Motivation

AP Psychology
1
Needs Assessment Questionnaire
Handout 12-17
• Reverse the following scores (ex. 1=5, 2=4, 3=3)
– #8, # 14, # 18

• Need f...
Section 1 Motivational Concepts
Learning Goals
•Students should be able to answer the following:
•From what perspectives d...
What is Motivation?
• Definition: a need or desire that energizes
behavior and directs it towards a goal.
• Need: a physio...
Instinct Theory
• Also Known As: Genetically
Programmed Fixed Action
Patterns
• Based on Evolutionary Perspective
• Critic...
Drive-Reduction Theory (1940)

• Drives Push us towards a goal
• Based on the idea of homeostasis or the maintenance of a
...
Incentive Theory
• Incentives Pull us towards a goal
• Usually an external reward is offered
• Which person would most lik...
Optimum Arousal Theory
• Boredom, sometimes causes us to seek
out stimulation
• Moderate to High Arousal is best
especiall...
Aron Lee Ralston 127 Hours
Stuck…
Short Discussion…
Why do you think people go to college?
Section 1

Reflect on Learning Goals
•Students should be able to answer the following
1. From what perspectives do psychol...
Add to Notes from yesterday
Created by the Humanist Abraham Maslow (1954)

•
• Self-Actualized People are more successful....
Section Assessment
Apply the situation below to the theories of
motivation
–Instinct theory
–Drive-Reduction Theory
–Incen...
Section 2 Hunger and Motivation
Learning Goals
•Students should be able to answer the following:
1. What physiological fac...
Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation?
Answer TRUE or FALSE for the following Statements:

1.The stomach h...
The Stomach & Hunger
• Hunger pangs do indicate feeling the need to eat
• Those without stomachs (removed due to Gastric C...
Body Chemistry
• Glucose
• The hormone insulin
converts glucose to
fat.
• When glucose levels
drop- hunger
increases.
Biological Basis of Hunger
• Hunger does NOT
come from our
stomach.
It comes from our…
• Brain
What part of the
brain?
• T...
Hypothalamus
Lateral Hypothalamus
• When stimulated it
makes you hungry.
• When lesioned
(destroyed) you will
never be hun...
Hypothalamus & Hunger

FAT RAT
What happened to this
rat’s hypothalamus?

20
Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation?

Hormone
Orexin increase

Tissue

Response

Hypothalamus

Increases...
Set Point Theory
• The hypothalamus
acts like a
thermostat.
• Wants to maintain a
stable weight.
• Activate the lateral
wh...
Culture, Society & Food Preferences
• Body chemistry and
environmental factors influence
not only when we feel hunger but
...
Culture and Hunger
Dog

Mice Wine

Fried Frog Legs

Criadillas- bull testicles.
Memory & Hunger
• Memory plays an important role in hunger. Due to

difficulties with retention, amnesia patients eat
freq...
Psychological Aspects of Hunger
• Internals versus
Externals
• The Garcia Effect
Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation?

Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa
•Extreme weight loss, typically...
Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation?
Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa
•Eating large amounts of food and...
Motivation & Eating Disorders
Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation?
•
•
•

Similar Disorders: Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
Obsessed w...
BDD video…
Set Point Theory & Obesity
• Set-Point Theory

– Do we have a predetermined set weight
through genetics?
– Can we change o...
Section 2

Reflect on Learning Goals
Learning Goals
•Students should be able to answer the following:
1. What physiologica...
Section Assessment
1. Which section of the brain is considered most
vital to the initiation of feeding behaviors?
(A) hipp...
Section 3 Sexual Motivation and
Orientation (Awkward)…
Learning Goals
Students should be able to answer the following:
1 W...
Hi/Lo Game
Instructions: Guess if the actual number is higher or
lower than the number listed below.
1.40% of males think ...
Sexual Motivation
• Sex is natural.
• Without sex, none of
us would be here.
• How do scientists
(or you) find out
about s...
Masters and Johnson Study
• In the 1960’s William
Masters and Virginia
Johnson set out to
explore the physiology
of sex.
•...
Masters and Johnson Study (explicit image
warning)
Motivation & Sex
• Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Cycle Study
Phase

