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Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
Emotions and stress
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Emotions and stress

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  • VIDEOS:
    Scary Video (start emotions)
    Lie Detection & Body Language
    Fake Smile vs. Real Smile (Ekman)
    60 Minutes of Happiness
  • An emotion is a response of the whole organism that involves an interplay among (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
    Emotion includes physical, behavioral, and subjective (cognitive) elements.
  • The James-Lange theory states that our experience of an emotion is a consequence of our physiological response to a stimulus; we are afraid because our heart pounds (say, in response to an approaching stranger).
  • The James-Lange theory states that our experience of an emotion is a consequence of our physiological response to a stimulus; we are afraid because our heart pounds (say, in response to an approaching stranger).
  • The Cannon-Bard theory, on the other hand, proposes that the physiologi- cal response and our emotional experience occur simultaneously. Heart pounding and fear occur at the same time—one does not cause the other.
  • The Cannon-Bard theory, on the other hand, proposes that the physiologi- cal response and our emotional experience occur simultaneously. Heart pounding and fear occur at the same time—one does not cause the other.
  • chachter and Singer’s two-factor theory of emotion focuses on the interplay of thinking and feeling, not on the timing of feelings. This theory states that to experience emotion, one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
  • chachter and Singer’s two-factor theory of emotion focuses on the interplay of thinking and feeling, not on the timing of feelings. This theory states that to experience emotion, one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
  • C- Two Factor
  • The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls arousal. In an emergency, the sympathetic nervous system automatically mobilizes the body for fight or flight, directing the adrenal glands to release hormones that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar level. Other physical changes include tensed muscles, dry mouth, dilated pupils, slowed digestion, and increased sweating. The parasympathetic nervous system calms the body after a crisis has passed, although arousal dimin- ishes gradually.
  • In many situations, arousal is adaptive. For example, when taking an test, moderate arousal is best. In general, too little arousal can be disruptive; too much can tax the body.
    Similar physiological arousal occurs during fear, anger, and sexual arousal. Nonetheless, these emotions feel different. And, despite similar arousal, sometimes our facial expressions differ dur- ing these three states. For example, people may appear “paralyzed” with fear or “ready to explode” with anger.
  • The polygraph measures several physiological indicators of emotion—for example, changes in breathing, cardiovascular activity, and perspiration. Research suggests it errs about one-third of the time, too often to justify its widespread use in business and government. It more often labels the innocent guilty than the guilty innocent. A more effective approach is the guilty knowledge test. Several research teams are exploring new ways to detect deception.
  • The polygraph measures several physiological indicators of emotion—for example, changes in breathing, cardiovascular activity, and perspiration. Research suggests it errs about one-third of the time, too often to justify its widespread use in business and government. It more often labels the innocent guilty than the guilty innocent. A more effective approach is the guilty knowledge test. Several research teams are exploring new ways to detect deception.
  • Fear and rage are sometimes accompanied by differing finger temperatures and hormone secretions. Emotions may also stimulate different facial muscles. During fear, brow muscles tense. During joy, muscles in the cheek and under the eye pull into a smile. Emotions differ much more in the brain circuits they use. For example, brain scans show increased activity in the amygdala during fear. Finally, emotions activate different areas of the brain’s cortex. The right prefrontal cor- tex becomes more electrically active as people experience negative emotions, such as disgust. The left frontal lobe shows more activity with positive emotions.
  • The spillover effect occurs when arousal from one event affects our response to other events. Dozens of experiments show that a stirred-up state can be experienced as different emotions depending on how we interpret and label it. Arousal fuels emotion and cognition channels it.
  • Sometimes we experience unlabeled emotion. Sensory input can take the low road, following a pathway that leads via the thalamus to the amygdala, bypassing the cortex and triggering a rapid reaction that is outside our conscious awareness. Other, more complex emotions, including hatred and love, require interpretation and so take the high road, being routed along the slower route to the cortex for analysis. Automatic emotion and the importance of conscious thinking in emotion illustrate our two-track minds.
  • All of us communicate nonverbally as well as verbally. For example, a firm handshake immediate- ly conveys an outgoing, expressive personality. With a gaze, an averted glance, or a stare, we can communicate intimacy, submission, or dominance. Most people can detect nonverbal cues, and we are especially sensitive to nonverbal threats. Experience contributes to our sensitivity to cues, as studies of abused children demonstrate.
    Our brains are rather amazing detectors of subtle expressions. For example, a mere 10-second clip of a teacher’s voice or face enabled viewers to assess whether the teacher liked and admired the child he or she was addressing.
