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Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
Aguiar ap intelligence and testing
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  • 1. T (p. 527)2. T (p. 528)3. T (pp. 529–530)
    4. T (p. 530)5. F (p. 532)
    6. T (p. 537)
    7. T (p. 542)
    8. T (p. 545)
    9. F (p. 547)
    10. F (p. 554)
  • 1, moderate
    2, weak
    3 strong
  • As a socially constructed concept, intelligence varies from culture to culture. Thus, most psychol- ogists now define intelligence as the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. To reify something is to view an abstract, immaterial concept as if it were a concrete thing. Thus, to reify IQ is to treat the intelligence quotient as if it were a fixed and objectively real trait, such as height, rather than as a score received on an intelligence test.
    In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts.”
  • Spearman’s Theory
    g factor – the ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence.
    s factor – the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence.
    Gardner’s Theory
    Multiple intelligences - ranging from verbal, linguistic, and mathematical to interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence.
  • Psychologists agree that people have specific abilities, such as verbal and mathematical aptitudes. However, they debate whether a general intelligence (g) factor runs through them all, as proposed by Charles Spearman. Factor analysis has identified several clusters of mental abilities, including verbal intelligence, spatial ability, and reasoning ability. Still, there seems to be a tendency for those who excel in one of the clusters to score well on others, as suggested by the results of
    L. L. Thurstone’s ranking of people’s primary mental abilities. Some psychologists today agree with Spearman’s notion that we have a common level of intelligence that can predict our abilities in all other academic areas.
  • Evidence that brain damage may diminish one ability but not others, as well as studies of savant syndrome, led Howard Gardner to propose his theory of multiple intelligences. These include lin- guistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist.
  • OBJECTIVE 3| Compare Gardner’s and Sternberg's theories of intelligence.
  • OBJECTIVE 3| Compare Gardner’s and Sternberg's theories of intelligence.
  • Robert Sternberg also proposes a triarchic theory of multiple intelligences in which he distinguishes among analytical (academic problem solving), practical, and creative intelligences.
  • Distinct from academic
  • intelligence is social intelligence, an aspect of which is emotional intelligence. The four components of emotional intelligence are (1) the ability to perceive emotions (to recognize them in faces, music, and stories), (2) to understand emotions (to predict them and how they change and blend), (3) to manage emotions (to know how to express them in varied situations), and (4) to use emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking. Those who are emotionally smart often succeed in careers, marriages, and parenting where other academically smarter (but emotionally less intelligent) people fail. Critics of the idea of emotional intelligence argue that we stretch the idea of intelligence too far when we apply it to emotion.
  • Gardner
    Spearman
    Mayer and Salovey
    Sternberg
  • Several studies report a positive correlation (+.33) between brain size (adjusted for body size) and intelligence score. Moreover, as adults age, brain size and nonverbal intelligence test scores fall in concert. Some studies suggest that highly educated people die with more synapses. The direction of the relationship between brain size and intelligence remains unclear. Larger brain size may enable greater intelligence, but it is also possible that greater intelligence leads to experiences that exercise the brain and build more connections, thus increase its size. Or, some third factor may be at work. Some evidence suggests that highly intelligent people differ in their neural plasticity.
  • People who score high on intelligence tests tend to retrieve information from memory more quick- ly. Research also suggests that the correlation between intelligence score and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about +.3 to +.5. Those who perceive quickly are especially likely to score higher on tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving. The brain waves of highly intelligent people register a simple stimulus, such as a flash of light, more quickly and with greater complexity. The evoked brain response also tends to be slightly faster when peo- ple with high intelligence rather than low intelligence scores perform a simple task, such as push- ing a button when an X appears on the screen. As yet, psychologists have no firm idea of why fast reactions on simple tasks should predict intelligence test performance.
  • People who score high on intelligence tests tend to retrieve information from memory more quick- ly. Research also suggests that the correlation between intelligence score and the speed of taking in perceptual information tends to be about +.3 to +.5. Those who perceive quickly are especially likely to score higher on tests based on perceptual rather than verbal problem solving. The brain waves of highly intelligent people register a simple stimulus, such as a flash of light, more quickly and with greater complexity. The evoked brain response also tends to be slightly faster when peo- ple with high intelligence rather than low intelligence scores perform a simple task, such as push- ing a button when an X appears on the screen. As yet, psychologists have no firm idea of why fast reactions on simple tasks should predict intelligence test performance.
  • Remote Associates Test
  • Remote Associates Test
  • The modern intelligence-testing movement started at the turn of the twentieth century when French psychologist Alfred Binet began assessing intellectual abilities. Together with Théodore Simon, Binet developed an intelligence test containing questions that assessed mental age and helped predict children’s future progress in the Paris school system. The test sought to identify French schoolchildren needing special attention. Binet and Simon made no assumption about the origin of intelligence.