Physiological Response

Excitement

Genitals b...
How are humans influenced by sexuality?
• Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Cycle Study

Time
(Minutes)

42
Mapped out the Sexual Response
Cycle
•
•
•
•

Initial Excitement
Plateau Phase
Orgasm
Resolution Phase
(with refractory
pe...
Research Into Sex & Motivation
•
•

•

The infamous Alfred Kinsey Studies (1940)
Kinsey’s Findings

– Virtually all men an...
Research Into Sex & Motivation
How are humans influenced by sexuality?
Internal and External Stimuli
•Men and Women are driven by
testosterone (men have ...
Sexual Orientation Research
Findings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Until 1973, homosexuality was considered a disorder by the APA
3...
Sexual Orientation

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of
either one's own gender or the other gender.

Percenta...
How is Sexual Orientation
Determined
• There has been NO
evidence that sexuality is
socially determined.
• Kids raised by ...
Prenatal Environment
• Current research
seems to point to
the hormonal levels
in the prenatal
environment.
• Scientists ha...
The Brain
• Simon LeVay
discovered that there
is a cluster of cells in
the hypothalamus that
is larger in
heterosexual men...
Learning Goal: How are humans influenced by sexuality?

52
Sexual Orientation Research
Findings

The Anterior
Commissure in gay men
is significantly larger
than in straight men.

Th...
Figure 8A.15 The fraternal birth-order effect Researcher Ray Blanchard (2008) offers these
approximate curves depicting a ...
Trends in Societal Thinking

55
Nat Geo: The Biology of
Homosexuality
Section Assessment: Sex and Motivation
1. Which stage of the sexual response cycle is
different for men and women?
2. Desc...
Section 3

Reflect on Learning Goals
Learning Goals
1 What stages mark the human response cycle?
2. How do hormones influe...
Section 4 The Need to Belong
Learning Goals
Students should be able to answer the following:
1. Explain

why humans have a...
Social Motivation: Needing to
Belong
•
•

Aristotle calls us the “social animal”
Belonging Aids in Survival
(1)

•

Our Wa...
•

Social Motivation: Needing to
Maintaining Relationships
Belong
(1)
(2)

•

Ostracism/Social Exclusion
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

...
Marshmallow Test

62
Achievement Motivation
• Studied by I/O Psychologists
• Definition: A desire to pursue high standards and
significant acco...
Achievement Motivation
What motivates us to work?

(School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..)

Intrinsic Moti...
Mini FRQ
Describe the role each of the following
mechanisms plays in determining an individual’s
eating habits or body wei...
Section 4
Reflect on Learning Goals
Learning Goals