    Research indicates that we read fear and anger mostly from the eyes, happiness from the mouth. Introverts are better emotion-detectors than extraverts, although extraverts are easier to read. The absence of gestures, facial expressions, and tones of voice in e-mails deprives us of an important source of information.
    Women generally surpass men at reading people’s emotional cues. Women’s nonverbal sensitivity gives them an edge in spotting lies. Their skill at decoding others’ emotions may also contribute to their greater emotional responsiveness in both positive and negative situations. When surveyed, women are far more likely than men to describe themselves as empathic. Women also tend to experience emotional events more deeply with greater brain activation in areas sensitive to emo- tion.
  • The facial feedback effect indicates that expressions amplify our emotions by activating muscles associated with specific states, and the muscles signal the body to respond as though we were experiencing those states. For example, students induced to make a frowning expression reported feeling a little angry. Students induced to smile felt happier and found cartoons funnier. Similarly, the behavior feedback phenomenon shows that if we move our body as we would when experienc- ing some emotion (shuffling along with downcast eyes, as when sad), we are likely to feel that emotion to some degree. Acting as another acts helps us feel what another feels.
  • Carroll Izard’s investigations identified 10 basic emotions: joy, interest-excitement, surprise, sad- ness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt. Although other researchers argue for addi- tional emotions, Izard contends that other emotions are combinations of these 10. When psycholo- gists have asked people to report their experiences of different emotions, all seem to place emo- tions along the dimensions of pleasant/positive versus unpleasant/negative (the emotion’s valence) and high-versus-low arousal. On the valence and arousal dimensions, terrified is more frightened than afraid, and delighted is happier than happy.
  • Fear is often an adaptive response. Fear of enemies binds people together, and fear of injury pro- tects us from harm. What we learn through experience best explains the variety of human fears. Through conditioning (associating emotions with specific situations) and observation (watching others display fear in response to certain events or surroundings), the short list of naturally painful and frightening events multiplies into a long list of human fears.
    We seem biologically prepared to learn some fears faster than others. We quickly learn to fear snakes, spiders, and cliffs, but we are less predisposed to fear cars, electricity, bombs, and global climate change. A key to fear-learning lies in the amygdala, a limbic system neural center deep in the brain. If people suffer amygdala damage, they may consciously remember a threatening event but show no emotional effect of it. Individual differences in fearfulness are partly genetic.
    Some fears fall outside the average range. These phobias are intense fears of specific objects or situations.
  • People report that anger is often a response to friends’ or loved ones’ misdeeds and is especially common when those acts seem willful, unjustified, and avoidable. Blameless annoyances such as foul odors, high temperatures, or a traffic jam can also make us angry.
    Although “blowing off steam” may temporarily calm an angry person, it may also amplify under- lying hostility, and it may provoke retaliation.
  • The catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing” aggressive energy through action or fantasy reduces anger. Research has not supported the cathar- sis hypothesis. Angry outbursts may be reinforcing and therefore habit forming. In contrast, anger expressed as a nonaccusing statement of feeling can benefit relationships by leading to reconcilia- tion rather than retaliation. When reconciliation fails, forgiveness can reduce one’s anger and its physical symptoms.
  • The catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing” aggressive energy through action or fantasy reduces anger. Research has not supported the cathar- sis hypothesis. Angry outbursts may be reinforcing and therefore habit forming. In contrast, anger expressed as a nonaccusing statement of feeling can benefit relationships by leading to reconcilia- tion rather than retaliation. When reconciliation fails, forgiveness can reduce one’s anger and its physical symptoms.
  • A good mood boosts people’s perceptions of the world and their willingness to help others (the feel-good, do-good phenomenon). Mood-boosting experiences make us more likely to give money, pick up someone’s dropped papers, volunteer time, and do other good deeds. After decades of focusing on negative emotions, psychologists are now actively exploring the causes and conse- quences of well-being (self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life).
  • Positive emotion rises over the early to middle part of most days. Although stressful events trigger bad moods, the gloom nearly always lifts by the next day. Times of elation are similarly hard to sustain and, over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance. Even significant bad events, such as a serious illness, seldom destroy happiness for long. The surprising reality is that we overestimate the duration of emotions and underestimate our capacity to adapt.
  • At a basic level, money helps us to avoid misery, but having it is no guarantee of happiness. Sudden increases in wealth such as winning a state lottery only increase happiness in the short term. In the long run, increased affluence hardly affects happiness. For example, during the last four decades, the average U.S. citizen’s buying power almost tripled, yet the average American is no happier. More generally, research indicates that economic growth in affluent countries has not boosted morale or social well-being. Ironically, those who strive hardest for wealth tend to experi- ence lower well-being. What matters more is how we feel about what we have.