  • Lewis Terman believed that intelligence was inherited. Like Binet, he believed that his test, the Stanford-Binet, could help guide people toward appropriate opportunities. William Stern derived the intelligence quotient, or IQ, for Terman’s test. The IQ was simply a person’s mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. During the early part of the twentieth century, intelligence tests were sometimes used in ways that, in hindsight, even their designers regretted— “documenting” a presumed innate inferiority of ethnic and immigrant groups not sharing an Anglo-Saxon heritage.
  • Lewis Terman believed that intelligence was inherited. Like Binet, he believed that his test, the Stanford-Binet, could help guide people toward appropriate opportunities. William Stern derived the intelligence quotient, or IQ, for Terman’s test. The IQ was simply a person’s mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. During the early part of the twentieth century, intelligence tests were sometimes used in ways that, in hindsight, even their designers regretted— “documenting” a presumed innate inferiority of ethnic and immigrant groups not sharing an Anglo-Saxon heritage.
  • Aptitude refers to the capacity to learn, and thus aptitude tests are those designed to predict a per- son’s future performance. Achievement tests are designed to assess what a person has learned.
  • Sample IQ Test Questions: http://www.intelligencetest.com/questions/spatial.htm
  • The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is the most widely used intelligence test. David Wechsler developed a version for school-age children (the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC]), and another for preschool children.
  • The WISC consists of 11 subtests and yields not only
    an overall intelligence score but also separate verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed scores. Striking differences between these scores can pro- vide clues to cognitive strengths that a teacher or therapist might build on. Other comparisons can help clinicians identify a possible reading or language disability.
  • Answers: 1) 4 miles; 2) 6 mules; 3) B; 4) B; 5) False (A sick man is always happy); 6) True (It does not snow every day); 7) 9, 10; 8) 15, 11; 9) Head; 10) Room; 11) Tree; 12) Fabric
  • Use Psych Sim 5: Get Smart for more intelligence Test Question Examples
  • A, C
  • Because scores become meaningful only when they can be compared with others’ performance, they must be defined relative to a pretested group, a process called standardization. Obviously, the group on which a test is standardized must be representative of those who will be taking the test in the future. Standardized test results typically form a normal distribution, a bell-shaped pattern of scores that forms the normal curve. Most scores cluster around the average, and increasingly fewer are distributed at the extremes. Intelligence test scores form such a curve, but in the past several decades the average score has risen, a phenomenon known as the Flynn effect. The cause of this increase remains a mystery.
  • Give Handout with bell curve
  • The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present day. When intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are initially standardized using a sample of test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100 and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points. When IQ tests are revised, they are again standardized using a new sample of test-takers, usually born more recently than the first. Again, the average result is set to 100. However, when the new test subjects take the older tests, in almost every case their average scores are significantly above 100.
  • Reliability refers to the extent to which a test yields consistent scores. Consistency may be assessed by comparing scores on two halves of the test (split-half), on alternative forms, or on test- retest. A test can be reliable but not valid.
  • Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. Content validity is determined by assessing whether the test taps the pertinent behavior, or criterion. For example, road tests for a driver’s license should measure driving ability. Predictive validity is determined by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. Aptitude tests have predictive validity if they can predict future achievement. The predictive power of apti- tude scores diminishes as students move up the educational ladder.
  • 1. B
    2. E
  • 105
  • 1. D
    2. D
  • At one extreme of the normal distribution are people whose intelligence scores fall below 70. To be labeled as having an intellectual disability (formerly referred to as mental retardation), a child must have both a low test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of living independ- ently. Intellectual disability sometimes results from known physical causes, such as Down syn- drome, a disorder of varying severity that is attributed to an extra chromosome in the person’s genetic makeup. Most mentally challenged adults can, with support, live in mainstream society.
  • At one extreme of the normal distribution are people whose intelligence scores fall below 70. To be labeled as having an intellectual disability (formerly referred to as mental retardation), a child must have both a low test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of living independ- ently. Intellectual disability sometimes results from known physical causes, such as Down syndrome, a disorder of varying severity that is attributed to an extra chromosome in the person’s genetic makeup. Most mentally challenged adults can, with support, live in mainstream society.
  • At one extreme of the normal distribution are people whose intelligence scores fall below 70. To be labeled as having an intellectual disability (formerly referred to as mental retardation), a child must have both a low test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of living independ- ently. Intellectual disability sometimes results from known physical causes, such as Down syndrome, a disorder of varying severity that is attributed to an extra chromosome in the person’s genetic makeup. Most mentally challenged adults can, with support, live in mainstream society.
  • At one extreme of the normal distribution are people whose intelligence scores fall below 70. To be labeled as having an intellectual disability (formerly referred to as mental retardation), a child must have both a low test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of living independ- ently. Intellectual disability sometimes results from known physical causes, such as Down syndrome, a disorder of varying severity that is attributed to an extra chromosome in the person’s genetic makeup. Most mentally challenged adults can, with support, live in mainstream society.
  • At the other extreme are the “gifted.” Contrary to the popular myth that they are frequently malad- justed, research suggests that high-scoring children are healthy, well adjusted, and academically successful. Controversy surrounds “gifted child” programs in which the “gifted” are segregated and given academic enrichment not available to the masses. Critics note that tracking by aptitude sometimes creates a self-fulfilling prophecy: Those implicitly labeled “ungifted” can be influenced to become so. Denying lower-ability students opportunities for enriched education can widen the achievement gap between ability groups and increase their social isolation from one another.
