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  • Ap development copy ss

    1. 1. Developmental Psychology From Womb to Tomb | AP Psychology
    2. 2. Section 1: Intro to Development  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does life develop before birth? 2. What are some newborn abilities? 2
    3. 3. Developmental Psychology Debates  Nature vs. Nurture  What impacts our development more- genetics or experience?  Continuity and stages  Do we develop in stages (step-by- step) or is it a continuous processes that is more seamless?  Stability and change  Does our early personality stay the same or continue throughout life? 3
    4. 4. Prenatal Development  Stage 1: Zygote  First 2 Weeks  First week- 100 cells  Specialization of cells begin  Placenta begins to form  Stage 2: Embryo  2-8 weeks  Heart starts to beat  Most vulnerable to teratogens  Stage 3: Fetus  8-40 weeks  Feet, hands have formed  Facial features are forming 4
    5. 5. Teratogens (harmful agents)  Smoking (Nicotine)  Low Birth Weight  Miscarriage, Premature  Low Oxygen Levels  Increase chance of SIDS  Alcohol  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  Leading cause of mental retardation  Increased hyperactivity  Delayed motor development  Increased depression and criminal behavior in adults  Other Teratogens  Viruses  X-rays  Heroin and Cocaine 5 Addiction Withdrawal FAS Features
    6. 6. Newborn Reflexes  Rooting Reflex  Looking for food when touched on the cheek  Swallowing Reflex  Automatic swallowing  Stepping Reflex  Step when held in standing position  Grasping Reflex  Grab when middle of palm is touched  Moro Reflex  Arch back when frightened  Babinski Reflex  Spreads toes 6 Moro Reflex Rooting Reflex
    7. 7. Section 1: Intro to Development  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does life develop before birth? 2. What are some newborn abilities? 7 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    8. 8. Section 2: Early Brain Development  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do researchers explore infants‟ mental abilities? 2. During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor skills develop? 8
    9. 9. Habituation & Infant Testing  How do we test newborns and infants’ thinking?  Habituation: A decrease in responding with repeated stimulation (Boredom)  Babies prefer human voices to other sounds  Babies gaze at human faces longer than other shapes  Babies prefer to look at faces and images at a distance of 8-12 inches away  Babies prefer their mother‟s scent  Babies will suck more vigorously when they hear their mother‟s voice compared to another female voice. (they probably know the mother‟s voice from prenatal experience) 9
    10. 10. Infant Memory Development  Infantile Amnesia  Before age 3, the hippocampus and frontal lobes are underdeveloped.  By age 4/5, long-term memories start to form  The unconscious mind has memories for long periods of time  Skin responses show that we react to photographs of former classmates, even though we do not recall them10 Babies only 3 months old can learn that kicking moves a mobile, and they can retain that learning for a month
    11. 11. Section 2: Early Brain Development  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do researchers explore infants‟ mental abilities? 2. During infancy and childhood, how do the brain and motor skills develop? 11 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    12. 12. Section 2: Test Your Knowledge 1. During what stage of prenatal development is the organism most vulnerable to teratogens? A: Embryonic 2. What is the leading cause of mental retardation in the US? A: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 3. Which reflex helps a newborn find food sources when their cheek is touched? A: Rooting Reflex 4. Why is habituation a good test of infant cognitive abilities? A: It allows us to judge their boredom levels 5. What is is called when we can‟t remember before age three? A: Infantile amnesia 12
    13. 13. Section 3: Piaget’s Cognitive Development  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. From the perspective of Piaget and of today‟s researcher‟s how does a child‟s mind develop? 13
    14. 14. Schema, Assimilation & Accommodation  Schema  A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information  Assimilation  Interpreting ones new experiences in terms of one‟s existing schemas (Fits it into an existing category)  Accommodation  Revising one‟s current understanding to incorporate new information (Creates a new category) 14
    15. 15. Cognitive Development (Jean Piaget)  Sensorimotor  Age: Birth – 2  Object Permanence  Stranger Anxiety  Preoperational  Age: 2 – 7  Egocentrism  Theory of Mind  Animism  Concrete Operations  Age 7 – 12  Masters law of conservation  Math/Computation Abilities Start  Formal Operations  Age 12 and up  Hypothetical Reasoning and Advanced Thinking  “Third Eye Problem” or “Blind World Problem” 15
    16. 16. More Information: Theory of Mind Testing 16
    17. 17. Section 3: Piaget’s Cognitive Development  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. From the perspective of Piaget and of today‟s researcher‟s how does a child‟s mind develop? 17 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    18. 18. Section 3: Test Your Knowledge 1. While out shopping with my daughter, Rhyan, we meet one of my psychology students in Target. Rhyan asks the psychology student, “Does my Daddy give you treasure box in your class?” Which is Rhyan attempting to do- Assimilation or Accommodation? A: Assimilation 2. Little Johnny knows he has an older brother Billy, but when asked if Billy has a brother, Johnny says no. What stage of cognitive development is Johnny in? A: Preoperational 1. “Max puts his chocolate into the cupboard. He goes out to play. While he is outside he can't see that his mother comes and transfers the chocolate from the cupboard into the table drawer. She then leaves to visit a friend. When Max comes home to get his chocolate, where will he look for it?” What psychological term does this test describe? A: Theory of Mind 18
