MEMORY
AP Psychology
Facts or Falsehoods: Memory
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

Memory storage is never automatic, it always takes effort.
When peop...
Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to:
– Describe the three types of memory.
– Compare and contrast the informati...
Three Types of Memory Overview

What is more important:
experiences or memory of
experiences?

4
Theory # 1: Information Processing Model of Memory

5
Theory # 1: Information Processing Model of Memory

Keyboard
(Encoding)

Disk
(Storage)

Monitor
(Retrieval)

6
Problems with Information Processing Model
1. Some information skips the first two stages and
enters long-term memory auto...
Theory # 2: Working Memory Model
• Developed by
Alan Baddeley in
the 1970s
• The key is the
central executive
• Takes into...
Learning Objectives in Review
• Students will be able to:
– Describe the three types of memory.
– Compare and contrast the...
Section Assessment
In one sentence summarize the difference
between the information processing model and
the working memor...
Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to:
– Describe the process of encoding as it relates to
memory.

11
General Information about Processes
1. Encoding: Getting
Information into
Memory
2. Storage: Keeping
Information in Memory...
How We Encode
- Visual Encoding (imagery)
- Acoustic Encoding (sounds)
- Semantic Encoding (meaning)
* We can recall infor...
How We Encode (Acquire Information)
Automatic Processing
- Space: location of items
- Time: sequence of the day’s events
-...
Using Mnemonic Devices to Encode
MNEMONIC DEVICES
Memory aids that use organizational devices or imagery to recall memorie...
Remember these words in order…
•
•
•
•
•
•

Salad
Angry
French
Can
Mix
Car

•
•
•
•
•
•

Cat
TV
Horn
Banana
President
Lock...
Encoding Test
• Recall as many presidents as you
can in ANY order.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

01 Washington, George (1789-1797)
02 Adams, John (1797-1801)
03 Jefferson, Thomas (18...
Encoding & Serial Position Effect
•

•

Primacy Effect
– Recall items better at the beginning of the list
– Better in the ...
Other Issues in Encoding
Next-in-line Effect
- Tend to not recall information of person before your turn in
line because y...
Summary Of Encoding

21
Learning Objectives in Review
• Students will be able to:
– Describe the process of encoding as it relates to
memory.

22
Section Assessment
1.

When a list of words is learned in order, the words most likely to be
forgotten are those that are:...
Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to:
– Describe the characteristics of storage in the three
stages of memory.
–...
Storage
• Images, words, etc… are stored into memory
for varied lengths of time.
• Storage happens in the sensory
memory, ...
Storage: Types of Sensory Memory
Sensory
Iconic
Memory
0.5 sec. long

Echoic
3-4 sec. long
Hepatic
< 1 sec. long

26
9

8

2

5

2

1

7

3

9
Storage: Short-term Memory
WORKING/SHORT TERM MEMORY
- Lasts about 20-30 seconds with no
interference
- Can hold on averag...
Short-Term Visual Memory Test
You Have 30 Seconds to Remember
this list in order:
216964615199725246801296160894
Results
• 4-9 = Average
• 10-19 = extraordinary
• 20-30 = brilliant
* Nancy Shulins, Memory Professor
Flashbulb Memory
A unique and highly emotional moment may
give rise to a clear, strong, and persistent
memory called flash...
Episodic Memories
• Memories of episodes of
our lives.
– Example: Going on a date
– Getting hurt while doing an
activity
–...
Storage & Brain Changes
Synaptic Changes
- Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic
enhancement after learning. An ...
Storage: Types of Long-term Memory

Having read a story once, people with
hippocampus damage will read it faster the secon...
Storage Review
Feature

Sensory
Memory

Working
Memory

LTM

Encoding

Copy

Phonemic

Semantic

Capacity

Unlimited

7±2
...
Learning Objectives in Review
• Students will be able to:
– Describe the characteristics of storage in the three
stages of...
Section Assessment
1.

