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Aguiar ap social psychology ss

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  • Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person’s behavior, thoughts, feelings are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others. there are several sections in this chapter, there are really only three main areas discussion: social influence, the ways in which a person’s behavior can be affected people; social cognition, the ways in which people think about other people; interaction, the positive and negative aspects of people relating to others.
  • 1. T (p. 644) 2. F (p. 647) 3. T (p. 650) 4. F (p. 654) 5. T (p. 658) 6. F (p. 658) 7. F (p. 660) 8. F (p. 673) 9. F (p. 682)
    10. T (p. 685
  • Attribution theory states that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior. We may explain people’s behavior in terms of internal dispositions or in terms of the external situation. For example, a teacher may explain a child’s hostility in terms of an aggressive personality or as a reaction to stress or abuse.
    The fundamental attribution error—our tendency to overestimate personality influences and to underestimate situational influences—can lead us to unwarranted conclusions about others’ personality traits. For example, we may blame the poor and the unemployed for their own misfortune.
  • Attribution theory is another area of study within the field of social cognition. Attribution theory tries to explain how people determine the cause of what they observe.
    For instance, if your friend Charley told you he got a perfect score on his math test, you might find yourself thinking that Charley is very good at math. In that case, you have made a dispositional or person attribution.
    Alternatively, you might attribute Charley’s success to a situational factor, such as an easy test; in that case you make a situation attribution. Attributions can also be stable or unstable.
    If you infer that Charley has always been a math whiz, you have made both a person attribution and a stable attribution, also called a person-stable attribution.
    On the other hand, if you think that Charley studied a lot for this one test you have made a person-unstable attribution. Similarly, if you believe that Ms. Gawel, Charley’s math teacher, is an easy teacher, you have made a situation-stable attribution.
    If you think that Ms. Mahoney is a tough teacher who happened to give one easy test, you have made a situation-unstable attribution.
  • When looking at the behavior of others, people tend to overestimate the importance of dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors. This tendency is known as the fundamental
    attribution error.
    Say that you go to a party where you are introduced to Claude, a young man you have never met before. Although you attempt to engage Claude in conversation, he is unresponsive. He looks past you and, soon after, seizes upon an excuse to leave. Most people would conclude that Claude is an unfriendly person. Few consider that something in the situation may have contributed to Claude’s behavior. Perhaps Claude just had a terrible fight with his girlfriend, Isabelle. Maybe on the way to the party he had a minor car accident. The point is that people systematically seem to overestimate the role of dispositional factors in influencing another person’s actions.
    Many cross-cultural psychologists have argued that the fundamental attribution error is far less likely to occur in collectivist cultures than in individualistic cultures. In an individualistic culture, like the American culture, the importance and uniqueness of the individual is stressed. In more collectivist cultures, like Japanese culture, a person’s link to various groups such as family or company is stressed. Cross-cultural research suggests that people in collectivist cultures are less likely to commit the fundamental attribution error, perhaps because they are more attuned to the ways that different situations influence their own behavior.
    The tendency for people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them is called the false-consensus effect. For instance, if Jamal dislikes horror movies, he is likely to think that most other people share his aversion. Conversely, Sabrina, who loves a good horror flick, overestimates the number of people who share her passion.
    Self-serving bias is the tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than for bad ones. For instance, a basketball coach would be more likely to emphasize her or his role in the team’s championship win than in their heartbreaking first-round tournament loss.
  • Answer B
  • D
  • Produced by Adam Davidson, this program won the 1990 Oscar for the best short film. It provides a wonderful introduction to social perception, errors in social thinking (including the fundamental attribution error), and the power of first impressions. The film is a simple account of a middle-aged White woman’s walk through a large urban railroad station. As she navigates through the station to her departing train, she comes face-to-face with her own prejudices regarding Black males and homeless people. The program powerfully illustrates principles of perception illustrated earlier in the course, including top-down processing and the effect of expectations. You could use this to either open or conclude your discussion of social psychology. Begin the class discussion by asking your students what went through their minds as they followed the story. For example, what judgments were they making about the primary characters who appear in the story?
  • Attitudes are feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. For example, we may feel dislike for a person because we believe he or she is mean, and, as a result, act unfriendly toward that person.
    The mere exposure effect states that the more one is exposed to something, the more one will come to like it. Therefore, in the world of advertising, more is better. When you walk into the supermarket, you will be more likely to buy the brand of potato chips you have seen advertised thousands of times rather than one that you have never heard of before.
  • Attitudes often predict our behavior. Public opinion about the reality and dangers of global climate change can change with effects on both personal behaviors and public policies.
  • Sometimes if you can change people’s behavior, you can change their attitudes. Cognitive dissonance theory is based on the idea that people are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors. When they do not, they experience unpleasant mental tension or dissonance.
    For example, suppose (Student name) thinks that studying is only for geeks. If she then studies for 10 hours for her chemistry test, she will experience cognitive dissonance. Since she cannot, at this point, alter her behavior (she has already studied for 10 hours), the only way to reduce this dissonance is to change her attitude and decide that studying does not necessarily make someone a geek. Note that this change in attitude happens without conscious awareness.
  • Festinger and Carlsmith.
    Their participants performed a boring task and were then asked to lie and tell the next subject (actually a confederate1 of the experimenter) that they had enjoyed the task. In one condition, subjects were paid $1 to lie, and in the other condition they were paid $20.
    Afterward, the participants’ attitudes toward the task were measured. Contrary to what reinforcement theory would predict, those subjects who had been paid $1 were found to have significantly more positive attitudes toward the experiment than those who were paid $20.
  • People tend to think that when someone does something nice for them, they ought to do something nice in return. Norms of reciprocity is at work when you feel compelled to send money to the charity that sent you free return address labels or when you cast your vote in the student election for the candidate that handed out those delicious chocolate chip cookies.
  • Central route persuasion occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. Peripheral route persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness. Attitudes affect actions when external influences on what we say and do are minimal, and when the attitude is sta- ble, specific to the behavior, and easily recalled.
  • B
  • B
  • B
  • A major area of research in social psychology is how an individual’s behavior can be affected by another’s actions or even merely by another person’s presence. A number of studies have illustrated that people perform tasks better in front of an audience than they do when they are alone. They yell louder, run faster, and reel in a fishing rod more quickly. This phenomenon, that the presence of others improves task performance, is known as social facilitation. Later studies, however, found that when the task being observed was a difficult one rather than a simple, well-practiced skill, being watched by others actually hurt performance, a finding known as social impairment.