    19. 19. Section 4: Attachment  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do parent-infant attachment bonds form? 2. How have psychologists studied attachment differences, and what have they learned about the effects of temperament and parenting? 19
    20. 20. Early Social Development  Stranger Anxiety  Greet strangers by crying and/or reaching for primary caregivers  Occurs at about 8 months – 14 months (or longer) 20
    21. 21. Attachment: Harlow‟s Monkey Study  Body Contact  Monkeys and Humans prefer warm, soft contact  Emotional communication occurs through touch  Tickles (arouse); Snuggles (sooth)  Critical Period  Optimal period shortly after birth when an organism starts to develop attachment  Imprinting (Konrad Lorenz)  Animals form attachments during a critical period early in life  Example: Lambs raised near cows will follow cows around 21 Video: Harlow
    22. 22. Attachment: Ainsworth’s Study  Secure Attachment (Ainsworth)  When mom or dad come back, the children will smile and runs to greet them  Insecurely attached babies are probably a result of slow parent responsiveness  Secure attachment leads to:  Higher Self-Esteem  Better Social Skills  Leadership Qualities  More Positive Emotions  Richer Friendships 22 Video: Strange Situation Test
    23. 23. Temperament Studies  Individual characteristic of emotional intensity and excitability  Noticeable from the first few weeks of life and can last throughout a lifetime  Types of Temperaments  Easy: Cheerful and Predictable  Difficult: Fussy and do not stick to a routine  Slow to Warm Up: Cannot be comforted 23
    24. 24. Section 4: Attachment  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do parent-infant attachment bonds form? 2. How have psychologists studied attachment differences, and what have they learned about the effects of temperament and parenting? 24 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    25. 25. Review: Mini-FRQ For the psychological terms listed below, explain how the first term affects or changes the second. • Accommodation… Schema • Teratogens…Prenatal Development • Responsive Caregiver…Children 25
    26. 26. Section 5: Self-Concept and Parenting Styles  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do children‟s self-concepts develop, and how are children‟s traits related to parenting styles? 26
    27. 27. Self-Concept  How can children develop a positive sense of self?  When are children self-aware?  About 18 months will touch a red spot on their nose when looking in the mirror (Self Awareness)  School Aged Children  Have a well-developed self concept  Children with positive self-concept are more:  Confident independent, optimistic, assertive and sociable 27
    28. 28. Types of Parenting  How would you parent your kids? Practice Description Authoritarian Parents impose rules and expect obedience. Permissive Parents submit to children‟s demands. Authoritative Parents are demanding but sensitive to their children. 28 VIDEO: The Children are watching
    29. 29. Types of Parenting Authoritative parenting correlates with social competence — other factors like common genes may lead to an easy-going temperament and may invoke an authoritative parenting style. Strict Permissive Aggressive Immature Cold WarmLenient Inconsistent Overindulgent Neglecting Careless Detached Detached Possessive Controlling Supportive Affectionate Flexible Authoritative High Self-Esteem Social Competence Authoritarian Low Self-Esteem Poor Social Skills 29
    30. 30. Section 5: Self-Concept and Parenting Styles  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do children‟s self-concepts develop, and how are children‟s traits related to parenting styles? 30 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    31. 31. Section 5: Test Your Knowledge  Assessment of Knowledge & Summary 1. Identify and describe each type of parent you witnessed in the video, The Children are Watching. 31
    32. 32. Section 6: Gender Development  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are some Ways in which males and females tend to be alike and to differ? 2. How do nature and nurture together from our gender? 3. To what extent is our development shaped by early stimulation, by parents and peers? 32
    33. 33. Gender Development  MALES  40% more muscle  4x alcohol, suicide  More autism and ADHD  More physically aggressive  Perceived as more socially dominant  10 to 1 arrest ratio  Play in large groups  Suffer from male answer syndrome  FEMALES  5 Inch Shorter  Live 5 years longer  More prone to depression and anxiety  More likely to “tend and befriend others” while playing in small groups  10x eating disorder  Express emotion more freely  Spend more time making connections with others 33
    34. 34. The Nature of Gender  The 23rd Pair  XX- Female  XY- Male  The Prenatal Brain  More Testosterone for boys  Females exposed to more testosterone in the womb have more masculine features & are frequently treated more like boys  Brain Development  Females have larger area for language  Males have larger area for spatial reasoning 34
    35. 35. The Nurture of Gender  Gender Roles  A set of expected behaviors for males and females  Similar to stereotypes  Example: Men drive the car  Vary from culture to culture  Vary from generation to generation (today‟s gender is androgynous) 35
    36. 36. The Nurture of Gender  Raising Children  Gender Identity  Our sense of being male or female  Social Learning Theory  Children learn gender roles based on how others are rewarded or punished  Ex. Dad rewards boys for sticking up for themselves in a fight  Gender Schema Theory  Children learn gender roles based on culture and then adjust behavior accordingly (uses cognition) 36
    37. 37. Early Experiences  Prenatal Environment  Identical twins who share the same placenta are more alike than those who do not, suggesting prenatal influences on psychological traits.  Experiences and Brain Development  Enriched vs. Impoverished Environments  Massage and Touch for Premature babies expands neural pathways 37