According to George A. Miller the amount of information that can be stored in
short term memory is:...
Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to:
– Describe the characteristics of retrieval in
memory.
– Identify how prim...
Retrieval Types
RECALL (hard)
Total retrieval of information
Ex. fill-in-the-blank test or essay test
RECOGNITION (easy)
I...
Retrieval Types Test
Group A: Write down
the names of the Seven
Dwarfs
1. __________
2. __________
3. __________
4. ______...
Retrieval Cues
PRIMING
Activate an association such as “smoke”
CONTEXT EFFECTS
* Context Dependent Memory
Being in a place...
Group A
• You are going to look briefly at a picture and
then answer some questions about it. The
picture is a rough sketc...
Group B
• You are going to look briefly at a picture and
then answer some questions about it. The
picture is a rough sketc...
Memory Priming

44
In this picture was there…
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A car?
A man?
A woman?
A child?
An animal?
A whip?
A sword?
A m...
Conclusion
• Top Down processing – you go beyond the
sensory information to try to make meaning
out of ambiguity in your w...
Learning Objectives in Review
• Students will be able to:
– Describe the characteristics of retrieval in
memory.
– Identif...
Section Assessment
1.

Complete this analogy: Fill-in-the-blank test questions are to multiplechoice questions as:
(A) enc...
Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to:
– Distinguish between the different types of
forgetting.
– Define the misi...
Forgetting: Encoding Failure
• Encoding Failure: Not paying attention to something causes
you not to encode it

50
Forgetting: Interference
• Proactive = Old Interferes with New
• Retroactive = New Interferes with Old
• Sleep prevents re...
Forgetting: Storage Decay
• Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve
• We will retain about 1/3 of what we learned in the long-term

5...
Forgetting: Retrieval Failure
• Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon: Unable to recall information
because it has been misplaced i...
Forgetting: Other Theories
• Repression: Freud’s idea that a defense mechanism banishes
anxiety-arousing thoughts, feeling...
Misinformation & Imagination Effects
Dr. Loftus
Memory Research Guru

Misinformation Effect: Incorporating
misleading info...
Types of Amnesia
•

Retrograde: Inability to recall past events before the trauma occurred.
–

•

Anterograde: Inability t...
Learning Objectives
• Students will be able to:
– Distinguish between the different types of
forgetting.
– Define the misi...
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  • (1) F (2) T (3) F (4) F (5) F (6) T (7) T (8) F
  • 867-5309 Jenny’ phone number800-588-2300 empire floors
  • Encoding Test in 30 secondsRead the story about washing the clothes from the book
  • Show Feats of Memory (Parts I &amp; II)
  • Presidents Encoding Test
  • C, D
  • Activity: Sensory Memory Test, Demo: Hands in Front of Face (many fingers)Activity Psych Sim 5?
  • Most people can recall with a line, but not the whole thing.
  • Activity: 5, 7, 10, 12 Numbers and RecallActivity: Farmer’s Recall
  • Video: Clive WearingDiscuss Antrograde and Retrograde Amnesia
  • Rajan Video &amp; Counting Pi
  • D
  • Activity: Recall Names of the Capitals (TOT)
  • Activity: Recall Names of the Capitals (TOT)
  • Activity: Sleep, Awake, Aardvark, Etc…Activity: Priming Tripoli or A Hair/HareActivity: Remember details better if you have an expectation (kites)Activity: Polly-Anna Principle (if time allows)
  • D, A
  • Transcript of "Ap memory ss"