  • Solomon Asch (1951) conducted one of the most interesting conformity experiments. He brought participants into a room of confederates and asked them to make a series of simple perceptual judgments. Asch showed the participants three vertical lines of varying sizes and asked them to indicate which one was the same length as a different target line. All members of the group gave their answers aloud, and the participant was always the last person to speak. All of the trials had a clear, correct answer. However, on some of them, all of the confederates gave the same, obviously incorrect judgment. Asch was interested in what the participants would do. Would they conform to a judgment they knew to be wrong or would they differ from the group?
  • Asch found that in approximately one-third of the cases when the confederates gave an incorrect answer, the participants conformed. Furthermore, approximately 70 percent of the participants conformed on at least one of the trials. In general, studies have suggested that conformity is most likely to occur when a group’s opinion is unanimous. Although it would seem that the larger the group, the greater conformity that would be expressed, studies have shown that groups larger than three (in addition to the participant) do not significantly increase the tendency to conform.
  • We are sensitive to social norms and so we sometimes conform to gain social approval (normative social influence). At other times, we accept information about reality provided by the group (informational social influence).
  • We are sensitive to social norms and so we sometimes conform to gain social approval (normative social influence). At other times, we accept information about reality provided by the group (informational social influence).
  • The chameleon effect refers to our natural tendency to mimic others. Unconsciously mimicking others’ expressions, postures, and voice tones helps us feel what they are feeling. This helps explain why we feel happier around happy people and why research has revealed a mood linkage, a sharing of ups and downs. Research participants in an experiment tend to rub their own face when confederates rub their face; similarly, the participants shake their own foot when they are with a foot-shaking person. The most empathic people mimic and are liked the most.
  • Chameleon effect, conformity, mood-linkage
  • n the Milgram studies, the experimenter ordered “teachers” to deliver shocks to a “learner” for wrong answers. Torn between obeying the experimenter and responding to the learner’s pleas, the people usually chose to obey orders, even though it supposedly meant harming the learner. Obedience was highest when the person giving the orders was close at hand and was perceived to be a legitimate authority, when the authority figure was supported by a prestigious institution, when the victim was depersonalized or at a distance, and when there were no role models for
    def iance.
  • The experiments demonstrate that social influences can be strong enough to make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate to cruelty. The studies, because of their design, also illustrate how great evil sometimes grows out of people’s compliance with lesser evils. Evil does not require monstrous characters but ordinary people corrupted by an evil situation. By understanding the process- es that shape our behavior, we may be less susceptible to external social pressures in real-life situations that lead us to violate our own internal standards.
  • Heart Condition: No difference; Yale vs Bridgeport- Drops to 47%; Lab coat, drops slightly; Women- no change; seeing someone refuse- drops to 10%, Seeing the person shocked decreases it to about 30%, Instructed someone else to do it- 93%. Experimenter is on the phone – 20%
  • Over 70 such occurrences were reported in 30 U.S. states until an incident in 2004 in Mount Washington, Kentucky (population 9,117), finally led to the arrest of David R. Stewart, a 37‑year-old employee of Corrections Corporation of America, a firm contracted by several states (including Louisiana[1] and Texas[2]) to provide corrections officers at private detention facilities.
  • Answer C
  • Answer E
  • Experiments on social facilitation reveal that the presence of observers can arouse individuals, strengthening the most likely response and so boosting their performance on easy or well-learned tasks but hindering it on difficult or newly learned ones. When people pool their efforts toward a group goal
  • Sometimes people take advantage of being part of a group by social loafing. Social loafing is the phenomenon when individuals do not put in as much effort when acting as part of a group as they do when acting alone. One explanation for this effect is that when alone, an individual’s efforts are more easily discernible than when in a group. Thus, as part of a group, a person may be less motivated to put in an impressive performance. In addition, being part of a group may encourage members to take advantage of the opportunity to reap the rewards of the group effort without taxing themselves unnecessarily.
    social loafing may occur as individuals exert less effort.
  • Sometimes people take advantage of being part of a group by social loafing. Social loafing is the phenomenon when individuals do not put in as much effort when acting as part of a group as they do when acting alone. One explanation for this effect is that when alone, an individual’s efforts are more easily discernible than when in a group. Thus, as part of a group, a person may be less motivated to put in an impressive performance. In addition, being part of a group may encourage members to take advantage of the opportunity to reap the rewards of the group effort without taxing themselves unnecessarily.
    ocial loafing may occur as individuals exert less effort. When a group experience arouses people and makes them anonymous, they become less self-aware and self-restrained, a psychological state known as deindividuation.
  • Sometimes people get swept up by a group and do things they never would have done if on their own such as looting or rioting. This loss of self-restraint occurs when group members feel anonymous and aroused, and this phenomenon is known as deindividuation.
  • Sometimes people get swept up by a group and do things they never would have done if on their own such as looting or rioting. This loss of self-restraint occurs when group members feel anonymous and aroused, and this phenomenon is known as deindividuation.
  • Group polarization is the tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than the group members would make individually. Studies about group polarization usually have participants give their opinions individually, then group them to discuss their decisions, and then have the group make a decision.
    Within groups, discussions among like-minded members often produce group polarization, an enhancement of the group’s prevailing tendencies. Group polarization can have beneficial results, as when it reinforces the resolve of those in a self-help group. But it can also have dire conse- quences, as it can strengthen a terrorist mentality. Sometimes, group interaction distorts important decisions.
  • Explanations for group polarization include the idea that in a group, individuals may be exposed to new, persuasive arguments they had not thought of themselves and that the responsibility for an extreme decision in a group is diffused across the group’s many members.
  • Groupthink, a term coined by Irving Janis, describes the tendency for some groups to make bad decisions. Groupthink occurs when group members suppress their reservations about the ideas supported by the group. As a result, a kind of false unanimity is encouraged, and flaws in the group’s decisions may be overlooked. Highly cohesive groups involved in making risky decisions seem to be at particular risk for groupthink.
    In groupthink, the desire for harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
  • Groupthink, a term coined by Irving Janis, describes the tendency for some groups to make bad decisions. Groupthink occurs when group members suppress their reservations about the ideas supported by the group. As a result, a kind of false unanimity is encouraged, and flaws in the group’s decisions may be overlooked. Highly cohesive groups involved in making risky decisions seem to be at particular risk for groupthink.
    In groupthink, the desire for harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
  • Groupthink, a term coined by Irving Janis, describes the tendency for some groups to make bad decisions. Groupthink occurs when group members suppress their reservations about the ideas supported by the group. As a result, a kind of false unanimity is encouraged, and flaws in the group’s decisions may be overlooked. Highly cohesive groups involved in making risky decisions seem to be at particular risk for groupthink.
    In groupthink, the desire for harmony overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
  • Culture is the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. Culture enables the preservation of innovation and the efficient division of labor.