  • At the other extreme are the “gifted.” Contrary to the popular myth that they are frequently malad- justed, research suggests that high-scoring children are healthy, well adjusted, and academically successful. Controversy surrounds “gifted child” programs in which the “gifted” are segregated and given academic enrichment not available to the masses. Critics note that tracking by aptitude sometimes creates a self-fulfilling prophecy: Those implicitly labeled “ungifted” can be influenced to become so. Denying lower-ability students opportunities for enriched education can widen the achievement gap between ability groups and increase their social isolation from one another.
  • At the other extreme are the “gifted.” Contrary to the popular myth that they are frequently malad- justed, research suggests that high-scoring children are healthy, well adjusted, and academically successful. Controversy surrounds “gifted child” programs in which the “gifted” are segregated and given academic enrichment not available to the masses. Critics note that tracking by aptitude sometimes creates a self-fulfilling prophecy: Those implicitly labeled “ungifted” can be influenced to become so. Denying lower-ability students opportunities for enriched education can widen the achievement gap between ability groups and increase their social isolation from one another.
  • heritability refers to the extent to which differences among people are attrib- utable to genes. To say that the heritability of intelligence is 50 percent does not mean that half of an individual’s intelligence is inherited. Rather, it means that we can attribute to heredity 50 per- cent of the variation of intelligence among those studied.
  • Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together point to a significant genetic contribution to intelligence scores. For example, the test scores of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead one researcher to estimate that “about 70 percent” of intelligence score variation “can be attributed to genetic variation.” Furthermore, the most genetically similar people have the most similar scores ranging from +.85 for identical twins raised together, to about +.33 for unrelated individuals raised together.
  • Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together point to a significant genetic contribution to intelligence scores. For example, the test scores of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead one researcher to estimate that “about 70 percent” of intelligence score variation “can be attributed to genetic variation.” Furthermore, the most genetically similar people have the most similar scores ranging from +.85 for identical twins raised together, to about +.33 for unrelated individuals raised together.
  • Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together point to a significant genetic contribution to intelligence scores. For example, the test scores of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead one researcher to estimate that “about 70 percent” of intelligence score variation “can be attributed to genetic variation.” Furthermore, the most genetically similar people have the most similar scores ranging from +.85 for identical twins raised together, to about +.33 for unrelated individuals raised together.
  • Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together point to a significant genetic contribution to intelligence scores. For example, the test scores of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead one researcher to estimate that “about 70 percent” of intelligence score variation “can be attributed to genetic variation.” Furthermore, the most genetically similar people have the most similar scores ranging from +.85 for identical twins raised together, to about +.33 for unrelated individuals raised together.
  • Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together point to a significant genetic contribution to intelligence scores. For example, the test scores of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead one researcher to estimate that “about 70 percent” of intelligence score variation “can be attributed to genetic variation.” Furthermore, the most genetically similar people have the most similar scores ranging from +.85 for identical twins raised together, to about +.33 for unrelated individuals raised together.
  • Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together point to a significant genetic contribution to intelligence scores. For example, the test scores of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead one researcher to estimate that “about 70 percent” of intelligence score variation “can be attributed to genetic variation.” Furthermore, the most genetically similar people have the most similar scores ranging from +.85 for identical twins raised together, to about +.33 for unrelated individuals raised together.
  • Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together point to a significant genetic contribution to intelligence scores. For example, the test scores of identical twins reared separately are similar enough to lead one researcher to estimate that “about 70 percent” of intelligence score variation “can be attributed to genetic variation.” Furthermore, the most genetically similar people have the most similar scores ranging from +.85 for identical twins raised together, to about +.33 for unrelated individuals raised together.
  • Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children also provide evidence for environmental influences on intelligence. The intelligence test scores of fraternal twins raised together are more similar than those of other siblings, and the scores of identical twins raised apart are less similar than the scores of identical twins raised together. Studies of children reared in extremely neglectful or enriched environments also indicate that life experiences significantly influence intelligence test scores. For example, research indicates that schooling and intelligence contribute to each other (and that both enhance later income). Programs such as Head Start increase school readiness and provide at least a small boost to emotional intelligence.
  • Although gender similarities far outnumber gender differences, we find the differences in abilities more interesting. Research indicates that, compared with males, females are better spellers; are more verbally fluent; are better at remembering and locating objects; are more sensitive to touch, taste, and color; and are better emotion detectors. Males’ mental ability scores vary more than females’, and thus boys outnumber girls at both the low extreme and the high extreme. Boys out- perform girls in spatial ability tests and at math problem solving, but they underperform them in math computation. According to different perspectives, these differences may be explained as evolutionarily adaptive for each gender or as the result of social expectations and divergent opportunities.
  • OBJECTIVE 17| Describe ethnic similarities and differences in intelligence test scores, and discuss some genetic and environmental factors that might explain them.
