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Ap consciousness ss Ap consciousness ss Presentation Transcript

  • AP PSYCHOLOGY Consciousness 1
  • Section 1: Rhythms and Consciousness Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do biological rhythms influence our daily functioning? 2
  • MODERN LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS • Consciousness • Selective Attention to information (Our Awareness) • Process one thing at a time (Serial Processing) • Preconscious • Information you are NOT currently thinking about, but still can recall (memories) • Unconscious • Nonconscious activities such as Heart rate, Breathing, Blinking • Information is hidden and repressed from memory. Only evident in our behaviors • Process many things at once (Parallel Processing) 3
  • FREUD’S THEORY OF CONSCIOUSNESS #1 Hold up the number of fingers (1, 2, or 3) which best represents the preconscious mind. #2 #3 4
  • BODILY RHYTHMS Circadian Rhythm & Biological Rhythms • Sleep, Alertness, Body Temperature • 24 Hour sleep/wake cycle & 90 minute sleep cycle • Jet lag can mess with rhythms • Is it better to fly east or west? • Bright light can reset our natural “clock” • Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Pineal Gland and the hormone Melatonin Did you know? If all light cues and clocks are hidden, we will adapt to a 25-hour day 5
  • Fun Fact: What is Sleep Onset? • SLEEP ONSET • The point of falling asleep and the brain shutting down • HYPNIC JERK- The feeling of falling as your body goes to sleep- Brain and body not in congruence 6
  • Section 1: Rhythms and Consciousness Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do biological rhythms influence our daily functioning? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 7
  • Section 1: Test Your Knowledge 1. If a person spends time absent from sunlight cues and clocks, they will likely adopt a ____ hour schedule. (A) 23 (B) 24.5 (C) 25 (D) 27 2. Which level of consciousness controls parallel processing (processing several senses at once? (A) Overt Consciousness (B) Preconsciousness (C) Nonconsciousness (D) Basic Consciousness 8
  • Section 2: The Sleep Cycle Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is the biological rhythm of our sleep? 2. What is sleep’s function? 9
  • SLEEP STAGES BY BRAIN WAVES • Awake- Beta Waves • Awake, but relaxed- Alpha waves • NREM Stage 1 • Hallucinations may take place • Sleep Talking (may occur in stages 1-4) • NREM Stage 2 • Sleep Spindles & K-Complexes • NREM Stage 3 & 4 • Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) • Delta waves help replenish body chemicals • Body repairs itself • Sleepwalking and night terrors occur • Rapid Eye Movement (REM) • Most vivid dreams occur • Mind Repairs itself 10
  • SLEEP STAGES 11
  • Sleep Over the Years 12
  • WHY WE NEED REM SLEEP • Paradoxical Sleep: Your body is paralyzed, but your mind, hormones, heart and breathing are very active • REM sleep increases the longer you sleep • Babies spend about 50% of sleep time in REM • You do not regulate your temperature during REM sleep • REM Sleep is what helps us process daily events into memory & recharge our brains so we can think clearly. • REM Rebound • When you do not get enough REM sleep, the body dips into REM quicker upon sleeping 13
  • Section 2: The Sleep Cycle Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is the biological rhythm of our sleep? 2. What is sleep’s function? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 14
  • Sleep Cycle Review ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. What type of brain waves do you have when you are awake, but relaxed? 2. What happens to the brain waves during stage 2 sleep? 3. What is another name for stage 3 and 4 sleep? 4. Why is stage 3 and 4 sleep important? 5. What is another name for REM sleep? 6. What happens in REM sleep? 7. How long is the sleep cycle? 8. Why do babies need so much sleep? 9. In a normal sleep cycle when does most of the deep sleep occur? 10.What psychological phenomenon occurs if a person has been deprived of REM sleep, but then gets a good night’s sleep? 15
  • Section 3: Sleep Disorders and Dreams Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does sleep loss affect us? 2. What do we dream and what is the function of dreaming? 16
  • COMMON SLEEP DISORDERS • Insomnia• Having problems falling or staying asleep • 10-15% of adults • Becomes worse with sleeping pills and alcohol • Causes: Stress, Depression, Anxiety, Health Problems • Somnambulism• Sleepwalking • During the first two hours of sleep in stages 3 & 4 • Usually gone by age 40 • May be caused by an immature nervous system • Sleep Apnea• Failure to breathe when asleep • 1 in 20 people • Mostly overweight men (snoring)- Can occur 400 17