    1. 1. MEMORY AP Psychology
    2. 2. Facts or Falsehoods: Memory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Memory storage is never automatic, it always takes effort. When people go around a circle saying their names, their poorest memories are for what was said by the person just before them. Memory aids are no more useful than simple rehearsal of information. Only a few people have photographic memory. Although our capacity for storing information is large, we are still limited in the number of memories we can form. When people learn something while intoxicated, they recall it best when they are intoxicated again. The hour before sleep is a good time to commit information to memory. How confident eyewitnesses are about what they saw is an important predictor of their accuracy. 2
    3. 3. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Describe the three types of memory. – Compare and contrast the information processing model of memory vs. the working model of memory. 3
    4. 4. Three Types of Memory Overview What is more important: experiences or memory of experiences? 4
    5. 5. Theory # 1: Information Processing Model of Memory 5
    6. 6. Theory # 1: Information Processing Model of Memory Keyboard (Encoding) Disk (Storage) Monitor (Retrieval) 6
    7. 7. Problems with Information Processing Model 1. Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. 2. Since we cannot focus all the sensory information in the environment, we select information (through attention) that is important to us. 3. The nature of short-term memory is more complex. 7
    8. 8. Theory # 2: Working Memory Model • Developed by Alan Baddeley in the 1970s • The key is the central executive • Takes into account the complexities of memory 8
    9. 9. Learning Objectives in Review • Students will be able to: – Describe the three types of memory. – Compare and contrast the information processing model of memory vs. the working model of memory. 9
    10. 10. Section Assessment In one sentence summarize the difference between the information processing model and the working memory model. 10
    11. 11. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Describe the process of encoding as it relates to memory. 11
    12. 12. General Information about Processes 1. Encoding: Getting Information into Memory 2. Storage: Keeping Information in Memory 3. Retrieval: Getting Information out of Memory 12
    13. 13. How We Encode - Visual Encoding (imagery) - Acoustic Encoding (sounds) - Semantic Encoding (meaning) * We can recall information we can relate to ourselves (self-reference effect) Remember the word: nelipot Group 1: Does it have capital letters? Group 2: What does it sound like? Group 3: The _____ liked walking on the beach. 13
    14. 14. How We Encode (Acquire Information) Automatic Processing - Space: location of items - Time: sequence of the day’s events - Frequency: how many times things have happened Effortful Processing - Maintenance Rehearsal: - Simple Repeating keeps it STM - Elaborate Rehearsal: - Thinking & Making connections to other learned ideas 14
    15. 15. Using Mnemonic Devices to Encode MNEMONIC DEVICES Memory aids that use organizational devices or imagery to recall memories 1. METHOD OF LOCI - Imagine walking through familiar locations and linking each place with what is to be remembered; used by actors to remember lines 2. PEG-WORD - Remember a list through a jingle (1- bun, 2- shoe, 3- tree) 3. ACRONYMS * HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior * ROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet 15
    16. 16. Remember these words in order… • • • • • • Salad Angry French Can Mix Car • • • • • • Cat TV Horn Banana President Lock • • • • • • Mouse Tire Roll Terrible Dawn Microphone
    17. 17. Encoding Test • Recall as many presidents as you can in ANY order.
    18. 18. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 01 Washington, George (1789-1797) 02 Adams, John (1797-1801) 03 Jefferson, Thomas (1801-1809) 04 Madison, James (1809-1817) 05 Monroe, James (1817-1825) 06 Adams, John Quincy (1825-1829) 07 Jackson, Andrew (1829-1837) 08 Van Buren, Martin (1837-1841) 09 Harrison, William Henry (1841) 10 Tyler, John (1841-1845) 11 Polk, James Knox (1845-1849) 12 Taylor, Zachary (1849-1850) 13 Fillmore, Millard (1850-1853) 14 Pierce, Franklin (1853-1857) 15 Buchanan, James (1857-1861) 16 Lincoln, Abraham (1861-1865) 17 Johnson, Andrew (1865-1869) 18 Grant, Ulysses S. (1869-1877) 19 Hayes, Rutherford Birchard (18771881) 20 Garfield, James Abram (1881) 21Arthur, Chester Alan (1881-1885) 22 Cleveland, Grover (1885-1889) 23 Harrison, Benjamin (1889-1893) 24 Cleveland, Grover (1893-1897) 25 McKinley, William (1897-1901) 26 Roosevelt, Theodore (1901-1909) 27 Taft, William Howard (1909-1913) 28 Wilson, Woodrow (1913-1921) 29 Harding, Warren Gamaliel (1921-1923) 30 Coolidge, Calvin (1923-1929) 31 Hoover, Herbert Clark (1929-1933) 32 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (19331945) 33 Truman, Harry (1945-1953) 34 Eisenhower, Dwight David (1953-1961) 35 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1961-1963) 36 Johnson, Lyndon Baines (1963-1969) 37 Nixon, Richard Milhous (1969-1974) 38 Ford, Gerald Rudolph (1974-1977) 39 Carter, James Earl Jr. (1977-1981 40 Reagan, Ronald Wilson (1981-1989) 41 Bush, George Herbert Walker (19891993) 42 Clinton, William Jefferson (19932001) 43 Bush, George Walker (2001-2009) 44 Obama, Barack Hussein (2009present)