  • American Blacks average about 10 points lower than White Americans on intelligence tests. European New Zealanders outscore native Maori New Zealanders, Israeli Jews outscore Israeli Arabs, and most Japanese outscore the stigmatized Japanese minority. Research suggests that envi- ronmental differences are largely responsible for these group differences.
  • (1) genetics research indicates that the races are remarkably alike under the skin;
  • Stereotype threat is a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. The phenomenon sometimes appears in intelligence testing among African-Americans and among women of all colors.
  • A
  • Transcript

    • 1. Intelligence Intelligence
    • 2. Section 1 Theories of Intelligence • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1: What arguments support intelligence as one general mental ability, and what arguments support the idea of multiple distinct abilities? 2: How do Gardner’s and Sternberg’s theories of multiple intelligences differ? 3: What makes up emotional intelligence? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence 2 I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 3. Fact or Falsehood… • • • • • • • • • • 1. Research suggests that a common ingredient of expert performance in chess, dancing, sports, and music is about a decade of intense daily practice. 2. Some rationally smart people have difficulty processing and managing social information. 3. There is a modest positive correlation between brain size and intelligence score. 4. Highly educated people die with more synapses than their less-educated peers. 5. The concern with individual differences in intelligence is strictly a twentiethcentury American phenomenon. 6. Today’s Americans score higher on intelligence tests than Americans did in the 1930s 7. Among the intellectually disabled, males outnumber females by 50 percent. . 8. As adopted children grow older, their intelligence scores become more similar to those of their biological parents than to those of their adoptive parents. 9. Recent research findings support a “Mozart effect,” that is, that having infants listen to classical music boosts their cognitive ability. 10. Aptitude scores are a much better predictor of the college performance of Whites than of Blacks.
    • 4. Use your brain #1 • You are participating in a race. You overtake the second person. What position are you in? • Answer: If you answered that you are first, then you are absolutely wrong! If you overtake the second person and you take his place, you are second! Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 5. Does Intelligence Predict Success? • Correlation between IQ scores and occupational status is +.37 • Correlation between IQ scores and income is +.21 • Correlation between IQ scores and job performance is +.50 • What conclusion can you draw from these findings? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 5 Gardner Animal
    • 6. ntelligence Ability to learn from experience, acquire knowledge and adapt Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 7. Intelligence • Intelligence is socially constructed thus… Can be culturally specific. According to this definition, are both Einstein and Babe Ruth intelligent? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 8. Intelligence • Important Terminology: • General Intelligence: factor that underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. • Factor Analysis: a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify difference dimensions of performance that underlie a person’s total score. • IQ (Intelligence Quotient)….we will break this down later Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 9. Basic Theories of Intelligence • • • • • Spearman’s Factor Theory – Factor g (General) & Factor s (Specific) – A single underlying intelligence correlated with specifics – Developed Factor Analysis Thurstone’s Theory of Seven Primary Abilities – 56 different tests that identified 7 primary abilities – Examples: Word fluency, Perceptual Speed, Memory – Later becomes the SAT Howard Gardner’s Mulitple Intelligence Theory – Based on Savant Syndrome – Has little research basis and statistical evidence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory – Creativity, Practical, Analytic Mayer and Salovey’s Emotional Intelligence Theory – Also Known as EQ – Made popular by Dan Goleman in 1995 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 9 Gardner Animal
    • 10. Spearman’s “G” Theory 7.4 How do psychologists define intelligence? S1 G S2 S3 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 11. Charles Spearman and his g factor Jack Bauer is good at torturing, bomb defusing, shooting, figuring out evil plots and saving the country. Is there anything he cannot do? • Used factor analysis and discovered that what we see as many different skills is actually one General Intelligence. • If you are good at one subject you are usually good at many others. Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 12. Howard Gardner and Multiple Intelligences • Gardner believed that there exists at least 7 different types of intelligences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Linguistic Logical-mathematical Spatial Musical Body-kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal Naturalist Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 13. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 14. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 15. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 16. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 17. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 18. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 19. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 20. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 21. Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities? Theories of Multiple Intelligences Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 22. Contemporary Intelligence Theories Howard Gardner (1983, 1999) supports Thurstone’s idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms. Gardner notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others. People with savant syndrome excel in abilities unrelated to general intelligence. 22 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 23. Savant Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 24. Robert Sternberg and his Triarchic Theory • Most commonly accepted theory today. • Three types of intelligence 1.Analytical 2.Creative 3.Practical Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 25. Sternberg’s Three Aspects of Intelligence Gardner Simplified • Analytical (academic problem solving). • Creative (generating novel ideas) • Practical (required for everyday tasks where multiple solutions exist). Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 26. Goleman and his EQ • Emotional Intelligence • Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. • Maybe EQ is a better predictor for future success than IQ. Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 27. Emotional Intelligence (EQ) • First called social intelligence. • The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions. • Some studies show EQ to be a greater predictor for future success than IQ Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 28. Emotional Intelligence: Components Component Perceive emotion Understand emotion Manage emotion Use emotion Description Recognize emotions in faces, music and stories Predict emotions, how they change and blend Express emotions in different situations Utilize emotions to adapt or be creative 28 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 29. Use your brain #2 • You are participating in a race. If you overtake the last person, then you are...? • Answer: If you answered that you are second to last, then you are wrong again. Tell me, how can you overtake the LAST person? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 30. Intelligence Theories Review: Who Said It? 1. “If I know you're very good in music, I can predict with just about zero accuracy whether you're going to be good or bad in other things.” 2. “Intelligence means a particular quantity derived from statistical operations. Under certain conditions the score of a person at a mental test can be divided into two factors, one of which is always the same in all tests…” 3. “We define intelligence as the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions.” 4. “Well, first of all, we did lots of studies where we show practical intelligence doesn't correlate with G. We have probably two dozen studies that practical intelligence better predicts job success than IQ.” Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 30 Gardner Animal
    • 31. Section 1 Theories of Intelligence Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 1: What arguments support intelligence as one general mental ability, and what arguments support the idea of multiple distinct abilities? 2: How do Gardner’s and Sternberg’s theories of multiple intelligences differ? 3: What makes up emotional intelligence? Self-Rating Level of Understanding I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. •Apply the main concepts of the learning goal to myself or other topics related to the course. 4.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. •Explain the answer to the learning goal questions with specific details. ★ 3.0 ★ 2.0 I can… •Identify and describe the terms associated with the learning goal questions. 1.0 •I need help in understanding the learning goals! Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 32. Section 2 Intelligence Findings • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 4: To what extent is intelligence related to brain anatomy and neural processing speed? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence 32 I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 33. Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Recent Studies indicate some correlation (about +.33) between brain size and intelligence. As brain size decreases with age, scores on verbal intelligence tests also decrease. Gray matter volume is above average in people with high intelligence. 33 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 34. Intelligence & the Brain • Brain Anatomy – Small positive correlation between brain size and IQ – Brain size decreases with age as does verbal intelligence Example Reaction Time Test for Intelligence X V V V X F V X V F • Brain Function – Frontal Lobe contains workspace for organizing information • Perceptual Speed ★ – Those who perceive quickly tend to score higher on intelligence tests • Neurological Speed ★ – Those who score high on intelligence tests tend to have faster brain response times How many green X’s? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 34 Gardner Animal
    • 35. Einstein’s Brain Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 36. Brain Function Studies of brain functions show that people who score high on intelligence tests perceive stimuli faster, retrieve information from memory quicker, and show faster brain response times. People with higher intelligence respond correctly and quickly to the above question. 36 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 37. Intelligence & Creativity • Creativity is… – The ability to produce original and valuable ideas – More divergent thinking (generating multiple solutions to a problem – Little correlation with intelligence past 120 – Stems from frontal lobe • Components of Creativity 2 minutes: Think of as many uses for a paperclip as you can – – – – – Expertise ★ Imaginative Thinking Adventuresome Personality ★ Intrinsic Motivation ★ Creative Environment (Think Google) • Bottom Line – Creativity & Intelligence are not linked Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 37 Gardner Animal
    • 38. Critical Thinking… • Many schools subscribe to the idea that perceptual and neurological speed are indicative of intelligence. These schools assess students with timed tests, and students who are identified as requiring special education are given extended time for taking tests. This type of practice implicitly communicates that schools equate processing speed with intelligence. • Do you think these practices are helpful or harmful to learning? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 39. Section 2 Intelligence Findings Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 4: To what extent is intelligence related to brain anatomy and neural processing speed? Rating 4.0 Expert I can explain how intelligence and its relationship to brain anatomy and neural processing speed works 2.0 Developing I.Q. I can teach someone else about intelligence and its relationship to brain anatomy and neural processing speed 3.0 Proficient Cognition Student Evidence I can identify terms associated with intelligence and its relationship to brain anatomy and neural processing speed, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning Concepts Wechsler I don’t understand this concept and need help! Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 40. Section 3 Assessing Intelligence and Modern Intelligence • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 5: When and why were intelligence tests created? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence 40 I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 41. History of Intelligence Testing • • Sir Francis Galton – Father of Behavior Genetics (coined term nature/nurture) – First to document theories of intelligence through inheritance • Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon ★ – Designed a test to identify student’s reasoning abilities and place them into appropriate classes – Measured “mental age” through reasoning abilities Lewis Terman ★ – Stanford Professor who modified Binet’s Test for American Students (1916) – Created the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test – Believed in Eugenics and want people tested for reproductive purposes • William Stern★ – Coined the Term Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – Formula: Mental Age/Chronological Age (x) 100 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 41 Gardner Animal