1. Explain

why humans have a need to belong.
2. Describe the characte...
Emotions

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  • A motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal. The perspectives useful for studying motivated behavior include (1) instinct/evolutionary perspective, (2) drive-reduction theory, (3) arousal theory, and (4) Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
  • Under Darwin’s influence, early theorists viewed behavior as being controlled by instincts, com- plex behaviors that are rigidly patterned throughout a species and are unlearned. When it became clear that people were naming, not explaining, various behaviors by calling them instincts, this approach fell into disfavor. The idea that genes predispose species-typical behavior is still influen- tial in evolutionary psychology.
  • Drive-reduction theory proposes that most physiological needs create aroused psychological states that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs. The aim of drive reduction is internal stability, or homeostasis
    B- Behavioral (Classical Conditioning)
  • . Furthermore, we are not only pushed by internal drives but are also pulled by external incentives. When there is both a need (hunger) and an incentive (smell of freshly baked bread), we feel strongly driven.
    B- B.F. Skinner
  • Arousal theory states that rather than reducing a physiological need or minimizing tension, some motivated behaviors increase arousal. Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example, suggest that too little or too much stimulation can motivate people to seek an optimum level of arousal.
  • Arousal theory states that rather than reducing a physiological need or minimizing tension, some motivated behaviors increase arousal. Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example, suggest that too little or too much stimulation can motivate people to seek an optimum level of arousal.
  • An effective way of introducing the nature and diversity of human motivation is to ask students, “Why do you think people go to college?” Answers will cover the full range of human motives, from “Eventually they have to get a job” through “Some come for a new community of friends” to “They simply want to know, to increase their competence.” The discussion provides an excellent opportunity to illustrate that motivation has both energizing and directional aspects. The diversity of answers also provides a good lead-in to Maslow’s hierarchy of motives.
  • Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs expresses the idea that, until satisfied, some motives are more compelling than others. At the base of the hierarchy are our physiological needs, such as for food and water. Only if these are met are we prompted to meet our need for safety, and then to meet the uniquely human needs to give and receive love, to belong and be accepted, and to enjoy self-esteem. Beyond this lies the need to actualize one’s full potential. Near the end of his life, Maslow suggested that some people reach a level of self-transcendence in which they strive for meaning and purpose that is beyond the self, that is, transpersonal.
  • False
    True
    True
    False
    False
  • Although the stomach’s pangs contribute to hunger, variations in body chemistry are more important
  • Increases in the hormone insulin diminish blood glucose, partly by converting it to body fat.
    Hyper-blood sugar is to high-diabetes
    Hypo-two low- dizziness, weakness
  • Rather, our body’s internal state is monitored by the hypothalamus, which regulates the body’s weight as it influences our feelings of hunger and fullness.
  • Surgical Destruction of the Rat’s Ventromedial Hypothalamus
  • Some researchers have abandoned the idea that the body has a precise set point—a biologically fixed
    tendency to maintain an optimum weight—preferring the term settling point to indicate an envi- ronmentally and biologically influenced level at which weight settles in response to caloric input and expenditure.
  • Part of knowing when to eat is our memory of our last meal. As time passes, we anticipate eating
    again and feel hungry.
    Our preferences for sweet and salty tastes are genetic and universal. Other taste preferences are conditioned. Culture also affects taste. For example, Bedouins enjoy eating the eye of a camel, which most North Americans would find repulsive. Most North Americans also shun dog, rat, and horse meat, all of which are prized elsewhere. With repeated exposure, our appreciation for a new taste typically increases, and exposure to one set of novel foods increases willingness to try anoth- er. Some of our taste preferences, such as the avoidance of foods that have made us ill, have sur- vival value.
  • Explain how the eating disorders demonstrate the influence of psychological forces on physiologically motivated behavior.
    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets to become significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet feels fat and is obsessed with losing weight.
    Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by private, binge-purge episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
    Binge-eating disorder is marked by significant binge-eating episodes followed by remorse but not by purging, fasting, or excessive exercise.
    In these disorders, challenging family settings and weight-obsessed societal pressures overwhelm the homeostatic drive to maintain a balanced internal state. Those most vulnerable to eating disorders are also those (usually women) who most idealize thinness and have the greatest body dissatisfaction. Low self-esteem and negative emotions that interact with stressful life experiences are additional contributing factors. Twin studies suggest that eating disorders may also have a genetic component.
    Question: How do we know that culture and media play a major role in eating disorders? Answer: Eating disorders are more prevalent in America and Western Europe
  • Human bodies regulate weight through the control of food intake, energy output, and basal metabolic rate—the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.
    Obesity affects both how you are treated and how you feel about yourself. Obese people, especial- ly obese women, experience weight discrimination in job hiring, placement, promotion, compensa- tion, and discharge. Similarly, they experience bias in searching for a romantic relationship and experience lower psychological well-being.