    All cultural groups evolve their own norms—rules that govern their members’ behaviors. Although these rules sometimes seem oppressive, they also grease the social machinery. Cultures vary in their requirements for personal space, their expressiveness, and their pace of life. When cultures collide, their differing norms may make us uncomfortable.
    Over time, cultures change. For example, with greater economic independence, today’s women are less likely to endure abusive relationships out of economic need. Many minority groups enjoy expanded human rights. Not all culture change is positive. For example, within the last 40 years or so, the United States has seen sharply increased rates of divorce, delinquency, and depression. Changes in the human gene pool evolve far too slowly to account for these rapid cultural changes.
  • Answer E
  • Answer E (Social inhibition is the opposite of social facilitation)
  • We all have ideas about what members of different groups are like, and these expectations may influence the way we interact with members of these groups. We call these ideas stereotypes. Stereotypes may be either negative or positive and can be applied to virtually any group of people (for example, racial, ethnic, geographic). For instance, people often stereotype New Yorkers as pushy, unfriendly, and rude and Californians as easygoing and attractive. Some cognitive psychologists have suggested that stereotypes are basically schemata about groups. People who distinguish between stereotypes and group schemata argue that the former are more rigid and more difficult to change than the latter.
    Prejudice is an undeserved, usually negative, attitude toward a group of people. Stereotyping can lead to prejudice when negative stereotypes (those rude New Yorkers) are applied uncritically to all members of a group (she is from New York, therefore she must be rude) and a negative attitude results.
    Ethnocentrism, the belief that one’s culture (for example, ethnic, racial) is superior to others, is a specific kind of prejudice. People become so used to their own cultures that they see them as the norm and use them as the standard by which to judge other cultures. Many people look down upon others who don’t dress the same, eat the same foods, or worship the same God in the same way that they do.
    While prejudice is an attitude, discrimination involves an action. When one discriminates, one acts on one’s prejudices. If I dislike New Yorkers, I am prejudiced, but if I refuse to hire New Yorkers to work in my company, I am engaging in discrimination.
    Prejudice
    A unjustifiable negative attitude toward a group or person
    Example: thinking negative thoughts about women
    Stereotypes
    False or exaggerated beliefs about a group
    Example: All women are bad drivers
    Discrimination
    Taking action against a person or group based on a prejudice
    Example: Denying women a job that requires driving
  • We all have ideas about what members of different groups are like, and these expectations may influence the way we interact with members of these groups. We call these ideas stereotypes. Stereotypes may be either negative or positive and can be applied to virtually any group of people (for example, racial, ethnic, geographic). For instance, people often stereotype New Yorkers as pushy, unfriendly, and rude and Californians as easygoing and attractive. Some cognitive psychologists have suggested that stereotypes are basically schemata about groups. People who distinguish between stereotypes and group schemata argue that the former are more rigid and more difficult to change than the latter.
    Prejudice is an undeserved, usually negative, attitude toward a group of people. Stereotyping can lead to prejudice when negative stereotypes (those rude New Yorkers) are applied uncritically to all members of a group (she is from New York, therefore she must be rude) and a negative attitude results.
    Ethnocentrism, the belief that one’s culture (for example, ethnic, racial) is superior to others, is a specific kind of prejudice. People become so used to their own cultures that they see them as the norm and use them as the standard by which to judge other cultures. Many people look down upon others who don’t dress the same, eat the same foods, or worship the same God in the same way that they do.
    While prejudice is an attitude, discrimination involves an action. When one discriminates, one acts on one’s prejudices. If I dislike New Yorkers, I am prejudiced, but if I refuse to hire New Yorkers to work in my company, I am engaging in discrimination.
    Prejudice
    A unjustifiable negative attitude toward a group or person
    Example: thinking negative thoughts about women
    Stereotypes
    False or exaggerated beliefs about a group
    Example: All women are bad drivers
    Discrimination
    Taking action against a person or group based on a prejudice
    Example: Denying women a job that requires driving
  • Ladies..
    B is the one with the feminized features
  • People tend to see members of their own group, the in-group, as more diverse than members of other groups, out-groups. This phenomenon is often referred to as out-group homogeneity.
    researchers have documented a preference for members of one’s own group, a kind of in-group bias. In-group bias is thought to stem from people’s belief that they themselves are good people. Therefore, the people with whom they share group membership are thought to be good as well.
    Many different theories attempt to explain how people become prejudiced. Some psychologists have suggested that people naturally and inevitably magnify differences between their own group and others as a function of the cognitive process of categorization. By taking into account the in-group bias discussed above, this idea suggests that people cannot avoid forming stereotypes.
  • Scapegoat Theory
    Blame an outside group for your problems
    Example: Saying negative things about Muslims when you lose your job for showing up late
  • One theory about how to reduce prejudice is known as the contact theory. The contact theory, as its name suggests, states that contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity, but only if the groups are made to work toward a goal that benefits all and necessitates the participation of all. Such a goal is called a superordinate goal.
    Muzafer Sherif’s (1966) camp study (also known as the Robbers Cave study) illustrates both how easily out-group bias can be created and how superordinate goals can be used to unite formerly antagonistic groups. He conducted a series of studies at a summer camp. He first divided the campers into two groups and arranged for them to compete in a series of activities. This competition was sufficient to create negative feelings between the groups. Once such prejudices had been established, Sherif staged several camp emergencies that required the groups to cooperate. The superordinate goal of solving the crises effectively improved relations between the groups.
    A number of educational researchers have attempted to use the contact theory to reduce prejudices between members of different groups in school. One goal of most cooperative learning activities is to bring members of different social groups into contact with one another as they work toward a superordinate goal, the assigned task.
  • In psychology, aggression is any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. This definition of aggression has a more precise meaning than it does in everyday usage where an assertive, persistent salesperson or a dentist who make us wince with pain may be described as “aggressive.” On the other hand, psychology’s definition recognizes a verbally assaultive person or one who spreads a vicious rumor as aggressive.
  • Biological influences on aggression operate at the genetic, neural, and biochemical levels. Animals have been bred for aggressiveness, and twin studies suggest that genes also influence human aggression. Animal and human brains have neural systems that, when stimulated, either inhibit or produce aggression. For example, studies of violent criminals have revealed diminished activity in the frontal lobes, which play an important role in controlling impulses. Finally, studies of the effect of hormones (e.g., testosterone), alcohol, and other substances in the blood show that biochemical influences contribute to aggression.
  • Biological influences on aggression operate at the genetic, neural, and biochemical levels. Animals have been bred for aggressiveness, and twin studies suggest that genes also influence human aggression. Animal and human brains have neural systems that, when stimulated, either inhibit or produce aggression. For example, studies of violent criminals have revealed diminished activity in the frontal lobes, which play an important role in controlling impulses. Finally, studies of the effect of hormones (e.g., testosterone), alcohol, and other substances in the blood show that biochemical influences contribute to aggression.