    • 42. How do we Assess Intelligence? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon set out to figure out a concept called a mental age (what a person of a particular age should know). • They discovered that by discovering someone’s mental age they can predict future performance. • Hoped they could use test to help children, Creativity Intelligence Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 43. Origins of Intelligence Testing  Mental Age  a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet  chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance  child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 44. Origins of Intelligence Testing  Intelligence Quotient (IQ)  defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100  IQ = ma/ca x 100)  on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 45. Terman and his IQ Test • Used Binet’s • A 8 year old has a research to mental age of 10, construct the what is her IQ? modern day IQ test • A 12 year old has called the the mental age of Stanford-Binet 9, what is his IQ? Test. • A boy has the • IQ=Mental mental age of 10 age/Chronological and an IQ of 200, age X 100. how old is he? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 46. SBIQ Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 47. Problems with the IQ Formula • It does not really work well on adults, why? If a 60 year old man does as well as an average 30 year old then his IQ would be 50!!!!!! That makes no sense!!!!! Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 48. Types of Tests Aptitude Achievement • Measure ability or potential. • Tests that measure what you have learned. Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 49. Modern Intelligence Tests • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test – Originally adapted by Lewis Terman – In its 5th revision and still in use today • Army Alpha Test – First developed during World War I by Robert Yerkes – Considered the first mass distributed intelligence test • Wechsler Intelligence Tests ★ – Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and WISC – Subscales in include verbal and performance assessments • Wonderlic Cognitive Abilities Test – 12 minutes, 50 questions – Short Business IQ tests that correlate well with intelligence – Also used to scout NFL draft picks • Internet IQ Tests – Mensa.org – Not good predictors of IQ 49 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 50. Modern Tests of Mental Abilities • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) consists of 11 subtests and cues us in to strengths by using….. Factor Analysis Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 51. Wechsler Tests • More common way to give IQ tests….does not use the formula but uses the same scoring system. • WAIS • WISC • WPPSI Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 52. Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS VERBAL PERFORMANCE General Information Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 53. Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 54. Army Alpha Test Sample (Yerkes) 1. 2. 3. A. B. C. 4. A. B. C. 5. a. b. 6. a. b. 7. a. b. 8. a. b. A company advanced 6 miles and retreated 2 miles. How far was it then from its first position? A dealer bought some mules for $1,200. He sold them for $1,500, making $50 on each mule. How many mules were there? Thermometers are useful because They regulate temperature They tell us how warm it is They contain mercury A machine gun is more deadly than a rifle, because it Was invented more recently Fires more rapidly Can be used with less training For these next two items, examinees first had to unscramble the words to form a sentence, and then indicate if the sentence was true or false. happy is man sick always a day it snow does every not The next two items required examinees to determine the next two numbers in each sequence. 345678 18 14 17 13 16 12 A portion of the Army Alpha required examinees to solve analogies. shoe — foot. hat — kitten, head, knife, penny eye — head. window — key, floor, room, door In these next two examples, examinees were required to complete the sentence by selecting one of the four possible answers. The apple grows on a shrub, vine, bush, tree Denim is a dance, food, fabric, drink 54
    • 55. Sample Intelligence Test Questions Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 55 Gardner Animal
    • 56. Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 56 Gardner Animal
    • 57. Quick Section Assessment 1. According to the Stanford-Binet formula for an intelligence quotient (IQ), the IQ of a ten-year-old child with a mental age of eight and a half years is A. B. C. D. E. 85 95 100 105 115 2. Alfred Binet’s efforts to measure intelligence were directed at A. B. C. D. E. Testing the worth of various theoretical definitions Operationally defining one theory of intelligence Predicting children’s success in school Selecting workers for successful job performance Establishing the learning potential of French military recruits Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 57 Gardner Animal
    • 58. Section 3 Assessing Intelligence and Modern Intelligence Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 5: When and why were intelligence tests created? Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about with when and how intelligence tests created. 3.0 Proficient I can explain how with when and how intelligence tests created. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with when and how intelligence tests created, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help! Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 59. Section 4 Principles of Test Construction • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 6: What’s the difference between aptitude and achievement tests, and how can we develop and evaluate them? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence 59 I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 60. Aptitude vs. Achievement Testing • Aptitude Test ★ – Predict a New Skill – Most predictive of aptitude of elementary school age children • Achievement Test ★ – Measures what has been learned – Example: AP Psychology Test The SAT: Aptitude or Achievement? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 60 Gardner Animal
    • 61. Basic Principles of Test Construction • Standardization of Tests – Making sure everyone administers the test in the same way to make it fair. – ‘Norming’ the Test ★ • Defining scores based on a pretested group (compare scores) • Has to be done every few years to keep scores valid • Normal Distribution ★ – The Bell Curve or Normal Curve – 68% of people fall between -1 and +1 standard deviations of the mean – 95% of people fall between -2 and +2 standard deviations of the mean Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 61 Gardner Animal
    • 62. Normal “Bell” Curve Z-Score or standard deviation Z-Score or standard deviation Sammi’s intelligence score is one standard deviation above the mean. Approximately what percent of people did Sammi out-score on his intelligence test? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 62 Gardner Animal
    • 63. The Flynn Effect The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measured in many parts of the world from roughly 1930 to the present day Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 64. The Flynn Effect Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 65. Principles of Test Construction • Reliability – Are the scores consistent? – Split-Half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves (odds/evens) and assessing how consistent the scores are. – Test-Retest Reliability: Take the test one day and then take it again a few weeks later to compare the scores. – Inter-rater Reliability: Two people observing the same behavior should score it the same way Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 65 Gardner Animal