  • COMMON SLEEP DISORDERS- CONTINUED • Nightmares• Frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM • Night terrors• Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions • Occurs during stage 4 • Mostly found in children • Narcolepsy• Urge to fall asleep; may occur while talking or standing up • 1 in 2000 people • Possible reason: flu virus during third trimester 18
  • WHAT DO WE DREAM ABOUT? • Negative Emotional Content • 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content. • Failure Dreams • People commonly dream about failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune. • Sexual Dreams: • Contrary to our thinking, sexual dreams are sparse. Sexual dreams in men are 1 in 10; and in women 1 in 30. • Dreams of Gender: • Women dream of men and women equally; men dream more about men than women. 19
  • WHY DO WE DREAM? • Wish Fulfillment- Freud’s Interpretation of Dreams • Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams provide a psychic safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings. The dream’s manifest (apparent) content may also have symbolic meanings (latent content) that signify our unacceptable feelings. • Information Processing: • Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences in our memories. • Activation-Synthesis Theory: • Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity. Explains sudden visual images during REM 20
  • Section 3: Sleep Disorders and Dreams Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does sleep loss affect us? 2. What do we dream and what is the function of dreaming? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 21
  • Mini FRQ: Consciousness Gary is really tired from a long day of school and football practice, but he wants to play well in tomorrow’s championship game. Explain how the following will influence his performance in tomorrow’s championship game. • Pineal Gland • Slow Wave Sleep • Sleep Apnea 22
  • ALL POINTS must include a discussion of his performance in the championship game. POINT 1: Pineal Gland • Releases melatonin when tired or during nighttime to help a person sleep. (They do not need mention light sources or sunlight) AND how this logically impacts his performance in the game. • Example: “Gary will be tired from a long day of school and practice so his pineal gland will induce the release of melatonin, a hormone that will help him fall asleep. This will allow him to play better in the game if he gets a good nights rest.” POINT 2: Slow Wave Sleep • Slow wave sleep (AKA deep sleep, stage ¾ sleep) will help his body (muscles, organs, etc…) and restore the body after a physical football practice. • Part of deep sleep that show delta waves which indicate replenishing the body’s chemicals • Example: “Gary will spend more time in slow wave sleep because he had football practice, which may have damaged or weakened his muscles. Deep sleep will help his body heal itself as he sleeps so he can perform well in tomorrow’s game.” • DO NOT SCORE: substitution of Alpha waves, Beta waves, REM sleep. POINT 3: Sleep Apnea • He will stop breathing during the night resulting in tiredness the next day which will have a negative impact on his ability to play well or concentrate in the game tomorrow. • Example: “If Gary has sleep apnea, he will stop breathing during the night, which will result in him feeling tired the next day. If he is tired or cannot concentrate he will perform poorly in the championship game.” 23
  • Section 4: Hypnosis Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is hypnosis, and what powers does a hypnotist have over hypnotized subjects? 2. Is hypnosis an extension of normal consciousness or an altered state? 24
  • HYPNOSIS • Hypnosis • A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur • Posthypnotic Suggestion: Anton Mesmer’s Animal Magnetis m • Suggestion carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized • Works well for weight loss • Posthypnotic Amnesia: • Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis • Age Regression: • Recall memories from an earlier time • Spelling studies show doesn’t work 25
  • HYPNOSIS SUMMARY Ernst Hilgard’s Hidden Observer 26
  • FACTS AND FICTION OF HYPNOSIS 27
  • Section 4: Hypnosis Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is hypnosis, and what powers does a hypnotist have over hypnotized subjects? 2. Is hypnosis an extension of normal consciousness or an altered state? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 28
  • Section 4: Test Your Knowledge Hypnosis is best described as a state that A. give the hypnotist complete control over the thoughts and emotions of the individual B. Induces heightened suggestibility in the hypnotized individual C. Is similar to an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder D. Is similar to the condition produced by excessive alcohol consumption E. Is similar to the REM stage of sleep Under hypnosis, Jerry is able to withstand pain without showing any outward signs of discomfort. However, when asked to signal if some part of his consciousness is aware of the pain, he raises his hand. Which of the following is a theory that best explains Jerry’s behavior? A. Dissociation B. State C. Role D. Social influence E. Age regression 29