  • instrumental aggression and hostile aggression. Instrumental aggression is when the aggressive act is intended to secure a particular end. For example, if Bobby wants to hold the doll that Carol is holding and he kicks her and grabs the doll, Bobby has engaged in instrumental aggression. Hostile aggression, on the other hand, has no such clear purpose. If Bobby is simply angry or upset and therefore kicks Carol, his aggression is hostile aggression.
  • The frustration-aggression principle states that the blocking of an attempt to reach some goal creates anger, which can generate aggression, especially in the presence of an aggressive cue such as a gun. Frustration (and aggression) arise less from deprivation than from the gap between reality and expectations. Like frustration, other aversive stimuli, such as physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, cigarette smoke, and hot temperatures, can also evoke hostility.
    Our reactions are more likely to be aggressive in situations where experience has taught us that aggression pays. Ostracism or social rejection can also intensify aggression. Different cultures reinforce and evoke different tendencies toward violence. For example, crime rates are higher in countries marked by a great disparity between rich and poor. Social influence also appears in high violence rates among cultures and families that experience minimal father care.
    Once established, aggressive behavior patterns are difficult to change. Parent-training programs that encourage parents to reinforce desirable behaviors and to frame statements positively have been fairly successful. One aggression-replacement program has brought down re-arrest rates of juvenile offenders and gang members by teaching the youths and their parents communication skills, training them to control anger, and encouraging more thoughtful moral reasoning
  • People can learn aggression by observing models who act aggressively, for example, in the family or in the media (watching violence on TV or in film). When interviewed, Canadian and U.S. sex offenders report a greater-than-usual appetite for sexually explicit and sexually violent materials typically labeled as pornography. Laboratory experiments reveal that repeatedly watching X-rated films makes sexual aggression seem less serious. Media depictions of violence also trigger aggres- sion by providing social scripts (mental tapes for how to act provided by our culture).
    Playing violent video games can heighten aggressive behavior by providing social scripts and opportunities to observe modeled aggression. Studies have found that playing violent video games increases aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. The studies also disconfirm the catharsis hypothesis—the idea that we feel better if we vent our emotions. To sum up, research reveals bio- logical, psychological, and social-cultural influences on aggressive behavior. Like so much else, aggression is a biopsychosocial phenomenon.
  • Answer: D (It is usually a reaction to a situation)
  • Answer: D (Ethnocentrism is another way to say ingroup bias)
  • Three factors are known to influence our liking for one another. Geographical proximity is con- ducive to attraction, partly because of the mere exposure effect: Repeated exposure to novel stim- uli enhances liking of them. Physical attractiveness influences social opportunities and the way one is perceived. We view attractive people as healthier, happier, more sensitive, and more suc- cessful. As acquaintanceship moves toward friendship, similarity of attitudes and interests greatly increases liking. The factors that foster attraction are explained by a reward theory of attraction: We like those whose behavior is rewarding to us, and we will continue relationships that offer more rewards than costs.
  • We can view passionate love as an aroused state that we cognitively label as love. The strong affection of companionate love,
    Two-Factor
    Physical arousal plus cognitive appraisal
    Arousal from any source can enhance one emotion depending upon what we interpret or label the arousal
  • companionate love, which often emerges as a relationship matures, is enhanced by equity, a condition in which both parties receive in proportion to what they give. Another vital ingredient of loving relationships is mutual self-disclosure, in which partners reveal to each other intimate details about themselves.
  • Altruism is unselfish regard for the welfare of others. Risking one’s life to save victims of geno- cide with no expectation of personal reward is an example of altruism.
    The bystander effect is the tendency for any given bystander to an emergency to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. Research on the bystander effects indicates that to decide to help, one must (1) notice the event, (2) interpret it as an emergency, or (3) assume responsibility for helping.
    The vicious murder of Kitty Genovese in Kew Gardens, New York, committed within view of at least 38 witnesses, none of whom intervened, led John Darley and Bibb Latane to explore how people decided whether or not to help others in distress. Counterintuitively, the larger the number of people who witness an emergency situation, the less likely any one is to intervene. This finding is known as the bystander effect. One explanation for this phenomenon is called diffusion of responsibility. The larger the group of people who witness a problem, the less responsible any one individual feels to help. People tend to assume that someone else will take action so they need not do so. Another factor contributing to the bystander effect is known as pluralistic ignorance. People seem to decide what constitutes appropriate behavior in a situation by looking to others. Thus, if no one in a classroom seems worried by the black smoke coming through the vent, each individual concludes that taking no action is the proper thing to do.
  • Social exchange theory proposes that underlying all behavior, including helping, is the desire to maximize our benefits (which may include our own good feelings) and minimize our costs. For example, we will donate blood if we anticipate that the rewards (e.g., social approval, good feel- ings) for doing so exceed the costs (e.g., time, discomfort). Social norms may also prescribe altru- istic behavior. The reciprocity norm is the expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them. The social-responsibility norm is the expectation that people will help those who are dependent on them.
  • OBJECTIVE 28| Discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful cooperation and reducing social conflict.
    GRIT-This is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party
  • OBJECTIVE 28| Discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful cooperation and reducing social conflict.
    GRIT-This is a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. One side recognizes mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act that opens the door for reciprocation by the other party
  • Transcript

    • 1. Social Psychology Social Psychology Social Psychology
    • 2. ocial psychology Influence of real, imagined or implied presence of others
    • 3. Section 1: Attributing Behavior • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: How do we tend to explain others’ behavior and our own? 3 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, how we tend to explain others’ behavior In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze how we tend to explain others’ behavior, and compare/contrast multiple aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms with the goal: how we tend to explain others’ behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 4. Fact or Falsehood 1. Compared with people in Western countries, those in East Asian cultures are more sensitive to situational influences on behavior. 2. To change people’s racial behaviors, we first need to change their racial attitudes. 3. Chimps are more likely to yawn after observing another chimp yawn. 4. Most people would refuse to obey an authority figure who told them to hurt an innocent person. 5. Studies of college and professional athletic events indicate that home teams win about 6 in 10 games. 6. Individuals pull harder in a team tug-of-war than when they pull in a one-on-one tug-of-war. 7. The higher the morale and harmony of a social group, the more likely are its members to make a good decision. 8. Suicide bombers and those who support them tend to be uneducated and desperately poor. 9. From research on liking and loving, it is clear that opposites do attract. 10. We are less likely to offer help to a stranger if other bystanders are present.