    Although genes influence body weight, they do not determine it. Some people are genetically pre- disposed to have more and larger fat cells than others, but in an obese person, the original fat cells double or triple in size and then divide or trigger nearby immature fat cells to divide—resulting in up to 75 billion fat cells. Once the number of fat cells increases, it never decreases. People also differ in their resting metabolic rates, and once someone gains fat tissue, less energy is needed to maintain that tissue than is needed to maintain other tissue. Unquestionably, environmental factors such as sleep loss, social influence, often eating high-calorie foods, and living a sedentary life- style also matter, as comparisons of similar people from different generations or different locations indicate.
    Research indicates that most people who succeed on a weight-loss program eventually regain most of the weight. Those who wish to diet should set realistic goals, minimize exposure to food cues, boost energy expenditure through exercise, eat healthy foods spaced throughout the day, beware of the binge, and make a lifelong change in eating patterns.
  • Answer: B
  • Start with reading Gender Differences in Sexual Activity w/Discussion Questions
  • 58%-Higher
    18%-Lower
    6-Lower
    3%-lower
    50%-Higher
  • The human sexual response cycle normally follows a pattern of excitement, plateau, orgasm (which seems to involve similar feelings and brain activity in males and females), and resolution, followed in males by a refractory period, during which renewed arousal and orgasm are not possible.
    The sex hormones direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics and, especially in nonhuman animals, activate sexual behavior. Although testosterone and the estrogens (such as estradiol) are present in both sexes, males have a higher level of testosterone and females a higher level of estrogen.
    In humans, the hormones influence sexual behaviors more loosely, especially once sufficient hormone levels are present. In later life, as sex hormones decline, the frequency of sexual fantasies and intercourse also declines.
  • Watch Kinsey Trailer
  • Watch Kinsey Trailer
  • External stimuli, such as sexually explicit materials, can trigger arousal in both men and women, although the activated brain areas differ somewhat.
    Because men have a more active amygdala when viewing sexual images and are more likely to see more images of women enjoying forcible sex, men tend to accept the backwards notion that women enjoy rape.
    Sexually coercive material tends to increase viewers’ acceptance of rape and violence toward women.
    Images of sexually attractive men and women may lead people to devalue their own partners and relationships. Our imaginations also influence sexual motivation.
    About 95 percent of both men and women say they have had sexual fantasies. Fantasizing about sex does not indicate a sexual problem or dissatisfaction. If anything, sexually active people have more sexual fantasies.
  • Sexual orientation is our enduring sexual attraction toward members of either our own sex (homo- sexual) or the other sex (heterosexual). Studies in both Europe and the United States suggest that about 3 or 4 percent of men and 1 or 2 percent of women are homosexual. Estimates derived from the sex of unmarried partners reported in the 2000 U.S. Census suggest that 2.5 percent of the population is gay or lesbian. Such studies also tell us that sexual orientation is enduring. Women’s sexual orientation tends to be less strongly felt and potentially more fluid and changing than men’s. Women are somewhat more likely than men to feel and act on bisexual attractions.
  • There is no evidence that environmental influences determine sexual orientation. No links have been found between homosexuality and a child’s relationships with parents, father-absent homes, fear or hatred of people of the other gender, levels of sex hormones currently in the blood, or childhood sexual experience. On the other hand, biological influences are evident in studies of same-sex relations in several hundred species, straight-gay differences in body and brain character- istics, genetic studies of family members and twins, and the effect of exposure to certain hormones during critical periods of prenatal development
  • Fraternal Birth Order Effect
    Fraternal Birth Order Effect
    Men who have older brothers are also somewhat more likely to be gay, about one-third more likely for each additional older brother. The reason for this phenomenon—called the fraternal birth-order effect—is unclear. Because the physiological evidence is preliminary and controversial, some scientists remain skeptical. Rather than specifying sexual orientation, they suggest, biological factors may predispose a temperament that influences sexuality “in the context of individual learning and experience.”
  • The anterior commissure works with the posterior commissure to link the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain and also interconnects the amygdalas and temporal lobes, contributing to the role of memory, emotion, speech and hearing. It also is involved in olfaction, instinct, and sexual behavior.
  • Resolution
    Unrepresentantive study (mostly whites), volunteer bias
    Programs to change people from gay to straight are largely uncessful
  • Social bonds boosted our ancestors’ survival rate. Adults who formed attachments were more like- ly to come together to reproduce and to stay together to nurture their offspring to maturity. Cooperation in groups also enhanced survival. People who feel supported by close relationships live with better health and at lower risk for psychological disorder and premature death. When relationships form, we often feel joy. Most people mention—before anything else—close relation- ships as making life meaningful. Even our self-esteem is a gauge of how valued and accepted we feel.
  • Attachments can keep people in abusive relationships as the fear of being alone may seem worse than the pain of emotional or physical abuse. When something threatens our social ties, negative emotions overwhelm us. When ostracized, people may engage in self-defeating or antisocial behaviors and underperform on aptitude tests. Ostracism elicits increased activity in the brain’s anterior cingulate cortex, which is also activated by physical pain.
  • QUESTION: What does “discipline out performs talent” mean?
    AFTER THE VIDEO (MARSHMALLOW TEST): Why do you think kids who wait have higher achievement later in life?
  • VIDEOS:
    Scary Video (start emotions)
    Lie Detection & Body Language
    Fake Smile vs. Real Smile (Ekman)
    60 Minutes of Happiness
  • Motivation ss