  • The adaptation-level phenomenon describes our tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those we have previously experienced. If our income or social prestige increases, we may feel ini- tial pleasure. However, we then adapt to this new level of achievement, come to see it as normal, and require something better to give us another surge of happiness.
    Relative deprivation is the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one com- pares oneself. As people climb the ladder of success, they mostly compare themselves with those who are at or above their current level. This explains why increases in income may do little to increase happiness.
    High self-esteem, close friendships or a satisfying marriage, and meaningful religious faith are among the predictors of happiness. Age, gender, parenthood, and physical attractiveness are among the factors unrelated to happiness.
  • Stress is not just a stimulus or a response; rather, it is the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental events. When perceived as challenges, stressors can arouse and motivate us to conquer problems. When perceived as threats, prolonged stressors can harm us and increase the risk of illness.
    Walter Cannon observed that, in response to stress, the sympathetic nervous system activates the secretion of stress hormones, triggers increased heart rate and respiration, diverts blood to skeletal muscles, and releases sugar and fat from the body’s stores, all to prepare the body for either fight or flight. In addition to this first (and faster) stress response system, a slower system involves the cerebral cortex stimulating the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland to trigger the release of glu- cocorticoid stress hormones, such as cortisol, from the outer part of the adrenal glands. A more common stress response in women is tend and befriend.
  • Mnemonic Arrr…. (like a pirate)
    In Hans Selye’s general adaptation syndrome (GAS), the body’s adaptive response to stress is composed of three phases. In Phase 1, we experience an alarm reaction due to the sudden activa- tion of our sympathetic nervous system. Heart rate increases and blood is diverted to the skeletal
    muscles. With our resources mobilized, we then fight the challenge during Phase 2, resistance. Temperature, blood pressure, and respiration remain high, and there is a sudden outpouring of stress hormones. If the stress is persistent, it may eventually deplete our body’s reserves during Phase 3, exhaustion. With exhaustion, we are more vulnerable to illness or even, in extreme cases, collapse and death.
  • Stress can increase the risk of coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in North America. It has been linked with the competitive, hard-driving, and impatient Type A personality. The toxic core of Type A is negative emotions, especially the anger associated with an aggressively reactive temperament. Under stress, the sympathetic nervous system of the Type A person redis- tributes bloodflow to the muscles and away from internal organs, such as the liver, which removes cholesterol and fat from the blood. The resulting excess cholesterol later gets deposited around the heart. The more easygoing Type B personality is less physiologically reactive when harassed or given a difficult challenge and less susceptible to coronary heart disease. Pessimism and depres- sion also can have a toxic effect on a person’s health
  • Spill over- She loses, which means she is aroused, so she will experience a heightened emotion after the game in any situation.
    Catharsis- she loses and throws her bowling ball through her opponents car window.
    Framing- She says that we finished in 5th place instead of saying last place.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Emotions 1
    • 2. Section 5: Embodied Emotions Learning Goals Students should be able to answer the following: 1.What are the components of an emotion?
    • 3. “Feeling” part of consciousness motion
    • 4. Love… <3
    • 5. What are Emotions? • Emotions are: – – – – – – Temporary Positive & Negative Physiological Reactions Expressive Behaviors Conscious Experiences States of Feeling • Where do Emotions Come From? – Limbic System (Thalamus & Amygdala) – Cerebral Cortex (Left/Right Hemispheres) – Autonomic Nervous System (epinephrine) 5
    • 6. Three Elements of Emotion •28.1 What are the biological, behavioral, and cognitive components of emotion? •1. Physical arousal •2. Behavior that reveals emotion •3. Inner awareness of feelings
    • 7. Theories of Emotion • James-Lange Theory – Your body first experiences the physiological reaction, then you automatically experience the emotion depending on what occurs in the body – In other words: We feel sad because we cry, angry because we punch – Evidence Supporting this theory: • Spinal cord injured patients experience a less intense emotion • Anger causes blood to rush to the hands and feet, fear causes blood to rush away from the hands and feet 7
    • 8. Emotion Demo 1 8
    • 9. Theories of Emotion • Cannon-Bard Theory – States the emotion is first felt in the thalamus, then it is simultaneously direct to the cerebral cortex and the autonomic nervous system – Evidence supporting this theory: • Even people with a suppressed nervous system can experience emotions too 9
    • 10. Emotion Demo 2
    • 11. Theories of Emotion • Two-Factor (Schachter-Singer) – Also Known as the cognitive theory of emotion – The interplay of thinking and feeling – Evidence Supporting this theory: • Most emotions invoke the same physiological response • Men injected with epinephrine and placed in a waiting room with a confederate will “catch” the confederates emotion 11
    • 12. Emotion Demo 3
    • 13. Section Assessment 1. Which theory of emotion implies that people can change their emotions simply by changing the way they think about the situation and their arousal? (A) (B) (C) (D) James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory Opponent Processing Theory (A) (B) (C) (D) James-Lange Theory Cannon-Bard Theory Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory Opponent Processing Theory 2. Which theory of emotion would indicate that people’s emotions are experienced simultaneously with arousal? 13
    • 14. Section 5 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1.What are the components of an emotion? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    • 15. Fails 2010 Compilation
    • 16. Section 5 and 6: Expressed Emotion and Embodied Emotions Learning Goals 1. What is the link between emotional arousal and the autonomic nervous system? 2. Do different emotions activate different physiological and brain patterns? interpret and label them? 3.How do we communicate nonverbally? 4. Are nonverbal expressions of emotion universally understood across cultures? 5. Do our facial expressions influence our feelings?