    • 66. Principles of Test Construction • Validity: Does the test measure what it is suppose to? – Achievement/Classroom Tests • Content Validity: – Does the exam actually test what it is suppose to? – Example: A poorly designed physics test has questions on it that were not covered in class or by the textbook. • Face Validity: – On the surface, does the test appear to measure the subject matter Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 66 Gardner Animal
    • 67. Principles of Test Construction Validity: Does the test measure what it is suppose to? –Aptitude/Psychological Measures • Criterion-Related/Predictive Validity: – Refers to the function of a test in predicting/relating to a particular behavior – Example: An aptitude test designed to predict if a person will be a good pilot should correlate to pilot performance scores • Construct Validity: – When measuring a construct like personality you should correlate your results with a variety of different measures to eliminate or confirm it works. Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 67 Gardner Animal
    • 68. Construct Validity Example Social Introversion on MMPI -.73 Sociability Scale on the CPI +.78 Newly Developed Extraversion Test -.82 Social Discomfort Scale +.91 -.03 Outgoingness scale on the MPI Intelligence Score on Wonderlic Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 68 Gardner Animal
    • 69. Visualizing Reliability & Validity I.Q. I.Q. I.Q. UNRELIABLE & INVALID RELIABLE BUT INVALID RELIABLE & VALID Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 70. Section Assessment 1. A test that is labeled an achievement test is most likely to be given to A. B. C. D. E. predict an individual’s ability to succeed in a particular job allow a student to be exempted from a college course assess the mental age of a gifted eight-year-old determine whether a person is an extrovert or an introvert investigate an individual’s cognitive style 2. The performance of the group on which an IQ test is standardized sets the A. B. C. D. E. method of administration most suitable for the test extent to which IQ is determined by environment criteria for the diagnostic significance of intelligence degree of validity of the IQ test norms against which performance of later test takers can be evaluated Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 70 Gardner Animal
    • 71. Section Assessment In a normal distribution of a standardized test, the mean is 85 with a standard deviation of 10. Daria scores in the 98th percentile. What is the approximate score Daria received? A)85 B)75 C)100 D)105 E)115 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 71 Gardner Animal
    • 72. Section Assessment 1. All of the following are reasons for requiring clearly specified procedures for the administration and scoring of assessment measures, such as standardized tests, EXCEPT to A. B. C. D. E. allow comparisons among scores of various test takers reduce the possible effects of extraneous variables on scores increase the reliability and validity of the test scores decrease the amount of time needed to administer the test increase the objectivity of the score procedures used 2. In a normal distribution, approximately what percent of the scores occur within one standard deviation above and below the mean? A. B. C. D. E. 5% 16% 33% 68% 97% Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 72 Gardner Animal
    • 73. Section 4 Principles of Test Construction Reflect on Learning Goals Learning Goals 6: What’s the difference between aptitude and achievement tests, and how can we develop and evaluate them? Rating 4.0 Expert I can explain, the difference between aptitude and achievement tests with no major errors or omissions. 2.0 Developing I.Q. I can teach someone else about, the difference between aptitude and achievement tests, In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient Cognition Student Evidence I can identify terms associated the difference between aptitude and achievement tests, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning Wechsler Concepts I don’t understand this concept and need help! Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 74. Section 5: The Dynamics of Intelligence • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 7: How stable are intelligence scores over the life span? – 8: What are the traits of those at the low and high intelligence extremes? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence 74 I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 75. Does Intelligence Change Over Time? By age 3, a child’s IQ can predict adolescent IQ scores. Depends on the type of intelligence, crystallized or fluid. Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 76. Intelligence: Stability vs. Change • About age 7 intelligence stabilizes • Habituation at age 2-7 months is an early sign of intelligence • Early readers tend to have higher intelligence (early talkers do not) • Scottish Longitudinal Study shows that intelligence at age 11 still correlates at age 77 (r = +.66) • Flynn Effect Reasons: – – – – Increase in education Increase in technology Better nutrition Smaller family sizes (increased individual attention) Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 76 Gardner Animal
    • 77. Extreme Intelligences: Low End • Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability – IQ of 70 or below – AND difficulty adapting to normal life – About 75% are caused by unknown environmental influences – Most are Male Because of the Flynn Effect more people are diagnosed as mentally retarded, but more can lead productive lives Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 77 Gardner Animal
    • 78. Extreme Intelligences: Low End • Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability – IQ of 70 or below – AND difficulty adapting to normal life – About 75% are caused by unknown environmental influences – Most are Male Because of the Flynn Effect more people are diagnosed as mentally retarded, but more can lead productive lives Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 78 Gardner Animal
    • 79. Extreme Intelligences: Low End Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 80. The Dynamics of Intelligence Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 81. Willowbrook  Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 82. Current Serbian Institutions  Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 83. Extreme Intelligences High End • Sho Yano Aced SATs at age 8 Graduated College age 12, Doctor at age 21 Gifted Intelligence (130 or above) – Terman’s Longitudinal Study • 1500 with IQ of 150 (Average) • Well Adjusted • Emotionally Stable • Socially Mature • Better Health • Above average success in career – Ellen’s Winner Study • 180 or above • Socially isolated • Emotional issues Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 83 Gardner Animal