    1. 1. Motivation AP Psychology 1
    2. 2. Needs Assessment Questionnaire Handout 12-17 • Reverse the following scores (ex. 1=5, 2=4, 3=3) – #8, # 14, # 18 • Need for Achievement: – Your need to improve performance – Add your responses for 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 • Need for Affiliation: WHERE DO YOU FALL? High scores are near 25 Average scores are near 14 Low scores are near 5 – Your desire to be accepted by others – Add your responses for 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 • Need for Autonomy: – Your need to be responsible for your own direction – Add your responses for 3, 7, 11, 15, 19 • Need for Dominance: – Your need for power (control others) – Add your responses for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 2
    3. 3. Section 1 Motivational Concepts Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: •From what perspectives do psychologists view motivated behavior?
    4. 4. What is Motivation? • Definition: a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. • Need: a physiological state that triggers motivational arousal • Five Theories of what Motivates People: – – – – – Instinct theory Drive-Reduction Theory Incentive Theory Arousal Theory Hierarchy of Needs Theory 4
    5. 5. Instinct Theory • Also Known As: Genetically Programmed Fixed Action Patterns • Based on Evolutionary Perspective • Critics say it cannot be applied to all people • Works better in the animal kingdom • Example: Picking a mate (men prefer certain attributes) • Can you think of other examples? 5
    6. 6. Drive-Reduction Theory (1940) • Drives Push us towards a goal • Based on the idea of homeostasis or the maintenance of a steady internal state • We get rewarded by reducing the drive • Which psychological perceptive does drive theory best match with? A. Cognitive B. Behavioral C. Humanistic 6
    7. 7. Incentive Theory • Incentives Pull us towards a goal • Usually an external reward is offered • Which person would most like incentive theory? A. B. C. D. Sigmund Freud B.F. Skinner Charles Spearman Lewis Terman 7
    8. 8. Optimum Arousal Theory • Boredom, sometimes causes us to seek out stimulation • Moderate to High Arousal is best especially for achievement- oriented people • Rats enjoy exploring parts of a maze where they receive a mild shock more because it arouses their curiosity • This might explain why people will explore different parts of the earth for fun (caves, mountains, underwater) 8
    9. 9. Aron Lee Ralston 127 Hours Stuck…
    10. 10. Short Discussion… Why do you think people go to college?
    11. 11. Section 1 Reflect on Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following 1. From what perspectives do psychologists view motivated behavior? : Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    12. 12. Add to Notes from yesterday Created by the Humanist Abraham Maslow (1954) • • Self-Actualized People are more successful. • Critics of the theory say that it needs to be revised • How can people starve or get arrested for political protest? • Why do so many women continue to stay with their abusers? Know this! 12
    13. 13. Section Assessment Apply the situation below to the theories of motivation –Instinct theory –Drive-Reduction Theory –Incentive Theory –Arousal Theory Jeremy is aggressively trying to beat an opponent at a game of checkers 13
    14. 14. Section 2 Hunger and Motivation Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What physiological factors produce hunger? 2. What psychological and cultural factors influence hunger? 3. How do eating disorders demonstrate the influence of psychological forces on physiological motivated behaviors?
    15. 15. Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation? Answer TRUE or FALSE for the following Statements: 1.The stomach has a lot to do with hunger. 2.People from hotter climates prefer spicy food. 3.People eat more food when around other people. 4.Americans eat slower than Europeans, which is why we have more obesity issues. 5.Eating disorders like anorexia are caused by childhood abuse. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. False True True False False 15
    16. 16. The Stomach & Hunger • Hunger pangs do indicate feeling the need to eat • Those without stomachs (removed due to Gastric Cancer) still feel the need to eat 16
    17. 17. Body Chemistry • Glucose • The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat. • When glucose levels drop- hunger increases.
    18. 18. Biological Basis of Hunger • Hunger does NOT come from our stomach. It comes from our… • Brain What part of the brain? • The Hypothalamus