    • 17. Emotions & The Autonomic Nervous System Epinephrine & Norepinephrine 17
    • 18. Arousal and Performance • Complex Tasks require lower emotional arousal • Simple Tasks can be sustained with higher emotional arousal • Performance is usually best at moderate to high arousal (not too low, not too high) 18
    • 19. Lie Detection • • • • Polygraph – Measures physiological arousal while being asked yes or no questions – Most used lie detection method (although it is highly unreliable) – Breathing rate, blood pressure, heart rate, skin perspiration Guilty Knowledge Test – Present false and true information about the details of a crime to a suspect and gauge their reaction – Said to be better than a polygraph Microexpressions (Paul Ekman) – Facial expressions that last for 1/25- 1/3 of a second fMRIs – Looks at brain imagery where certain parts of the brain “light up” when people are making a creative lie 19
    • 20. Lie Detection
    • 21. Lie Detection 21
    • 22. Lie Detection 22
    • 23. Lie Detection 23
    • 24. Polygraph Findings 24
    • 25. Learning Goal: What theories explain emotions? SPILL-OVER EFFECT •When emotion from one event spills over into another event •Supports Schatcher-Singer Two Factor Theory •Experiment: Walking the Bridge •Examples: – Rioting after team wins Super Bowl – Falling in Love at the Gym 25
    • 26. Different Roads to Emotions • Zajonc & LeDoux (low road) – Concludes that simple emotions (fear, anger) are processed without thinking and emotions can occur before cognition takes place – Example: We still fear snakes even when we know it is a harmless snake • Lazarus (high road) – Concludes that complex emotions like guilt, happiness, and love involve how we appraise the situation (Cognitive Appraisal Theory) 26
    • 27. Nonverbal Communication, Display Rules and Emotions • Women read non-verbals better than men • Fear and Anger come from eyes • Most likely to pick out angry faces faster than happy faces • Body language changes by culture, but Facial expressions are the same worldwide • Display Rules: Different cultures will display different expressions based on certain situations Which is the real smile? – Example: Japanese Medical students watching a surgery WATCH THIS 27
    • 28. Facial Expressions 1. Communicate Emotion 2. Amplify Emotion 3. Regulate Emotion •Research on Facial Expressions: – Facial expressions provide the best nonverbal communication as to how someone is feeling – Facial-Feedback Phenomenon • Making a certain type of face will amplify emotions • Students who fake smile when looking at cartoons find them to be funnier • Students who frown report more sadness when looking at sad pictures. • Mimicking another person’s facial expression with increase empathy • This evidence supports the James-Lange Theory 28
    • 29. Experienced Emotions Izard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most of them are present in infancy, except for contempt, shame, and guilt. What do you think this can tell us about emotions? 29
    • 30. Section 6 Learning Goals 1. What is the link between emotional arousal and the autonomic nervous system? 2. Do different emotions activate different physiological and brain patterns? interpret and label them? 3.How do we communicate nonverbally? 4. Are nonverbal expressions of emotion universally understood across cultures? 5. Do our facial expressions influence our feelings? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!
    • 31. Section 7: Stress and Health Learning Goals Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are the causes and consequences of fear, anger and happiness? 2. What is stress? 3. Why are some of us more prone than others to coronary heart disease?
