Brain parts ss

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  • #1) A #2) C
  • #1) B # 2) D
  • Phineas Gage Video
  • #1) B # 2) D
  • Most people say the left because it goes into the right hemisphere
  • DDD DDD DDD = H Symbol (Left lights up at D’s, Right lights up at H’s)
  • B
  • Brain parts ss

    1. 1. Biology & Behavior: Ways to Study the Brain, Parts of the Brain, Split Brains 1
    2. 2. Section 4: Observing the Brain • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do neuroscientists study the brain’s connections to behavior and the mind? 2
    3. 3. How We Observe the Brain • Phrenology – Created by Franz Gall (1796) – Bumps on head determine personality • Dramatic Brain Injury – Phineas Gage Case Study (1848) 3
    4. 4. How We Observe the Brain • Electroencephalogram (EEG) An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp. • PET (positron emission tomography) Scan is a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task. • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue. Images show ventricular enlargement in a schizophrenic patient. 4
    5. 5. How We Observe the Brain 5 EEG PET Scan MRI f-MRI
    6. 6. Section 4: Observing the Brain • Reflection of Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do neuroscientists study the brain’s connections to behavior and the mind? 6 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    7. 7. Section 4: Test Your Knowledge (#1)1. People, like Phineas Gage, who have experienced severe damage to the frontal lobe of the brain seldom regain their ability to: A. Make and carry out plans B. Recognize visual patterns C. Process auditory information D. Process olfactory information E. Integrate their multiple personalities 2. An EEG records: A. Direct electrical stimulation of the brain B. The number of neurons in the brain C. Electrical impulses from the brain D. Chemical activity in specific areas of the brain E. Stimulation of the frontal lobe 7
    8. 8. Section 4: Test Your Knowledge (#2) 1. Identify this type of imaging and hypothesis what it is showing: 8
    9. 9. Section 5A: Brain Structure & Functions • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What specific brain areas control certain functions? 9
    10. 10. The Old Brain (Brainstem) • Medulla – Heartbeat and Breathing • Pons “bridge” – Coordinates Movement and Sleep • Reticular Formation – Net of Nerves Inside the Brainstem – Controls Arousal & Alertness – Example: When you name is called • Locus Coeruleus – Center of Reticular Formation – Alertness and Panic • Thalamus – Signal Switchboard – Relays information to your pleasure areas – Relays senses (not smell) information to cortex areas • Ex: Information from eyes to visual cortex 10
    11. 11. The Cerebellum “little brain” • MAIN FUNCTION: – Coordinates balance & movement • (ex. Walking, playing guitar hero) • OTHER FUNCTIONS: – Judges time – Stores muscle memory – Discriminates sounds and texture 11
    12. 12. The Limbic System (Emotional) • Amygdala – Aggression and Fear • Hypothalamus – Hunger, Thirst, Sex, & Body Temp. – reward center & dopamine pathways • Hippocampus – Memory 12
    13. 13. The Cerebral Cortex • Frontal Lobes – Thoughts & Decision Making – Contains Motor Cortex – Contains Prefrontal Cortex • In charge of logic, step-by-step decision making, morals, and emotional control • Parietal Lobes – Sensation/Touch – Contains Sensory Cortex • Occipital Lobes – Vision Processing – Contains Visual Cortex • Temporal Lobes – Hearing & Memory – Contains auditory cortex 13
    14. 14. Section 5A: Brain Structure & Functions • Reflection of Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What specific brain areas control certain functions? 14 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    15. 15. Section 5B: Brain Structure & Functions • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What specific brain areas control certain functions? 2. To what extent can a damaged brain reorganize itself? 15
    16. 16. The Cerebral Cortex 16
    17. 17. The Cerebral Cortex 17
    18. 18. Association Areas Association areas deal with high level thinking such as directions and location 18
    19. 19. Language & The Brain • Aphasia is an impairment of a language area in the brain, usually caused by left hemisphere damage. • Broca’s area helps us use muscle movements for speaking and pronunciation (Aphasia here is indicated by speaking slowly with missing words) • Wernicke’s area interrupts understanding of words. (aphasia of this area is indicated by garbled sentences or use of words that don’t make sense) 19 Example Aphasia: What do you do with a cigarette? Broca Aphasia: Uh…(long pause)…cigarette…uh…smoke it. Wernicke Aphasia: This is a segment of pegment, soap a cigarette.
    20. 20. Brain Plasticity • The ability for the brain to modify itself after damage • Amputation leads to phantom sensations • People can generate new brain cells (Neurogenesis) 20
    21. 21. Section 5B: Brain Structure & Functions • Reflection of Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What specific brain areas control certain functions? 2. To what extent can a damaged brain reorganize itself? 21 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    22. 22. Section 5: Test Your Knowledge 1. Homework: Study parts of the brain!!! 22
    23. 23. Section 6: Split-Brain & Consciousness • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What do split brain reveal about the functions of our two brain hemispheres? 2. What is the “dual processing” being revealed by today’s cognitive neuroscience? 23
    24. 24. The Two Hemispheres  Our brain is divided into two hemispheres.  The left hemisphere processes reading, writing, speaking, mathe matics, and comprehension skills. In the 1960s, it was termed as the dominant brain. • Right Brain – Creativity – Facial Expressions 24
    25. 25. Which face is happier? 25
    26. 26. The Two Hemispheres 26 No Such Thing as Left- Brain or Right-Brain Dominance. You are NOT primarily left or right brained!
    27. 27. Split Brain Experiment (Sperry & Gazzagnia) • With the corpus callosum severed, objects (apple) presented in the right visual field can be named. Objects (pencil) in the left visual field cannot. We cut the corpus callosum for seizures. 27
    28. 28. Split Brain Experiment (Sperry) 28
    29. 29. Split Brain Experiment (Sperry) Try drawing one shape with your left hand and one with your right hand, simultaneously. 29
    30. 30. Dual Processing: Who is really in control? • Consciousness takes place in two forms: – High Road: Conscious ideas that we think about and readily recall – Low Road: Unconscious feelings, ides and experiences that influence our behavior and thought. 30 About 1/3 of a second before you think of raising your hand, your brain has already started to process the movement
    31. 31. Section 6: Split-Brain & Consciousness • Reflection of Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What do split brain reveal about the functions of our two brain hemispheres? 2. What is the “dual processing” being revealed by today’s cognitive neuroscience? Mr. Burnes 31 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    32. 32. Section 6: Test Your Knowledge 1. In people whose corpus callosums’ have not been severed, verbal stimuli are identified more quickly and more accurately: A. When sent to the right hemisphere first B. When sent to the left hemisphere first C. When presented to the left visual field. D. When presented auditorally, rather than visually. 32

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