt Use
Skin Cancer
Condom Use
• Odds of negative outcome (low)
• Ti...
Traditional Persuasion Techniques
A) Greater rewards lead to more responses
B) Greater punishment leads to less responses
...
Some Weaknesses of Traditional
Persuasion Approachs
A) Effects not very strong
B) Short-term effects
C) Limited to less im...
THEORY OF COGNITIVE DISSONANCE (1957)
BASIC HYPOTHESIS
The existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, w...
Some Options
1) Change behavior (e.g., Throw pack away)
2) Change cognitions (e.g., “Smoking isn’t all that bad”; “I don’t...
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
FESTINGER & CARLSMITH (1$ - $20 Study)
Perform
boring task
Asked to tell participant
that the task wa...
“TOY” STUDY
Children rate desirability of toys
Told not to play with the most desirable toy
MILD THREAT SEVERE THREAT
Chil...
ATTITUDES REGARDING MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION
Original belief = “No”
Asked to give speech
opposite of their attitude
(for leg...
1) Choice is involved
2) Commitment has been made
3) Individuals are responsible for any consequences of their
behavior (a...
SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY
Internal States (e.g., “So-called “private” stimuli,
physiological)
“Gross” evaluation (e.g., “I fe...
Attutude
survey (on
environmental
issues
WEAK STRONG
Behavioral
survey (what
people actually
did about
environmental
issue...
Do Changing Attitudes Lead to Changes in Behavior?
• Norms regarding proper behavior in a given situation
(& consequences)...
Factors Affecting The Consistency of Attitudes and Behaviors
ATTITUDES
• Specific Role of
• Strength personal
• Accessibil...
Central
Processing
Peripheral
Processing
In-Depth Thought;
Detailed Analyses of
Information
“Lazy” Thinking;
Superficial A...
Message
Motivation to Process?Motivation to Process?
(e.g., relevance, need for
cognition, responsibility
Peripheral Cues
...
Low High
Low argument
quality
High argument
quality
Relevance Relevance
Low High HighLow
STUDY OF
ELM
MODEL
If high percei...
Behavioral BeliefsBehavioral Beliefs (beliefs about the
likely consequences of a behavior
and the evaluation of the
conseq...
Behavioral BeliefsBehavioral Beliefs (beliefs
about the likely consequences
of a behavior and the
evaluation of the possib...
Attitude toward the behavior
(the specific attitude toward a
behavior, favorable or
unfavorable)
Subjective norms (beliefs...
Behavioral
Intention
• I plan on taking birth control pills regularly
Definitely not true ______________________ Definitel...
• Role of past behavior and habits
• Focus on the prediction of individual behavior; what
about the role of others (e.g., ...
Attitude Inoculation
Small (“weak”) doses of arguments
against one’s position
Larger, stronger arguments
given later
Less ...
Advertising --- Product Placement
Quite frequent (e.g., greater than 40 products displayed
in the move Iron Man)
Why can t...
Reactance Theory
Persuasion messages, if too strong, can lead to a boomerang effect
Why?
Belief than our freedom is being ...
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Attitude
Arihant Chordia

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  • High --- Prestigious universities have comprehensive exit exams; Average starting salaries are higher for students from such schools; The National Accrediting Board would give the school a higher academic rating Low --- The source’s friends support the proposal; students would like the challenge; ETS wouldn’t develop the exams unless they were useful
  • Transcript of "Attitudes1"

    1. 1. ATTITUDE By-Arihant Chordia.P,Chennai (9840200004) Facebook : www.facebook.com/Mr.Arihant.Chordia
    2. 2. Definition of Attitude Originally meant as indicating physical properties such as a position of the body, figure, or statue. Later, in aeronautics, it refers to orientation of an aircraft relative to the horizon. • Leaning • Stance • Position • Direction
    3. 3. A more current definition of attitude --- A psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor * * From: Eagley and Chaiken (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes.
    4. 4. Components of Attitudes A) Affective (Emotional) B) Behavioral C) Cognitive (Thinking)
    5. 5. Evaluation Process Stimuli Observable Inferred Attitude Cognition Affect Behavior Observable
    6. 6. WHO Communicator Variables Examples: Credibility Attractiveness Status Message Variables Examples: Single personal example versus factual Fear appeals One-sided versus two-sided arguments Repetition Audience Variables Examples: Knowledge Personality (e.g., self-esteem) Pre-existing attitudes Gender Basic factors that influence persuasion What To Whom
    7. 7. Text (in favor of fluoride) versus Factual approach Emotional approach Campaign For and Against Adding Fluoride to Drinking Water (Against fluoride) Don’t Put Rat Poison in Your Drinking Water Which approach would be the most effective?Which approach would be the most effective?
