Neurons ss

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  • Neurons ss

    1. 1. Neurons and the Nervous System 1
    2. 2. Section 1: Neurons • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are neurons, and how do they transmit information? 2. How do nerve cells communicate with other nerve cells? 2
    3. 3. Neurons *Multiple Sclerosis degrades the Myelin Sheath 3 Cell Body is also called the “Soma”
    4. 4. The Synapse • Between Sending and Receiving Neurons AKA- “Cleft” 4 Order of a Neuron (1) Dendrite (2) Soma (3) Axon (4) Axon Terminal (5) Synapse
    5. 5. Neural Communication • Resting Potential – Negative Ions inside the axon • Action Potential – Positive Ions move inside the axon • Refractory Period – Neuron can’t fire (resetting effect) • Sodium-Potassium Pump – How the Neuron Fires • Absolute Threshold – How much stimulation the neuron needs to fire • All-or-None Response – A neuron fires or it doesn’t fire (like a gun) 5
    6. 6. Neural Communication 6
    7. 7. Section 1: Neurons • Reflection of Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are neurons, and how do they transmit information? 2. How do nerve cells communicate with other nerve cells? 7 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    8. 8. Section 1: Test Your Knowledge 1. Which part of the neuron helps to insulate the action potential so that it moves faster? A. Dendrite B. Soma C. Axon D. Myelin Sheath 2. Which two chemicals are involved in a neuron’s action potential? A. Sodium and Potassium B. Carbon and Sodium C. Potassium and Carbon D. Iron and Potassium 8
    9. 9. Section 2: Neurotransmitters & Drugs • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do neurotransmitters influence behavior, and how do drugs and other chemicals affect neurotransmission. 9
    10. 10. Neurotransmitters 10 Neurotransmitter Function Other Facts Acetylcholine (ACh) Muscle action, Memory Too little = Alzheimer's Dopamine Learning, pleasure emotion Too much = hallucinations (Schizophrenia) Too little = Parkinson's Serotonin Mood Control, Aggression Too Little = Depression Epinephrine/Norepinephrin e Alertness and Arousal Also a hormone Sometimes called adrenaline Also Depression GABA “Get a Brake adjustment” Inhibits/stops us from getting too aroused Too Little = OCD thoughts, Seizures and Anxiety Endorphins Natural Painkillers Example: Runner’s High
    11. 11. Drugs and Neurotransmission • Agonists – Excite, Mimics neurotransmitters – Example: Heroin Mimics Endorphins • Antagonists – Inhibit – Example: Botox Blocks ACh • Lock and Key Model – How a neurotransmitter binds with a receptor site 11
    12. 12. Section 2: Neurotransmitters & Drugs • Reflection of Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do neurotransmitters influence behavior, and how do drugs and other chemicals affect neurotransmission. 12 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    13. 13. Section 2: Test Your Knowledge 1. You are conducting scientific research on biology and behavior. For each of the following decide what type of neurotransmitter(s) you might look at A. Parkinson’s Disease B. Generalized Anxiety Disorder C. Major Depressive Episode D. An agonist that causes people to feel little pain 13
    14. 14. Section 3: Nervous System vs. Endocrine System • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are the functions of the nervous system’s main divisions? 2. How does the endocrine system transmit messages? 14
    15. 15. The Nervous System 15
    16. 16. Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. (Fight or Flight) Parasympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy. (Rest and Digest) 16
    17. 17. Types of Neurons • Sensory Neurons (afferent) – Carry information to the Central Nervous System – Detect Pressure, Heat or Light • Interneurons – Connect Motor and Sensory Neurons in Central Nervous System (Most Numerous Type of Neuron) – Carries information from spinal cord to brain • Motor Neurons (efferent) – Carry information to the Muscles and Glands – Important part of the peripheral nervous system 17
    18. 18. Reflexes • Automatic response that requires no “brain messages” (Reflex Arc) • Decision made at interneuron in the spinal cord 18
    19. 19. The Endocrine System • The Endocrine System is the body’s “slow” chemical communication system. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands. • Includes all glands 19
    20. 20. The Endocrine System • Pituitary is the master gland – Influences growth hormones • Pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus • Slow System has lasting effects – Example: Adrenal Glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine which increase blood pressure and heart rate, such as when you are caught in a lie 20
    21. 21. Section 3: Nervous System vs. Endocrine System • Reflection of Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are the functions of the nervous system’s main divisions? 2. How does the endocrine system transmit messages? 21 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    22. 22. Section 3: Test Your Knowledge 1. Which part of the nervous system is responsible for fight or flight? A. Somatic B. Sympathetic C. Parasympathetic D. Occipital 2. Endocrine is to _____, as nervous system is to_____. A. Water, Land B. Brain, Body C. Agonist, Antagonist D. Hormones, Neurotransmitters 22
    23. 23. Section 4: Observing the Brain • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do neuroscientists study the brain’s connections to behavior and the mind? Mr. Burnes 23

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