    19. 19. Encoding & Serial Position Effect • • Primacy Effect – Recall items better at the beginning of the list – Better in the long run Recency Effect – Recall items better at the end of the list – Better in the short term 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. TUV ZOF GEK WAV XOZ TIK FUT WIB SAR POZ REY GIJ Better recall Poor recall Better recall Created by the father of memory: Hermann Ebbinghaus 19
    20. 20. Other Issues in Encoding Next-in-line Effect - Tend to not recall information of person before your turn in line because you focus on our own performance Spacing Effect (Distributed Guided Practice) - We retain information better when it is distributed over time - Spread out our learning (cramming = dump and forget) 20
    21. 21. Summary Of Encoding 21
    22. 22. Learning Objectives in Review • Students will be able to: – Describe the process of encoding as it relates to memory. 22
    23. 23. Section Assessment 1. When a list of words is learned in order, the words most likely to be forgotten are those that are: (A) At the beginning of the list (B) At the end of the list (C) In the middle of the list (D) Hardest to pronounce (E) Easiest to spell 2. According to the information-possessing view of memory, the first process of memory involves: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Retrieval Storage Rehearsal Encoding Transfer 23
    24. 24. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Describe the characteristics of storage in the three stages of memory. – Identify flashbulb memory and long-term potentiation. 24
    25. 25. Storage • Images, words, etc… are stored into memory for varied lengths of time. • Storage happens in the sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory. 25
    26. 26. Storage: Types of Sensory Memory Sensory Iconic Memory 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Hepatic < 1 sec. long 26
    27. 27. 9 8 2 5 2 1 7 3 9
    28. 28. Storage: Short-term Memory WORKING/SHORT TERM MEMORY - Lasts about 20-30 seconds with no interference - Can hold on average 7 +/- 2 (Miller) - Slightly better for hearing than seeing - Slightly better for digits than letters - Can retain about 4 chunks of information without rehearsal - Chunking: remembering more by chunking things together: 1-9-4-1-1-8-1-2-1-9-9-3-2-0-0-4 28
    29. 29. Short-Term Visual Memory Test You Have 30 Seconds to Remember this list in order: 216964615199725246801296160894
    30. 30. Results • 4-9 = Average • 10-19 = extraordinary • 20-30 = brilliant * Nancy Shulins, Memory Professor
    31. 31. Flashbulb Memory A unique and highly emotional moment may give rise to a clear, strong, and persistent memory called flashbulb memory. However, this memory is not free from errors. President Bush being told of 9/11 attack. 31
    32. 32. Episodic Memories • Memories of episodes of our lives. – Example: Going on a date – Getting hurt while doing an activity – Graduation – Accidents 32
    33. 33. Storage & Brain Changes Synaptic Changes - Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning. An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapse. Stress Hormones - Heightening emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress may disrupt memory. Hippocampus - Neutral center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories. - Damage to the Left: verbal information - Damage to the Right: visual design & location Cerebellum - Neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories. 33
    34. 34. Storage: Types of Long-term Memory Having read a story once, people with hippocampus damage will read it faster the second time, but will not remember what they have read. Same thing happens for where is Waldo findings. 34
    35. 35. Storage Review Feature Sensory Memory Working Memory LTM Encoding Copy Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 7±2 Chunks Very Large Duration 0.25 sec. 20 sec. Years 35
    36. 36. Learning Objectives in Review • Students will be able to: – Describe the characteristics of storage in the three stages of memory. – Identify flashbulb memory and long-term potentiation. 36
    37. 37. Section Assessment 1. According to George A. Miller the amount of information that can be stored in short term memory is: (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 7 (E) 9 2. If you had damage to your hippocampus, which of the following would you MOST likely have trouble completing? (A) Riding a bicycle down the street (B) Copying a word down from the board (C) Learning a stranger’s name for the first time (D) Finishing the line to a very common song that someone sings the first two lines to 37
    38. 38. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Describe the characteristics of retrieval in memory. – Identify how priming aids in memory recall. 38
    39. 39. Retrieval Types RECALL (hard) Total retrieval of information Ex. fill-in-the-blank test or essay test RECOGNITION (easy) Identify previous items learned Ex. basic multiple choice tests RELEARNING (easy) Memory measure that assess the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time Ex. studying for a test 39