    8. 8. Text (in favor of energy conservation in homes) Campaign to Make Homes More Energy Efficient Factual approach Emotional approach Which approach would be the most effective?Which approach would be the most effective?
    9. 9. Fear Appeals Do they work? Create a lot of fear in the message (within ethical limits) Give audience additional information on how to deal with their fear (e.g., where to go, when, why) Self-esteem Personal relevance Perception of control Influence of other factors
    10. 10. Examples of Fear Mesages Drunk driving Drug Use Seat Belt Use Skin Cancer Condom Use • Odds of negative outcome (low) • Time frame may be long between behavior and negative outcome • Abiliity fo control behavior (e.g., habit, addiction) Why May They Not Work?
    11. 11. Traditional Persuasion Techniques A) Greater rewards lead to more responses B) Greater punishment leads to less responses C) Use of "credible" sources (experts, authority figures) D) Use of conformity paradigms (e.g., Asch, Sherif)
    12. 12. Some Weaknesses of Traditional Persuasion Approachs A) Effects not very strong B) Short-term effects C) Limited to less important issues
    13. 13. THEORY OF COGNITIVE DISSONANCE (1957) BASIC HYPOTHESIS The existence of dissonance, being psychologically uncomfortable, will motivate the person to try and reduce the dissonance and achieve consonance Attitude Behavior inconsistent with the attitude Creation of dissonance Leon Festinger
    14. 14. Some Options 1) Change behavior (e.g., Throw pack away) 2) Change cognitions (e.g., “Smoking isn’t all that bad”; “I don’t really smoke that much”) 3) Add supporting cognitions (e.g., “ Smoking relaxes me” “it helps me think better” Attitude: “I’m not going to smoke cigarettes anymore”) Behavior: Smoke cigarettes
    15. 15. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE FESTINGER & CARLSMITH (1$ - $20 Study) Perform boring task Asked to tell participant that the task was interesting $1 $20 Rate task • Which group rated the task as more interesting after lying, those paid $1 or $20? Key is lack of sufficient external justification for one’s behavior
    16. 16. “TOY” STUDY Children rate desirability of toys Told not to play with the most desirable toy MILD THREAT SEVERE THREAT Children did not play with the desired toy Children rate the desirability of the toys a 2nd time after not playing with the desired Which group viewed the desirable toy most attractive?
    17. 17. ATTITUDES REGARDING MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION Original belief = “No” Asked to give speech opposite of their attitude (for legalization) Speech watched by research team Told speech taped and would be shown to high school students Attitudes regarding marijuana legalization More positive views of legalization
    18. 18. 1) Choice is involved 2) Commitment has been made 3) Individuals are responsible for any consequences of their behavior (and if the consequences could be anticipated) 4) Negative consequences are believed to be likely to occur 5) One’s self-concept is involved More Cognitive Dissonance Occurs When:
    19. 19. SELF-PERCEPTION THEORY Internal States (e.g., “So-called “private” stimuli, physiological) “Gross” evaluation (e.g., “I feel happy”; “I feel sad” Use of external social cues for precise discriminations (e.g., other people’s behavior or one’s own actions, statements, thoughts) Attitudes formed DARYL BEM
    20. 20. Attutude survey (on environmental issues WEAK STRONG Behavioral survey (what people actually did about environmental issues Attitude survey (on environmental issues Those with weak initial environmental attitudes had their attitudes affected by their responses to the behavior questionnaire SELF-PERCEPTION STUDY
    21. 21. Do Changing Attitudes Lead to Changes in Behavior? • Norms regarding proper behavior in a given situation (& consequences) • Availability or absence of alternatives • Extraneous events
    22. 22. Factors Affecting The Consistency of Attitudes and Behaviors ATTITUDES • Specific Role of • Strength personal • Accessibility Range of behaviors assessed BEVAVIOR experience
    23. 23. Central Processing Peripheral Processing In-Depth Thought; Detailed Analyses of Information “Lazy” Thinking; Superficial Analyses of Information • Ability (IQ, knowledge base, distracters, message complexity) • Motivation (e.g., personal relevance) Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
    24. 24. Message Motivation to Process?Motivation to Process? (e.g., relevance, need for cognition, responsibility Peripheral Cues Present in Message? (e.g., attractive source, emotional content) Peripheral Processing Ability to Process?Ability to Process? (e.g., knowledge, distractions, message comprehensibility) Nature of Cognitive Processing Favorable thoughts Unfavorable thoughts Neutral thoughts Cognitive Structure Change (e.g., new thoughts stored in memory) Central positive attitude change Central negative attitude change No Yes No Yes ~ ELM Detail ~ Relatively permanent attitudes, More predictive of behavior Keep initial attitude Yes