    • 5. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Attribution Theory • ATTRIBUTION THEORY (FRITZ HEIDER) – How we explain someone's behaviors in terms of dispositional (personality) or situational effects • FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR – Think it is more personality and less the situation that contributes to someone’s behavior • Example: Why did that person not say hi to me? • ACTOR-OBSERVER BIAS (Self- Serving Bias) • We attribute other’s behavior to dispositional attribution and our own behavior to situational • Happens more in individualistic cultures than collectivistic cultures 5
    • 6. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Attribution Theory • Tries to explain how people determine the cause of the behavior they observe. It is either a…. • Situational Attribution • Dispositional Attribution And • Stable Attribution • Unstable Attribution
    • 7. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Attribution Theory 7
    • 8. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Attribution Theory 8
    • 9. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Fundamental Attribution Error • We tend to overestimate the role of dispositional factors. Individualistic V. Collectivistic Cultures False Consensus Effect Self-Serving Bias How do you view your teacher’s behavior? You probably attribute it to their personality rather than their profession. But do you really know? When you start a romance, you assume that they agree with your world views….honeymoon period. If you win it is because you are awesome…if you lose, it must have been the coach or weather or….
    • 10. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Critical Thinking… 10 If a good friend gets angry with you, how would you explain his/her behavior? If that same friend does something nice for you, how would you explain the behavior? If somebody you have recently gotten to know walk by you in the hall but doesn’t say hello (even as you try to say hello to them), what would you think about them? Why?
    • 11. 1. How do we tend to explain others’ behavior and our own? 11 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, how we tend to explain others’ behavior In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze how we tend to explain others’ behavior, and compare/contrast multiple aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms with the goal: how we tend to explain others’ behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 12. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative AP Question Jessie and a friend are driving in rush-hour traffic when a car suddenly cuts in front of them in order to reach an unmarked exit ramp. Jessie’s passenger points out that the circumstances may have required the other drive to do so, while Jessie loudly criticizes the personal qualities of the other driver. Jessie’s response is best explained by A)Cognitive dissonance B)The fundamental attribution error C)A self-fulfilling prophecy D)The mere exposure effect E)Social inhibition theory 12
    • 13. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative Summary The fundamental attribution error occurs when individuals do which of the following? A.mold their interpretations of the past to fit how events actually turned out B.Incorrectly assume that virtually all behavior is determined by genetic factors. C.Underestimate the influence of unconscious motivation when trying to explain their own behavior D.Overestimate the influence of personal qualities relative to situational factors when trying to explain the behavior of others E.Assume that very attractive people tend to be more intelligent and more competent than people who are somewhat less attractive 13
    • 14. 14 The Lunch Date
    • 15. Section 2: Attitudes and Actions • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: Does what we think affect what we do, or does what we do affect what we think? 15 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, the interplay of thinking and actions. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze the interplay of thinking and actions, and compare/contrast multiple aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with the interplay of thinking and actions, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 16. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Attitudes • A set of beliefs and feelings. • Advertising is ALL based on attitude formation. • Mere Exposure Effect- the more one is exposed to something, the more one will come to like it.
    • 17. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Attitudes and Actions • Attitudes – Belief-based feelings about objects, people and events that guide our behavior and remain stable over time – Do attitudes help form behaviors? Or do behaviors help form attitudes? 17
    • 18. Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger) • The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent Rationalize why we do something • ($2 vs. $200 to write an essay you disagree with) • Inconsistent behavior could can someone’s attitude
    • 19. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Cognitive Dissonance (Consistency) theory • Theory is concerned with why people become motivated to change their attitudes • Festinger (1957) proposed theory. It is concerned with the way people change their attitudes when they realise that two thoughts or cognitions they hold are inconsistent. • This conflict creates a negative feeling of dissonance, or psychological discomfort.
    • 20. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity An example of Cognitive Dissonance: Smoking • People can make a case for continuing to smoke although, rationally, their arguments would not stand up. • Festinger argued that people selectively avoid information that will increase dissonance. (e.g. My roommate refuses to watch the film “Supersize me” because he knows he eats too much McDonalds)
    • 21. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Cognitive Dissonance • People deal with dissonance either by changing one of the cognitions or adding a new cognition to explain the conflict. • Festinger believed that the need to reduce dissonance is as basic as need for safety or to avoid hunger. It is a drive that compels us to be consistent, and the more important the issue and the greater the discrepancy between attitude and behaviour, the greater the feelings of dissonance experienced. • This theory recognizes that people do not always think rationally. People do try to rationalize their behavior, sometimes in a irrational way.
    • 22. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Does this image create dissonance in you?
    • 23. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Avoiding cognitive dissonance • We selectively choose TV shows and read books that confirm our attitudes and behavior. • We also choose our friends on the same basis, which is why many of our friends have similar views to ourselves. • People who disagree with us or present differing views are likely to increase the discomfort felt by the dissonance processes (Griffin, 1997)
    • 24. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Cognitive Dissonance
    • 25. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Compliance Strategies • Foot-in-the-door phenomenon • Door-in-the-face phenomenon • Norms of reciprocity
    • 26. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Foot-in-the-door phenomenon • The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. If I give out an answer on a quiz, what happens next?
    • 27. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Door-in-face Phenomenon • The tendency for people who say no to a huge request, to comply with a smaller one. If my girlfriend asks for a new tiffany’s ring, I will say……NO But I may buy her a new pair of shoes.
    • 28. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Changing Attitudes • Attitudes and Behaviors – Dr. Zimbardo’s Prison Study showed that role-playing normative behaviors can have a strong impact on attitudes – Q: How can normal, healthy people become sadistic? • A: The situation, foot-in-the-door, cognitive dissonance and social norms align to create the perfect situation 28
    • 29. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Zimbardo’s Prison Study 29
    • 30. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Dark Matters: Stanford Prison Experiment
    • 31. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Social Psychology and Abu Ghraib
    • 32. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Attitude and Behavior • Persuasive messages can be processed through the central route or the peripheral route. • The central route to persuasion involves deeply processing the content of the message (logistics or statistics); what about this potato chip is so much better than all the others? • The peripheral route-involves other aspects of the message including the characteristics of the person imparting the message (the communicator). • You have a belief that cheating on tests is bad. But you cheat on a test!!! The teacher was really bad so in that class it is OK.