    • 32. Basic Emotions: Fear • Extreme Fear is called Terror • Fear increases the release of epinephrine • Biology & Fear – Its all about the Amygdala • People who have damage to their amygdala will trust scary-looking people • There is a gene that influences how much serotonin the amygdala uses, which leads to different fear responses • Are Fears Learned or Not? (judge the following statements) – Lab raised monkeys do not fear snakes, but wild monkeys do – Humans are more quick to develop a fear of spiders than a fear of guns. – Infants start to fear heights after they begin crawling – Monkeys can observe other monkeys being afraid of a snake and they will fear a snake, but after watching other monkeys appear to be afraid of a flower, they do not fear flowers 32
    • 33. Basic Emotions: Anger • Extreme Anger is called Rage • We become angry most often because of a perceived misdeed by a friend or loved one. • Small annoyances can also produce anger (Traffic, foul odors and high temperatures) • Gender Differences in Anger Management – Boys walk away or exercise – Girls talk to friends or listen to music – Best way to resolve anger: Walk away and Forgive 33
    • 34. Catharsis Theory • Venting anger through action or fantasy achieves an emotional release or catharsis. – Examples: Hitting a Pillow, Burning an Ex’s picture • Issues with Catharsis: – Leaves a person feeling guilty – Creates a new threshold of anger – Encourages future anger outburst (reward system that is habit-forming) 34
    • 35. Catharsis Theory
    • 36. Basic Emotions: Happiness • People who are happy: – perceive the world as being safer. – are able to make decisions easily, – are more cooperative, – rate job applicants more favorably, – and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives. • Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon – When we feel happy we are more willing to help others 36
    • 37. Basic Emotions: Happiness • Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day. 37
    • 38. Wealth, Happiness and Satisfaction • It is true that people with more money are happier than those who struggle for their basic needs • Losses of money are more emotional than gains in money • People in rich countries are only slightly happier than those in poor countries • Subjective Well-Being of college students is correlated with those who value Love over Money; report greater life satisfaction • Winning the lottery will make people happy in the short-term, but they eventually return to their original state of happiness • Wealth is like health: its utter absence can breed misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness 38
    • 39. Adaption & Comparison • Adaption-Level Phenomenon – Our tendency to adapt to new things over time – Example: at first you are excited about your new cell phone, but as time wears on, it become just another piece of technology – Example: Lottery winners eventually adapt to their winnings • Relative Deprivation – The sense that we’re worse off than people around us – Keeping up the with Jones 39
    • 40. Predictors of Happiness 40
    • 41. Stress 41
    • 42. How does stress affect the body and mind? What is stress? •Stress Defined by Psychologists: the process by which we perceive and respond to threats that challenge us •Daily Hassles vs. Life Changing Stressors Daily Hassle Stressors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Health Money Work Transportation Relationships Life Changing Stressors 1. Injury/Death of a Loved One 2. Divorce 3. Moving 4. Physical Changes in Health 5. Marriage 42
    • 43. How does stress affect the body and mind? • • • How does the body react to stress? Do you have GAS? Hans Selye’s research on rats led to General Adaptation Syndrome Critical Thinking: Which phase is a person most likely to suffer a physical illness? Cortisol levels increase as it is secreted from the adrenal glands 43
    • 44. How does stress affect the body and mind? • • • Type A – Competitive, Impatient, Time-conscious, easily angered – Type A people experience higher level of stress causing hormones – Accountants are more likely to experience heart attacks during tax season – Anger is the most important factor in causing heart attacks Type B – Easygoing, Mellow, Laidback – Still can get angry, but less likely to develop heart disease QUESTION: Which type of person is rewarded more in American society? 44
    • 45. How does stress affect the body and mind? • • • Perceived Control – An absence of control over stressors is a predictor of future health problems. Rates will experience less ulcers if they can control shocks – Perceived control has the ability to extend one’s life when admitted to nursing homes or rehab centers Explanatory Style – People with an optimistic explanatory style tend to have more control over stressors, cope better with stressful events, have better moods and a strong immune system Social Support – Supportive family members and close friends help people cope with stress. Their immune system functions better with lower blood pressure – People with cancer do better when supported by groups and loved ones – People who attend church services tend to live longer 45
    • 46. How does stress affect the body and mind? How to Manage Stress •Experience Less Stress By: – Having a sense of control – Developing optimistic attitude (cognition) – Building a social support system •Manage your Stress 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Aerobic exercise (produce new brain cells) Biofeedback (machine based) Relaxation Meditation Spirituality 46
    • 47. Crazy German Kid… definitely Type A personality 47
    • 48. Review Mini FRQ Janet just finished competing in a bowling tournament with a group from her office. Unfortunately they lost. Explain how the following terms might affect Janet after the match as she goes to a restaurant with friends. •Spill-Over Effect •Catharsis •Framing 48
    • 49. Section 7 Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1. What are the causes and consequences of fear, anger and happiness? 2. What is stress? 3. Why are some of us more prone than others to coronary heart disease? Self-Rating 4.0 ★ 3.0 ★ Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals!

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