  • Section 5: Drugs and Consciousness Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. 2. What are tolerance, dependence and addiction, and what are some common misconceptions about addiction? What are the differences between depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens? 30
  • Take A Guess 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ____ % of college students report drinking alcohol in the last year. ____ % of college student binge drink (more than 4-5 beers in less than one hour). ____ % of students living in Greek housing are binge drinkers. ____ % of non-binge drinkers of college age report having to take care of a drunken student. ______ # of students die annually from alcohol related incidents. ______ # of rape victims where alcohol was involved annually ______ # of college students who report being too intoxicated to know if they had consented to sex. _____ % of college students who report academic problems due to drinking 31
  • DRUGS: DEPRESSANTS • Alcohol effects • • • • • • motor skills judgment memory increases aggressiveness reduced self awareness Represses REM. • Barbiturates Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. Date Rape Drugs • Opiates (Narcotics) Opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. They are highly addictive. Mimic Endorphins 32
  • DRUGS: STIMULANTS • Caffeine and nicotine increase heart and breathing rates and other autonomic functions to provide energy. Speeds up metabolism • Amphetamines stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes, with devastating effects. • Ecstasy or Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. • It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotonin-producing neurons, which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory. • Big Problem with dehydration • Cocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash & depression. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected. 33
  • CASE STUDY: COCAINE & NEURONS • By binding to the sites that normally reabsorb neurotransmitter molecules, cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. • The extra neurotransmitter molecules therefore remain in the synapse, intensifying their normal mood altering effects and producing a euphoric rush. 34
  • LSD Experience • 1943 Alan Hofmann found LSD by accident: Last Friday, April 16, 1943, I was forced to stop my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and to go home, as I was seized by a particular restlessness associated with a sensation of mild dizziness. On arriving home, I lay down and sank into a kind of drunkenness which was not unpleasant and which was characterized by extreme activity of imagination. As I lay in a dazed condition with my eyes closed there surged upon me an uninterrupted stream of fantastic images of extraordinary plasticity and vividness and accompanied by an intense kaleidoscope-like play of colors. The condition graduate passed off after two hours. 35
  • DRUGS: HALLUCINOGENS • Hallucinations • Sensory experiences without sensory stimulus • LSD • (lysergic acid diethylamide) powerful psychodelic drug (ergot fungus) that is also known as acid. • Likely to produce flashbacks • MARIJUANA (Cannabis) • THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)is the major active ingredient in marijuana (hemp plant) that triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations • Affects of marijuana are usually reversible after one month • "Chronic Use" does lead to memory loss & cognitive impairment • "Regular Users" can experience a high with less of the product 36
  • Section 5: Drugs and Consciousness Reflect on Learning Goals • Students should be able to answer the following: 1. 2. What are tolerance, dependence and addiction, and what are some common misconceptions about addiction? What are the differences between depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens? Good Understanding Fair Understanding Little Understanding 37
  • Section 5: Which is True or False? 1. Alcohol is classified as a depressant, even in small amounts. 2. The discomfort when off of a drug is called tolerance. 3. LSD is considered a powerful hallucinogen. 4. Smoking marijuana can distort time, hence it is classified as a stimulant 5. The main ingredient in ecstasy is THC 6. Heroin is classified as a depressant. 7. Cocaine has short-lasting effects because it prevents reuptake of certain neurotransmitters. 8. Because nicotine produces a relaxing effect it is classified as a depressant 38