    • 33. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity FYI: When are we most persuaded? • Two-sided Arguments – Present both sides and discredit the opponent’s message • Emotional Appeals (Peripheral Route) – loyalty, desire, fear (works best) • The Messenger – Experts, Trustworthy, Physically Attractive, Similar to the audience • The Situation – People in a good mood are more likely to be persuaded (less likely to evaluate things carefully) • The Audience – Emotional appeals work better with children where logic works better on adults 33
    • 34. Does what we think affect what we do, or does what we do affect what we think? 34 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, the interplay of thinking and actions. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze the interplay of thinking and actions, and compare/contrast multiple aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with the interplay of thinking and actions, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 35. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative Summary Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that after people engage in counter-attitudinal behavior, they will: A.Convince themselves they really didn’t perform the behavior. B.Change their attitudes to make it more consistent with their behavior. C.Change their attitudes to make it less consistent with their behavior. D. Do nothing. 35
    • 36. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative Summary A person who agrees to a small request initially is more likely to comply with a larger demand later. This describes which phenomenon? A.Door-in-the-face B.Foot-in-the-door C.Low-ball technique D.High-ball technique E.Door-in-the-foot 36
    • 37. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Super bowl commercials 2011: Persuasive Techniques used? 37
    • 38. Section 3: Conformity and Obedience • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: What do experiments on conformity and compliance reveal about the power of social influence? 38 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about compliance and conformity and what they reveal about social influence. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze compliance and conformity and what they reveal about social influence,, and compare/contrast the aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with compliance and conformity and what they reveal about social influence, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 39. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Conformity Studies • Adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
    • 40. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Asch’s Study of Conformity (1951)
    • 41. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Conformity
    • 42. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Asch’s Results • When answered alone, get it wrong less than 1% of the time • About 1/3 of the participants conformed. • 70% conformed at least once.
    • 43. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Reasons for Conformity • NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE – Avoid rejection & Gain social approval (Follow the Norm) – “Wanting to be liked and accepted” • INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE – If we are unsure of what is right, and if being right matters, we are very receptive to other's opinions – “Not sure what the answer is, so I will go with everyone else” 43
    • 44. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Social Influence
    • 45. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Conditions for Conformity • Under what conditions do you think make people conform to others? • Feeling insecure or incompetent • Group has at least three people • The group is unanimous • One admires the group's status or attractiveness • Has made no prior commitment to any response • Others in the group observes one's behavior • One's culture strongly encourages respect for social standards – An Individualistic culture promotes nonconformity 45
    • 46. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Conformity Conditions • More Important Decisions = Higher Conformity • More Difficult Decisions = Higher Conformity 46
    • 47. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Other Types of Conformity • CHAMELEON EFFECT – People sometimes nonconsciously imitate others body position – Might actually show empathy for others • MOOD LINKAGE – People nonconsciously imitate others emotions (shows empathy) We like people more who imitate us (in a subtle way) • COPYCATS – We also have copycats – Examples: More school shootings immediately after Columbine & More suicides following Marilyn Monroe's death 47
    • 48. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative Assessment Summary Gary has signed up to attend a college orientation. He shows up to the college campus, which he has never been to before, and sees a group of young people entering a large building. He follows them in, thinking they are going to the orientation, only to find out they are there for a lecture on earth sciences. He gets up, travels down the sidewalk, and finally meets up with other pre – freshman. While talking to the other pre-freshmen, he unconsciously starts to mimic their gestures. After a brief orientation presentation, a college advisor goes around the room and asks people to say their name and prospective major. Gary, wants to major in Romantic British Literature, but says “pre- med” (even though he has no desire to be a doctor) because several other people before him said “pre-med” and received smiles from others. What psychological terms can you spot from this scenario? 48
    • 49. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Milgram Experiment
    • 50. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Milgram’s Experiment on Obedience (1963) • Stanley Milgram’s Experiment – Teacher (True Subject) – Learner (Confederate) – Experimenter (Confederate) 50 Key Word: Compliance Proving why people followed Nazi Orders
    • 51. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Milgram Results 51
    • 52. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Milgram’s Variations: Generate a Hypothesis 19 different experiments in all, here are a few: – What if the ‘Learner’ says he has a heart condition? – What if he conducted the study at a location other than Yale University? – What if the experimenter doesn’t wear a lab coat, but regular clothes? – What if women are used as the “teachers?” – What if they see another ‘teacher’ refusing to go on? – What if the ‘teacher’ can see the ‘learner’ being ‘shocked’ is in pain? – What if the teacher, did not directly shock, but instructed someone else to do it? 52 More obedient, rate of shocking increases Less obedient, rate of shocking decreases Rate of obedience stays the same as the original study
    • 53. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Milgram’s Experiment on Obedience • SUMMARY: When is obedience at its highest? – Person giving orders is close – Person giving orders is perceived as an authority figure (lab coat) – Person is supported by a prestigious organization (Yale University) – Victim is depersonalized or unseen – There are no role models for disobeying 53
    • 54. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity What the heck… The McDonald’s Incident (Disclaimer)
    • 55. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Compare and Contrast Compare Milgram’s Obedience Study and the Real-life McDonalds incident in terms of similarities and differences. 55 Milgram’s Study McDonald’s Incident • Occurs in laboratory • Authority figure is in the room • Victim is in other room (unseen) • The victim was male and older • Happens in real life • Authority figure is not present in the room • Victim is in the same room • Victim was female and young • An authority figure is male and seems legit • Foot-in-the-door demands are present • People willing comply against better judgment • Leads to psychological trauma
    • 56. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity What did we learn from Milgram? • Ordinary people can do shocking things. • Ethical issues…. • Would not have received approval from today’s IRB (Internal Review Board).
    • 57. What do experiments on conformity and compliance reveal about the power of social influence? 57 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about compliance and conformity and what they reveal about social influence. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze compliance and conformity and what they reveal about social influence,, and compare/contrast the aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with compliance and conformity and what they reveal about social influence, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 58. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative Question When Stanley Milgram asked psychiatrists to predict how far participants would go in administering shocks in his demonstration of obedience to authority, the psychiatrists A)Made accurate predictions B)Significantly overestimated the level of those who would obey C)Significantly underestimated the level of those who would obey D)Said they were unable to make a prediction 58
    • 59. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative AP Question In Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiments, subjects were LEAST likely to deliver maximum levels of shock when the A)The experiment was conducted at a prestigious institution B)The “learner” screamed loudly in pain C)The experimenter told hesitant subjects, “you have no choice you must go on” D)The “learner” said that he had a heart condition E)Subjects observed other subjects who refused to obey the experimenter’s orders 59
    • 60. Section 4: Group Influence• Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: • How is out behavior affected by the presences of others or by being part of a group? • What are group polarization and groupthink? • How do cultural norms affect our behavior? • How much power do we have as individuals? Can a minority sway a majority? 60 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, how groups influence our thinking patterns and behavior In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze how groups influence our thinking patterns and behavior), and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with how groups influence our thinking patterns and behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 61. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Group Dynamics
    • 62. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity How can behavior be influenced by simply being part of a group? • SOCIAL FACILITATION – People good at a task will perform better when other people are watching – Example: Boys will reel a fishing rod faster when around others – Example: going faster at the traffic light – Increases with the presence of others because of arousal – Even animals perform behaviors faster in groups (animal response?) • SOCIAL INHIBITION – People bad at a task will perform worse when other people are watching – Nervousness gets the better of them 62
    • 63. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Social Loafing • The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling efforts toward a common goal than if they were individually accountable. • Example: College students will pull harder on a rope when pulling alone than with others.
