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Descriptive research and correlations ss
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Descriptive research and correlations ss

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  • Oleth (hotel); rktcu (truck); lsuso (souls)
  • Yearbook PowerPoint Activity
  • Have students give example for each type of correlation (Complete shoe size and height)

Transcript

  • 1. Descriptive Research Methods and Correlations
  • 2. Psychology is more than Common Sense • Psychology – The scientific study of behavior and mental processes • Hindsight Bias – Knew it all along – The outcome of a study can seem obvious • Overconfidence – Belief that we are more accurate than we really are • Solve this anagram: Y O L G S H Y O P C • Critical Thinking – Carefully evaluating assumptions, evidence and conclusions Anagram COURTRUTOC ENTRYETYRN WATERWREAT 2
  • 3. The Scientific Method 3 Confirm, reject or revise
  • 4. Operational Definitions • Facial Hair • Getting out of your seat • Being Tardy • Yearbook Smiles 4
  • 5. Descriptive Research: Naturalistic Observation • Observing Behavior without interfering • Only Describes, does not explain • Good for studying different cultures – Examples: Humans laugh 30 times more when in social situations – Students play with their hair when taking tests – Note: If you know you are being watched, you will act differently (Hawthorne Effect) 5
  • 6. Descriptive Research: Case Study• What is a case study? – One of the oldest research methods – Looking at one person or very small group – Yields lots of data • What are they used for? – To suggest hypothesis for further research – Suggests what might happen in other cases • What are problems with case studies? – Cannot generalize to large groups – People may be atypical – Example: „Phineas Gage” 6
  • 7. Descriptive Research: Surveys • What are surveys? – Verbal assessments or written questionnaires • What are the advantages? – Lots of data in a short time • What are the disadvantages? – People lie to look good (or be funny) – Can‟t prove cause and effect – Wording Effects might influence data • Wording can influence how someone answers a question • Example: “Aid the needy” or “Increase Welfare” 7
  • 8. Descriptive Research: Surveys • A new CBS News/New York Times poll shows how the wording of a survey question dramatically influences the result. The poll finds 59% of Americans say they now support allowing "homosexuals" to serve in the U.S. military. But when the question is changed to whether Americans support "gay men and lesbians" serving in the military, 70% of Americans say they support that. There's a further difference when the question specifies that they "openly" serve. In this case, just 44% favor allowing "homosexuals" to openly serve in the military while 58% favor allowing "gay men and lesbians" to serve openly. 8
  • 9. Descriptive Research: Surveys • 1255 people were surveyed by New York, American Museum of Natural History: 77% interested in plants and trees, but only 39% interested in botany 48% interested in fossils, but only 39% interested in paleontology 42% interested in rocks and minerals, but 53% interested in geology 9
  • 10. Correlation Studies • A statistical measure used to predict a relationship between two variables • Cannot be used to prove causation • Correlation Coefficient = Pearson‟s r – Ranges on a scale from -1.00 to +1.00 – +/- .60 indicates a strong relationship 10 Scatterplot A visual representation of the correlation coefficient
  • 11. Types of Correlations • Positive Correlation (ex. +.80) – As one variable increases, so does the other – Example: GPA and hours studying • Negative Correlation (ex. - .72) – As one variable increases, the other decreases – Example: Hours exercising and weight • No Correlation (ex. -.12 or + .08) – The two variables show no statistical relationship – Height and GPA 11
  • 12. Correlation and Causation • Does low self esteem cause depression? • Confounding Variables or Third Variable Problem • Example: Ice Cream Sales and Murder Rates or 12
  • 13. Illusory Correlations • The perception of a relationship where none exists • Why do we succumb to illusory correlations? – We are sensitive to dramatic events that seem linked together • Examples: – Arthritis and Cold Weather – Pregnant cravings and sex of the child – Sugar and Hyperactivity – Gay Males and High Voices – Wet Hair and Catching a Cold Virus 13