    40. 40. Retrieval Types Test Group A: Write down the names of the Seven Dwarfs 1. __________ 2. __________ 3. __________ 4. __________ 5. __________ 6. __________ 7. __________ Group B: Pick the Correct Names of the Seven Dwarfs (A) Happy (B) Dopey (C) Bashful (D) Dapper (E) Wheezy (F) Doc (G) Grumpy (H) Lovey (I) Sneezy (J) Sleepy 40
    41. 41. Retrieval Cues PRIMING Activate an association such as “smoke” CONTEXT EFFECTS * Context Dependent Memory Being in a place to recall memories Students do better on tests if they study in the same place they take the test. Eyewitness goes back to where they saw the crime occur. water smell fire smoke Fire Truck heat hose truck red MOOD & MEMORY * State Dependent Memory Same emotional/Physical state of when the memory was first stored. (Drunks losing keys) MOOD CONGRUENT MEMORY * Happy memories are easier to retrieve when a person is happy. 41
    42. 42. Group A • You are going to look briefly at a picture and then answer some questions about it. The picture is a rough sketch of a poster for a costume ball. Do not dwell on the picture. Look at it only long enough to “take it all in” once. After this, you will answer YES or NO to a series of questions. 42
    43. 43. Group B • You are going to look briefly at a picture and then answer some questions about it. The picture is a rough sketch of a poster for a trained seal act. Do not dwell on the picture. Look at it only long enough to “take it all in” once. After this, you will answer YES or NO to a series of questions. 43
    44. 44. Memory Priming 44
    45. 45. In this picture was there… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. A car? A man? A woman? A child? An animal? A whip? A sword? A man’s hat? A ball? A fish? 45
    46. 46. Conclusion • Top Down processing – you go beyond the sensory information to try to make meaning out of ambiguity in your world • What you expect (your experiences and your perceptual set) drives this process • Your memory was primed, so you saw what you were meant to see 46
    47. 47. Learning Objectives in Review • Students will be able to: – Describe the characteristics of retrieval in memory. – Identify how priming aids in memory recall. 47
    48. 48. Section Assessment 1. Complete this analogy: Fill-in-the-blank test questions are to multiplechoice questions as: (A) encoding is to storage (B) storage is to encoding (C) recognition is to recall (D) recall is to recognition 2. In an effort to remember the name of the classmate who sat behind her in fifth grade, Martina mentally recited the names of other classmates who sat near her. Martina's effort to refresh her memory by activating related associations is an example of: (A) (B) (C) (D) Priming Déjà vu Encoding Relearning 48
    49. 49. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Distinguish between the different types of forgetting. – Define the misinformation effect. – Contrast different types of amnesia. 49
    50. 50. Forgetting: Encoding Failure • Encoding Failure: Not paying attention to something causes you not to encode it 50
    51. 51. Forgetting: Interference • Proactive = Old Interferes with New • Retroactive = New Interferes with Old • Sleep prevents retroactive interference. Therefore, it leads to better recall. 51
    52. 52. Forgetting: Storage Decay • Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve • We will retain about 1/3 of what we learned in the long-term 52
    53. 53. Forgetting: Retrieval Failure • Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon: Unable to recall information because it has been misplaced in the long-term memory. 53
    54. 54. Forgetting: Other Theories • Repression: Freud’s idea that a defense mechanism banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. – Sometimes referred to as Motivated Forgetting – Most often reported in sexual abuse cases – Limited support for this theory 54
    55. 55. Misinformation & Imagination Effects Dr. Loftus Memory Research Guru Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event. Eyewitness reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event. Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other? Broken Glass? (%) A week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass that Group A (hit). 50 40 32 30 20 14 10 0 Group A (hit) Group B (Smashed into) Verb 55
    56. 56. Types of Amnesia • Retrograde: Inability to recall past events before the trauma occurred. – • Anterograde: Inability to form new memories (50 first dates, Clive Wearing) – • Usually impacts the Cerebral Cortex Usually impacts the hippocampus Source: Attributing an event to the wrong source that we experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution). – – – One of the weakest parts of memory is the source of information Ex. We may recognize someone, but we do not know where we know them from! Mr. Science Experiment 56
    57. 57. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Distinguish between the different types of forgetting. – Define the misinformation effect. – Contrast different types of amnesia. 57

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