    • 64. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Social Loafing
    • 65. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Deindividuation (Risky Shift) • People get swept up in a group and lose sense of self. • Feel anonymous and aroused. • Explains rioting behaviors. – Loss of awareness and self- restraint while in group – Example: Mob attacks, prison riots, riots after sporting events, wearing masks or sunglasses
    • 66. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Deindividuation: Lord of the Flies
    • 67. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Group Polarization • Groups tend to make more extreme decisions than the individual. – The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion with the group – In other words: People get into a frenzy within their group and reinforce their own opinions
    • 68. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity
    • 69. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Groupthink • Group members suppress their reservations about the ideas supported by the group. • They are more concerned with group harmony. • Worse in highly cohesive groups. – When does it occur? • Overconfidence • Pressure from outside source • No one willing to speak up • Gathers only selective information – Examples: – JFK's Bay of Pigs – The Challenger Shuttle
    • 70. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Groupthink: Bay of Pigs
    • 71. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Groupthink: Jonestown 
    • 72. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Culture • Culture- the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. • Culture enables the preservation of innovation and the efficient division of labor. • All cultural groups evolve their own: • Norms—rules that govern their members’ behaviors.
    • 73. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative AP Question When members of a group who tend to agree on an issue become more extreme in their opinion after the issue is discussed, which of the following has taken place? A)Deindividuation B)Depersonalization C)Groupthink D)Group norming E)Group polarization 73
    • 74. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative AP Question Which of the following is the best example of social inhibition? A)A child refuses to imitate the modeled behavior of an adult. B)An intelligent, charming person acts uncaring and sullen at a party. C)A person who is very good at “ring toss” performs even better as a crowd gathers. D)A person declines to contribute to a church group even though a gift is offered to them. E)A person who is a poor bowler begins to bowl even worse than usual when several friends are watching. 74
    • 75. • How is out behavior affected by the presences of others or by being part of a group? • What are group polarization and groupthink? • How do cultural norms affect our behavior? • How much power do we have as individuals? Can a minority sway a majority? 75 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, how groups influence our thinking patterns and behavior In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze how groups influence our thinking patterns and behavior), and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with how groups influence our thinking patterns and behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 76. Section 5: Prejudice• Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: • What is prejudice? • What are the social and emotional roots of prejudice? • What are the cognitive roots of prejudice? 76 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about prejudice and how it influences thinking and group behavior, I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze with prejudice and how it influences thinking and group behavior, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with prejudice and how it influences thinking and group behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 77. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Components of Prejudice Stereotype: • Overgeneralized idea about a group of people. Prejudice: • Undeserved (usually negative) attitude towards a group of people. Ethnocentrism is an example of a prejudice. Discrimination: • An action based on a prejudice.
    • 78. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Troy and Abed
    • 79. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Does perception change with race?
    • 80. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity WWYD Racism
    • 81. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Is it just race? NO • Palestinians and Jews • Christians and Satanists • Men and Women But women have some things going for them like……
    • 82. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Which person would you want to have a long term relationship with?
    • 83. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Society and Prejudice • Ingroup: “us”- people with whom one shares a common identity. • Outgroup: “them”- those perceived as different than one’s ingroup. Ingroups & Outgroups (Us & Them) • Ingroup Bias: The tendency to favor one’s own group through a sense of social identity. • A sense of social identity promotes Ingroup Bias (ethnocentrism) 83
    • 84. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Group Identity: in-groups and out-groups
    • 85. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Scapegoat Theory • The theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
    • 86. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Combating Prejudice Contact Theory • Contact between hostile groups will reduce animosity if they are made to work towards a superordinate goal. • Serif camp study • Election of Obama?
    • 87. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Prejudices can often lead to a…. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy • A prediction that causes itself to be true. • Rosenthal and Jacobson’s “Pygmalion in the Classroom” experiment.
    • 88. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity The Pygmalion Effect
    • 89. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Cognition and Prejudice – One way we simplify our world is to categorize (schemas). We categorize people into groups by stereotyping them. – The key is to overcome our stereotypes! – In vivid cases such as the 9/11 attacks, terrorists can feed stereotypes or prejudices. • Although 9/11 made us believe that most terrorists are Muslim, in fact, most terrorists are non-Muslims. – Just World Phenomenon: • The tendency of people to believe the world is just, and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. • Example: Unemployed people are lazy 89
    • 90. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity WWYD Prejudice 1
    • 91. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity WWYD Prejudice 2
    • 92. • What is prejudice? • What are the social and emotional roots of prejudice? • What are the cognitive roots of prejudice? 92 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about prejudice and how it influences thinking and group behavior, I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze with prejudice and how it influences thinking and group behavior, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with prejudice and how it influences thinking and group behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 93. Section 6: Aggression • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: • What biological factors make us more prone to hurt one another? • What psychological factors may trigger aggressive behavior? 93 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about aggression and how it affects thinking and behavior, In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze aggression and how it affects thinking and behavior and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with aggression and how it affects thinking and behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 94. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Aggression • Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. • In the U.S. we are MUCH more likely to be murdered compared to most other developed nations.
    • 95. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity The Biology of Aggression • Genetics – Identical twins are likely to report the same temperament – The Y (male) chromosome increases aggression – Monoamine oxidase A • Neural Influences – Amygdala plays a role (deep brain stimulation) – Lack of activity in the Orbital Cortex – Many death row inmates show brain damage – Frontal lobe may inhibit aggression through decision making • Biochemical Influences – Testosterone increases aggression • Teen Boys (w/ high testosterone) have increased bullying • As testosterone diminishes with ages, so does aggression – Drinking alcohol is correlated with aggression
    • 96. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity The Brain and Aggressive Tendencies
    • 97. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Psychology of Aggression Two types of aggression 1.Instrumental Aggression- when the act is intended to secure a particular end 2.Hostile Aggression-no clear purpose, based on the anger level of the person displaying the aggression
    • 98. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Can we learn to be aggressive or gentle? They can be learned but…. Once learned they are difficult to change.