    19. 19. Hypothalamus Lateral Hypothalamus • When stimulated it makes you hungry. • When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again. Ventromedial Hypothalamus • When stimulated you feel full. • When lesioned you will never feel full again.
    20. 20. Hypothalamus & Hunger FAT RAT What happened to this rat’s hypothalamus? 20
    21. 21. Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation? Hormone Orexin increase Tissue Response Hypothalamus Increases hunger Ghrelin increase Stomach Increases hunger Insulin increase Pancreas Increases hunger Leptin increase Fat cells Decreases hunger PYY increase Digestive tract Decreases hunger 21
    22. 22. Set Point Theory • The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat. • Wants to maintain a stable weight. • Activate the lateral when you diet and activate the ventromedial when you start to gain weight.
    23. 23. Culture, Society & Food Preferences • Body chemistry and environmental factors influence not only when we feel hunger but what we feel hungry for! • Countries with hot climates use more bacteria-inhibiting spices in meat dishes. • People consume 60-75% more food when around others. • Some situations active food cues (i.e. popcorn at the movies) • Europeans eat more slowly, helping them to eat less food. 23
    24. 24. Culture and Hunger
    25. 25. Dog Mice Wine Fried Frog Legs Criadillas- bull testicles.
    26. 26. Memory & Hunger • Memory plays an important role in hunger. Due to difficulties with retention, amnesia patients eat frequently if given food (Rozin et al., 1998). • Usually they will consume meals every 20 minutes if offered food. 26
    27. 27. Psychological Aspects of Hunger • Internals versus Externals • The Garcia Effect
    28. 28. Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation? Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa •Extreme weight loss, typically through exercising and not eating •Obsessed with weight and feel fat •75% of people with this disorder are females •Usually abnormally skinny and can be considered a life long disorder •Changes the body’s chemistry Mary Kate Olsen has suffered from anorexia nervosa for years 28
    29. 29. Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation? Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa •Eating large amounts of food and then purging (Usually sweets or carbs) •Anxiety or depression •By eating carbs, they reduce tension and anxiety (kicked up serotonin) •Weight is usually within normal range •Usually associated with higher than normal obesity in childhood and negative selfevaluations •Binge-eating Disorder: Eating large amounts, but not purging Lady Gaga has suffered from both anorexia and bulimia 29
    30. 30. Motivation & Eating Disorders
    31. 31. Learning Goal: How is hunger influenced by motivation? • • • Similar Disorders: Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Obsessed with a specific flaw in your body Usually leads to extreme plastic surgery, steroid use or extreme weight training 31
    32. 32. BDD video…
    33. 33. Set Point Theory & Obesity • Set-Point Theory – Do we have a predetermined set weight through genetics? – Can we change our set point? – Obese people went on a month-long diet reducing their calories from 3500 to 450 calories a day but only lost 6% of their weight. – Once we become obese, we require less calories to maintain that weight (fat has a lower metabolic rate) • Obesity – Typical adults have 35 billion fat cells. Obese people have 75 billion fat cells – Fat cells never go away, they shrink like a balloon. 33
    34. 34. Section 2 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals •Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What physiological factors produce hunger? 2. What psychological and cultural factors influence hunger? 3. How do eating disorders demonstrate the influence of psychological forces on physiological motivated behaviors? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    35. 35. Section Assessment 1. Which section of the brain is considered most vital to the initiation of feeding behaviors? (A) hippocampus (B) hypothalamus (C) superior olive complex (D) suprachiasmatic nucleus (E) amygdala 35
    36. 36. Section 3 Sexual Motivation and Orientation (Awkward)… Learning Goals Students should be able to answer the following: 1 What stages mark the human response cycle? 2. How do hormones influence human sexual motivation? 3. How do internal and external stimuli influence sexual motivation? 4. What has research taught us about sexual orientation? Please read the article…answer the questions on the back