    38. 38. Parents vs. Peers  Parents have an influence…  Religion  Political attitudes  Personal manners  Peers have an influence…  Music  Food  Language  Drugs and Smoking 38
    39. 39. Section 6: Gender Development  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are some Ways in which males and females tend to be alike and to differ? 2. How do nature and nurture together from our gender? 3. To what extent is our development shaped by early stimulation, by parents and peers? 39 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    40. 40. Section 6: Test Your Knowledge  What do you believe has more of an influence on your personal development in the following? 1. Parents or Peers 2. Nature or Nurture 40 WHY DO YOU BELIEVE THIS?
    41. 41. Section 7: Adolescence and Cognitive Changes  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How did Piaget, Kohlberg, and later researchers describe adolescent cognitive and more development? 41
    42. 42. Adolescence: Cognitive Changes  The brain undergoes… 1. Pruning of unused neurons and connections to make the brain more efficient 2. Myelin increases around axons in the frontal lobe to help developing reasoning power  Teens start to think about… 1. What other people think about them 2. Their own unique feelings (but not so unique) 3. How parents can be flawed and imperfect 4. How delayed gratification can influence life 42
    43. 43. Adolescence: Moral Development  „Heinz Moral Dilemma‟  A woman is near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but could only gather $1000. Heinz went to the druggist and ask him to sell the drug to him cheaply or on a payment plan, but the druggist refused. Heinz came back that night, broke into the store and stole the drug. Should he have done this? Why or Why Not? 43
    44. 44. Adolescence: Moral Development (Kohlberg)  Preconventional Morality: Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward.  Conventional Morality: By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake.  Postconventional Morality: Affirms people‟s agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles.  Carol Gilligan criticizes Kohlberg‟s Theory, saying it is biased towards women because according to Kohlberg most women never make it past the conventional stage of moral development.  Piaget said that moral development occurred along the lines of cognitive development 44
    45. 45. Social intuitionists view of morality  You see a runaway train with 10 people on it headed for certain death, but if you pull a switch to save the ten people, you know it will kill someone else. DO you do it?  If you had to kill a stranger to save 10 people, would you do it?  Did you have a gut-reaction to this before your cognitions kicked in?  Social intuitionists believe we are wired for moral feelings before moral cognitions 45
    46. 46. Section 7: Adolescence and Cognitive Changes  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How did Piaget, Kohlberg, and later researchers describe adolescent cognitive and more development? 46 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    47. 47. Section 7: Test Your Knowledge According to Lawrence Kohlberg, children at the first level of moral reasoning make judgments about right and wrong on the basis of: A. cultural norms B. social conventions C. religious beliefs D. the likelihood of punishment E. the approval of siblings and same-sex parents 47
    48. 48. Section 8: Social Development in Adolescence  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are the social tasks and challenges of adolescence? 48
    49. 49. Adolescence: Social Changes  Self-esteem is at its lowest at age 12  Peer Pressure is at its highest at age 15  Teens typically “try out” different selves (this is healthy)  Only about 20% of teens actually wish they were someone else  Teens report being happiest when with friends and unhappiest when alone  Erik Erikson believes that Identity needs to be established before intimacy takes place 49
    50. 50. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development 50 Similar to Secure Attachment & Responsive Parenting
    51. 51. Section 8: Social Development in Adolescence  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are the social tasks and challenges of adolescence? 51 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    52. 52. Section 8: Test Your Knowledge  What ONE word would you use to describe the social challenges of adolescence? 52
    53. 53. Section 9: Issues of Adulthood-Part I  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What physical changes occur during middle and late adulthood? 2. How does memory and intelligence change with age? 53
    54. 54. Adulthood: Physical Changes  Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities and cardiac output begin to decline after the mid- twenties. Around age 50, women go through menopause (caused by a decrease in estrogen), and men experience decreased levels of testosterone and fertility. 54
    55. 55. Adulthood: Physical Changes  After age 70, hearing, distance perception, and the sense of smell diminish, as do muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina. After 80, neural processes slow down, especially for complex tasks. 55
    56. 56. Adulthood: Cognitive Changes  Senile Dementia  Mental Erosion  Not all people develop dementia  Alzheimer’s Disease  A form of severe dementia  Presents with flat affect  Neurons breakdown and plaque forms  Affects neurons producing Acetylcholine  Prospective Memory declines: remembering to do tasks in the future. 56
    57. 57. Longitudinal vs. Cross-Sectional Studies  Used to study how people change over time  Longitudinal Study  Studying the same people (cohort) for a long period of time  Pro: Same people, so variables don‟t change  Con: Expense, time-consuming, people die/get lost  Cross-Sectional Study  Study different ages at the same time  Pro: Cheaper and quicker than longitudinal  Con: different people means different variables 57 Which do you think is more valid and reliable?