    • 99. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Psychological Causes of Aggression • Aversive Events – Frustration-aggression principle: • Being blocked from completing a goal leads to react with higher levels of aggression • More likely to say bad things about people – Environmental factors can lead to increased aggression (heat, foul odors, cigarette smoke) – Ostracism increases aggression • Aggression is Rewarded (Conditioning) – Operant Conditioning – Modeling violence (bobo doll) 99
    • 100. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Hot Weather and Aggression
    • 101. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Aggression and TV Watches = • By the time you are 18, you spend more time in front of TV than in school •2/3 of all homes have 3 or more sets average 51 hours a week. •By the time a child finishes elementary school they have witnessed 8000 murders and 100,000 other acts of violence on TV •Over half of all deaths do NOT show the victim's pain •As TV watching has grown exponentially, as does violent behavior- a strong positive correlation. •How do you think TV has effected sexual aggression?
    • 102. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Social Causes of Aggression • OBSERVED AGGRESSION – Desensitized to violence by watching television – Sexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile in their relationships with women. This coerciveness has increased due to television viewing of R- and X-rated movies. – Absent fathers may increase aggression • SOCIAL SCRIPTS – The media portrays social scripts and generates mental tapes in the minds of the viewers. – When confronted with new situations individuals may rely on such social scripts. If social scripts are violent in nature, people may act them out. • VIDEO GAMING & AGRESSIVENESS – Virtual reality gaming increases aggressive behavior compared to average video games – Various studies show that aggressive video games lead to more angry behavior 102
    • 103. • What biological factors make us more prone to hurt one another? • What psychological factors may trigger aggressive behavior? 103 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about aggression and how it affects thinking and behavior, In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze aggression and how it affects thinking and behavior and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with aggression and how it affects thinking and behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 104. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative AP Question The frustration-aggression hypothesis views aggression as A)Unconscious B)Physiological C)Innate D)Reactive E)Cognitive 104
    • 105. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Formative AP Question The common tendency to assume that the beliefs, values attitudes, or actions of one’s own group are superior to those of other groups is called A)Deinidividuation B)Groupthink C)Observer bias D)Ethnocentrism E)Reactance 105
    • 106. Section 7: Attraction and Love • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: • Why do we befriend or fall in love with some people and not others? • How does romantic love typically change as time passes? 106 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about how attraction and love affect thinking and behavior) In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze how attraction and love affect thinking and behavior, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with how attraction and love affect thinking and behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 107. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Attraction • Proximity – Geographic nearness – Helps make friends – Evolutionary (those close to us are usually safe) • Mere Exposure Effect – The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases the liking of them • Physical Attractiveness (#1 Factor in first meeting) – It matters to both males and females – Large Eyes, High Cheekbones, Narrow Jaws – As early as two months infants look longer at attractive faces 107
    • 108. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity What is beauty?
    • 109. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Beauty and Culture Obesity is so revered among Mauritania's white Moor Arab population that the young girls are sometimes force-fed to obtain a weight the government has described as "life-threatening".
    • 110. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Are these cultures really that different?
    • 111. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Physical Attractiveness
    • 112. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Reciprocal Liking • You are more likely to like someone who likes you. • Why? • Except in elementary school!!!!
    • 113. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Matching Hypothesis • Physically attractiveness predicts dating frequency (they date more). • They are perceived as healthier, happier, more honest and successful than less attractive counterparts.
    • 114. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Similarity • Paula Abdul was wrong- opposites do NOT attract. • Birds of the same feather do flock together. • Similarity breeds content.
    • 115. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Liking through Association • Classical Conditioning can play a part in attraction. • I love Taco bus. If I see the same waitress every time I go there, I may begin to associate that waitress with the good feelings I get from Taco bus.
    • 116. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Hatfield’s Theory of Love • Passionate Love (dating) – Two Factor Theory – Adrenaline makes the heart grow fonder • Companionate Love (marriage) – Deeper, more affectionate attachment – Same interests, backgrounds, hobbies – Evolutionary Ψ: more time raising kids, less time with lover 116
    • 117. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Maintaining Love • Equity – The give and take – Receive equal love – Share resources of relationship • Self-Disclosure – Revealing intimate details to one another – Those who reveal more about themselves tend to feel closer to their partners 117
    • 118. • Why do we befriend or fall in love with some people and not others? • How does romantic love typically change as time passes? 118 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about how attraction and love affect thinking and behavior) In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze how attraction and love affect thinking and behavior, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with how attraction and love affect thinking and behavior, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 119. Section 8: Altruism and Peace-Making • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: • When are we most and least likely to help others? • How do social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict? • How can we transform feelings of prejudice, aggression and conflict into attitudes that promote peace? 119 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, altruism and peacemaking In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze altruism and peacemaking, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with altruism and peacemaking, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks
    • 120. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Altruism • ALTRUISM - unselfish regard for the welfare of others. • DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY – When more people are around to help, people are less likely to give aid • BYSTANDER EFFECT – The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other people are present – EXAMPLE: • The Genovese rape and murder case • The Office Cubical Experiment • Who will NOT help? – Not sure if the person really needs help – Some people think there is nothing they can do – Fear of injury or embarrassment – Someone else appears is better qualified 120
    • 121. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Group Dynamics- Bystander Effect
    • 122. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity When will someone help? • The victim appears to deserve help • The victim is in some way similar to us • We have just observed someone else being helpful • We are not in a hurry • We are in a small town or rural area • We are feeling guilty • We have the ability to help (nurse) • We are focused on others and not preoccupied • We are in a good mood (will almost always get someone to help) 122
    • 123. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity Why do we help? • SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY – Weighting the rewards and costs of helping (think cost-benefit analysis) We maintain relationships with physically attractive and people who like us people because of this • RECIPROCITY NORM – We have been socialized (taught) to give as much as we receive – Example: Secret Santa, St. Jude donations • SOCIAL-RESPONSIBILITY NORM – We have been socialized to help those who don't have the ability to help themselves 123
    • 124. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity 124 Social Trap- a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Mirror-Image Perceptions- mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive Conflict and Peacemaking
    • 125. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity 125 Superordinate Goals - shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. Graduated & Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension- Reduction (GRIT)- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. Conflict and Peacemaking
    • 126. PrejudiceAttribution CategorizingDissonance CultsBystanderAggressionLoveAttraction AttitudeObedienceComplianceGroupthinkConformity WWYD Bystander Effect
    • 127. • When are we most and least likely to help others? • How do social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict? • How can we transform feelings of prejudice, aggression and conflict into attitudes that promote peace? 127 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, altruism and peacemaking In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze altruism and peacemaking, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with altruism and peacemaking, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I need prompting and more support to complete 2.0 tasks