    37. 37. Hi/Lo Game Instructions: Guess if the actual number is higher or lower than the number listed below. 1.40% of males think about sex everyday 2.25% of females think about sex everyday 3.The typical American has on average 10 sexual partners in a lifetime 4.About 10% of the population is gay or lesbian 5.35% of people in the United States say that homosexuality is “never justified” 37
    38. 38. Sexual Motivation • Sex is natural. • Without sex, none of us would be here. • How do scientists (or you) find out about sex? YOU ASK!!!!!!
    39. 39. Masters and Johnson Study • In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex. • 382 females and 312 males. After their research was done they ran an institute that claimed to turn gay people straight.
    40. 40. Masters and Johnson Study (explicit image warning)
    41. 41. Motivation & Sex • Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Cycle Study Phase Physiological Response Excitement Genitals become engorged with blood. Vagina expands secretes lubricant. Penis enlarges. Plateau Excitement peaks such as breathing, pulse and blood pressure. Orgasm Contractions all over the body. Increase in breathing, pulse & blood pressure. Sexual release. Resolution Engorged genital release blood. Male goes through refractory phase. Women resolve slower. 41
    42. 42. How are humans influenced by sexuality? • Masters and Johnson’s Sexual Response Cycle Study Time (Minutes) 42
    43. 43. Mapped out the Sexual Response Cycle • • • • Initial Excitement Plateau Phase Orgasm Resolution Phase (with refractory period).
    44. 44. Research Into Sex & Motivation • • • The infamous Alfred Kinsey Studies (1940) Kinsey’s Findings – Virtually all men and half of all women masturbate regularly (more than expected) – 8-10% of the population is gay or bisexual (this is wrong according to more modern survey data and scientific estimates) – Over 50% of men and women have premarital sex (more than expected) Criticisms of Kinsey’s Study – Unrepresentative Study (mostly whites) – Volunteer Bias – Out-Dated Study 44
    45. 45. Research Into Sex & Motivation
    46. 46. How are humans influenced by sexuality? Internal and External Stimuli •Men and Women are driven by testosterone (men have more). •Viewing attractive people or pornography leads people to devalue their own partners. •According to one study, men and women are equally aroused by watching x-rated movies, but men’s brains respond more in the amygdala. •Men tend to fantasize about sex and women about romance. 46
    47. 47. Sexual Orientation Research Findings • • • • • • • • • • Until 1973, homosexuality was considered a disorder by the APA 3-4% of men are gay; 1-2% of women are lesbian Approximately 20% of the population has had a bisexual encounter If one identical twin is gay, there is a 52% likelihood the other twin is also gay. Injecting testosterone into a sheep’s womb will produce homosexual tendencies in their female offspring Gay men’s brains “light up” in a similar way to straight women’s brains when they smell a man’s pheromonal sweat. Lesbians are better at visual spatial tasks than straight women Children adopted by gay or lesbians are no more likely to become gay later in life than anyone else Gay men are slightly more likely to be promiscuous than lesbians or straight men Private educational programs used to change people from a gay lifestyle to a straight lifestyle are largely unsuccessful, showing that sexual orientation is persistent and hard to change. (evidence it is not a choice) 47
    48. 48. Sexual Orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender. Percentage, brothers and cities
    49. 49. How is Sexual Orientation Determined • There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined. • Kids raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay that if they were raised by hetero parents. • It is most-likely biologically determined.
    50. 50. Prenatal Environment • Current research seems to point to the hormonal levels in the prenatal environment. • Scientists have created homosexual male fruit flies and lesbian sheep!!!
    51. 51. The Brain • Simon LeVay discovered that there is a cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that is larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men.
    52. 52. Learning Goal: How are humans influenced by sexuality? 52