    58. 58. Aging and Intelligence (Cattell)  Crystallized Intelligence  Accumulated Knowledge  Example: Vocabulary and Factual Knowledge  Fluid Intelligence  Ability to reason speedily and abstractly (figure things out fast)  Helps when approached with new problems  Decreases slowly to age 75, then rapidly  Example: Scientists best work is usually when they are younger, authors when they are older 58 Vocabulary and General Knowledge increase with age, while abstract reasoning decreases with age
    59. 59. Car Accidents and the Elderly 59
    60. 60. Section 9: Issues of Adulthood-Part I  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What physical changes occur during middle and late adulthood? 2. How does memory and intelligence change with age? 60 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding
    61. 61. Section 9: Test Your Knowledge 1.Based on your learning today, what do you fear most about getting older? 2. Which of the following studies demonstrates a cross-sectional research design? A. testing 1st graders, and then testing them again in 3rd grade B. testing first graders at the end of the school year C. testing first, third and fifth graders at the beginning of the school year D. observing first graders as they test in two different subject areas E. observing first graders as they interact with other third graders or first graders. 61
    62. 62. Section 10: Issues of Adulthood-Part II  Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What themes and influences mark our social journey from early adulthood to death? 62
    63. 63. Adulthood: Social Development  Middle Adulthood (40‟s and beyond)  It was once thought that this is when a midlife crisis occurs, but research disproves the midlife crisis  Divorce, Suicide and Anxiety do not peak in midlife  Social Clock Theory  The “right time to do things” (like leave home)  This theory goes against age- linked stages such as the midlife crisis, because the social clock varies by culture. 63
    64. 64. Transition to Marriage  Research suggests that men and women are both marrying later in life compared to 40 years ago. 64
    65. 65. Adulthood: Social Development  Love (Intimacy) 1. Meeting Someone 1. Chance encounters help set up love 2. 95% of identical twins do not have feelings for the other twin‟s spouse 2. Successful Marriages 1. One to five negative to positive interactions 2. Five times more touching 3. Equality & Self-disclosure 4. Fights are fair and calm 3. Divorce 1. 1 in 2 marriages end in divorce 2. Less likely to get divorced if (1) well educated and (2) married after 20 3. Higher divorce rates for those who live together before marriage 65
    66. 66. Adulthood: Social Development  Empty Nest Syndrome 1. When the last child leaves home, some women feel depressed 2. Research suggests it only happens to a few women  Work (Generativity) 1. Most North Americans define themselves by their careers 2. On average, the typical adult will change their career five times in life 3. Most satisfied workers report it is not the pay, but the quality of the work that makes them happy. 66
    67. 67. Death & Dying (Elizabeth Kubler-Ross)  Stages of Grief & Dying 1. Denial 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance  There is no “normal” reaction or series of grief stages after the death of a loved one. Grief is more sudden if death occurs unexpectedly. 67
    68. 68. Three Debates in Developmental Psychology  Nature vs. Nurture  Does behavior result from genetics or the environment?  Stability vs. Change  Are behaviors/ stable of a lifetime or do they change as we mature  Example: Does personality complete develop in childhood?  Continuity vs. Stages  Do people develop in a continuous way with no clearly defined categories or do they develop in specific stages? 68
    69. 69. Section 10: Issues of Adulthood-Part II  Reflect on Learning Goals:  Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What themes and influences mark our social journey from early adulthood to death? 69 Good Understanding Little Understanding Fair Understanding

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