    25. 25. Low High Low argument quality High argument quality Relevance Relevance Low High HighLow STUDY OF ELM MODEL If high perceived relevance exists, argument quality is most important Status of Presenter Issue: To institute a comprehensive university exit exam
    26. 26. Behavioral BeliefsBehavioral Beliefs (beliefs about the likely consequences of a behavior and the evaluation of the consequences Normative BeliefsNormative Beliefs (beliefs about the expectations of other people and the motivation to comply with these expectations) Control BeliefsControl Beliefs (beliefs about the existence of factors that may help or hinder the performance of a behavior and the perceived power of these factors) Attitude toward the behavior (the specific attitude toward a behavior, favorable or unfavorable) Subjective norms (beliefs about how other people will view a behavior; social pressure) Perceived behavioral control (ease with which people believe they can perform the behavior) Behavioral Intention Behavior Actual behavior control ~THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR~ Beliefs
    27. 27. Behavioral BeliefsBehavioral Beliefs (beliefs about the likely consequences of a behavior and the evaluation of the possible outcomes Normative BeliefsNormative Beliefs (beliefs about the expectations of other people and the motivation to comply with these expectations) Control BeliefsControl Beliefs (beliefs about the existence of factors that may help or hinder the performance of a behavior and the perceived power of these factors) Predicting the use of birth-control pills; An example • My taking the pill regularly will reduce my chances of becoming pregnant: Extremely unlikely _____________________ Extremely Likely • Reducing my chances of becoming pregnant is: Extremely bad _______________________ Extremely good • My close friends believe that I should __________________________________ I should not take birth control pills. • On average, I really care what my close friends thinks I should do. Not at all _________________________________ Very much • I forget to do some very important activities. Very rarely _______________________________ Very often • My forgetfulness would make it very difficult for me to remember to take birth control pills Definitely not true _______________________ Definitely true Beliefs
    28. 28. Attitude toward the behavior (the specific attitude toward a behavior, favorable or unfavorable) Subjective norms (beliefs about how other people will view a behavior; social pressure) Perceived behavioral control (ease with which people believe they can perform the behavior) For me to be able to take a birth control pill on a regular basis would be: Impossible ___________________ Possible Most of my close friends are using birth control pills Definitely untrue _______________________ Definitely true For me, taking birth control pills regularly is: Extremely valuable_______________________ Worthless B ~ BI = w1AB + w2 SN + w3 PC
    29. 29. Behavioral Intention • I plan on taking birth control pills regularly Definitely not true ______________________ Definitely true • I will make every effort to take birth control pills regularly Definitely not true ______________________ Definitely true Behavior Regularly taking birth control pills or not
    30. 30. • Role of past behavior and habits • Focus on the prediction of individual behavior; what about the role of others (e.g., cooperation), obtaining resources not possessed by an individual • Assumption that people engage in elaborate cognitions before behaving • Role of self-identity and/or moral obligations ~ Some Shortcomings the Theory of Planned Behavior ~
    31. 31. Attitude Inoculation Small (“weak”) doses of arguments against one’s position Larger, stronger arguments given later Less likely to change one’s attitudes (more able to fight off the stronger attack; received an inoculation earlier)
    32. 32. Advertising --- Product Placement Quite frequent (e.g., greater than 40 products displayed in the move Iron Man) Why can this approach work? • Defenses are down (do not recognize our attitudes are being manipulated) • Failure to generate counterarguments
    33. 33. Reactance Theory Persuasion messages, if too strong, can lead to a boomerang effect Why? Belief than our freedom is being threatened DO NOT write on these walls under any circumstances** Versus PLEASE DON’T write on these walls ** Significantly more graffiti writing on walls with the stern message
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