    53. 53. Sexual Orientation Research Findings The Anterior Commissure in gay men is significantly larger than in straight men. There is a slight correlation between finger length and sexual orientation, probably due to hormone activity during prenatal development. 53
    54. 54. Figure 8A.15 The fraternal birth-order effect Researcher Ray Blanchard (2008) offers these approximate curves depicting a man’s likelihood of homosexuality as a function of his number of older brothers. This correlation has been found in several studies, but only among right-handed men. © 2010 by Worth Publishers
    55. 55. Trends in Societal Thinking 55
    56. 56. Nat Geo: The Biology of Homosexuality
    57. 57. Section Assessment: Sex and Motivation 1. Which stage of the sexual response cycle is different for men and women? 2. Describe one reason why the Kinsey study may have been inaccurate. 3. What evidence supports that sexual orientation is genetic and not environmental? 4. What might change in society if there is really strong scientific evidence that being gay or straight is biologically driven? 57
    58. 58. Section 3 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1 What stages mark the human response cycle? 2. How do hormones influence human sexual motivation? 3. How do internal and external stimuli influence sexual motivation? 4. What has research taught us about sexual orientation? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    59. 59. Section 4 The Need to Belong Learning Goals Students should be able to answer the following: 1. Explain why humans have a need to belong. 2. Describe the characteristics of Achievement Motivation.
    60. 60. Social Motivation: Needing to Belong • • Aristotle calls us the “social animal” Belonging Aids in Survival (1) • Our Wanting to Belong (1) (2) • Cooperation and Caring kept our ancestors alive Peak moments in life are dominated by relationships (Sheldon et al, 2001) College students care more about rich, close relationships than money (Seligman, 2002) Need to Increase Social Acceptance (1) Much of our social behavior aims to increase the acceptance by others, henceforth producing higher self esteem and continued conformity. In the movie Castaway, the main character tries to fulfill his need for belongingness by creating an imaginary friend named “Wilson” 60
    61. 61. • Social Motivation: Needing to Maintaining Relationships Belong (1) (2) • Ostracism/Social Exclusion (1) (2) (3) (4) • Divorced people are only half as likely to say they are “very happy” compared to married couples (Inglehart, 1990). When something threatens a relationship, we are overcome with feelings such as anxiety, loneliness, jealousy, guilt. When the need to belong is denied or blocked Seen as punishment by most people People who are ostracized in laboratory experiments will activate regions of the anterior cingulate cortex, where we feel real pain. People who are continually ostracized can turn aggressive, especially intelligent individuals. Fortifying Health (1) In 2001, Andy People with close friends tend to suffer less psychological disorders, Williams killed two less premature death, less depression, and are not prone to suicide. students and injured three was described as a “freak, dork, nerd…” 61
    62. 62. Marshmallow Test 62
    63. 63. Achievement Motivation • Studied by I/O Psychologists • Definition: A desire to pursue high standards and significant accomplishments. • Uses both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation • Those with high achievement motivation: – – – – More hobbies as a kid High levels of self-discipline Prefer to participants than spectators Waiting on the marshmallow • In the end: “discipline out performs talent” -Martin Seligman, Founder of Positive Psychology Movement 63
    64. 64. Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work? (School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..) Intrinsic Motivators • Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction. Extrinsic Motivators • Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..) • Work great in the short run.
    65. 65. Mini FRQ Describe the role each of the following mechanisms plays in determining an individual’s eating habits or body weight. •Brain structure •Cultural factors •Body chemistry 65
    66. 66. Section 4 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. Explain why humans have a need to belong. 2. Describe the characteristics of Achievement Motivation. Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    67. 67. Emotions 67

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