    • 84. Extreme Intelligences High End Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 85. Extreme Intelligences High End Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 86. Learning Goals: 7: How stable are intelligence scores over the life span? 8: What are the traits of those at the low and high intelligence extremes? Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about the stability of intelligence scores over the life span In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient 2.0 Developing Cognition I.Q. 1.0 Concepts Problems Beginning Wechsler Bias I can explain, the stability of intelligence scores over the life span) with no major errors or omissions. I can identify terms associated the stability of intelligence scores over the life span, but need to review this concept more. I don’t understand this concept and need A.I. Creativity Intelligence help! 86 Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 87. Section 6 Genetic and Environmental Influence on Intelligence • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: – 9: What does evidence reveal about hereditary and environmental influences on intelligence? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence 87 I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 88. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence No other topic in psychology is so passionately followed as the one that asks the question, “Is intelligence due to genetics or environment?” 88 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 89. Genetic Influences  Heritability  the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes  variability depends on range of populations and environments studied Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 90. Heritability Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 91. Heritability Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 92. Heritability Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 93. Heritability Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 94. Heritability Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 95. Heritability Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 96. Heritability Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 97. Adoption Studies Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal ability to their adopted parents. 97 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 98. Environmental Influences in Intelligence • Identical twins raised apart are slightly less correlated in their intelligence scores • Fraternal twins have more correlated scores than ordinary siblings • Early childhood neglect correlates with lower intelligence scores • Intelligence scores rise in the fall months and decline in the summer months Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 98 Gardner Animal
    • 99. Schooling Effects Schooling is an experience that pays dividends, which is reflected in intelligence scores. Increased schooling correlates with higher intelligence scores. To increase readiness for schoolwork, projects like Head Start facilitate leaning. 99 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 100. Early Intervention Effects Early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a lack of personal control over the environment, and it impoverishes their intelligence. Romanian orphans with minimal human interaction are delayed in their development. 100 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 101. Neglect on Intelligence: Genie Wiley  Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 102. Learning Goal: 9: What does evidence reveal about hereditary and environmental influences on intelligence? Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about what evidence reveals about hereditary and environmental influences on intelligence. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can explain, what evidence reveals about hereditary and environmental influences on intelligence with no major errors or omissions. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with what evidence reveals about hereditary and environmental influences on intelligence, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help! Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence 102 I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 103. Section 7 Gender and Cultural Differences and Testing Bias • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 10: How and why do gender and racial groups differ in mental ability scores? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence 103 I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 104. The differences between men and women as they relate to mental abilities. 1. Girls are better spellers 2. Girls are verbally fluent and have large vocabularies 3. Girls are better at locating objects 4. Girls are more sensitive to touch, taste, and color 5. Boys outnumber girls in counts of underachievement 6. Boys outperform at math problem solving, but under perform at math computation 7. Women detect emotions more easily than men do * Testosterone in the womb may increase visual spatial skills (like playing chess) Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 104 Gardner Animal
    • 105. Ethnic Similarities and Differences To discuss this issue we begin with two disturbing but agreed upon facts: 1. Racial groups differ in their average intelligence scores. 2. High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and income. 105 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 106. Racial (Group) Differences If we look at racial differences, white Americans score higher in average intelligence than black Americans (Avery and others, 1994). European New Zealanders score higher than native New Zealanders (Braden, 1994). White-Americans Black-Americans Average IQ = 100 Average IQ = 85 Hispanic Americans 106 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 107. Environmental Effects Differences in intelligence among these groups are largely environmental, as if one environment is more fertile in developing these abilities than another. 107 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 108. Reasons Why Environment Affects Intelligence 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Races are remarkably alike genetically. Race is a social category. Asian students outperform North American students on math achievement and aptitude tests. Today’s better prepared populations would outperform populations of the 1930s on intelligence tests. White and black infants tend to score equally well on tests predicting future intelligence. Different ethnic groups have experienced periods of remarkable achievement in different eras. 108 Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity Gardner Animal
    • 109. More possible explanations for why different ethnic groups average different intelligence scores. • Why do Asians outperform Whites on math and aptitude tests? • Why do Blacks, Native Americans and Hispanics have slightly lower intelligence scores than Whites? – Reason # 1: Genetics and Heritability – Reason # 2: Socioeconomics Disadvantage – Reason # 3: Stereotype Threat/Vulnerability – Reason # 4: IQ Tests are Culturally Bias Why do we have such stereotypes? Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 109 Gardner Animal
    • 110. Possible explanations for why different ethnic groups average different intelligence scores. Reason # 1: Genetic and Heritability Components • Some argue that the heritability of intelligence is about 60-80%, meaning that the variation of intelligence from one person to another is more likely due to genetics – This DOES NOT mean that you inherit 60-80% of your intelligence from your parents!!! – Some researchers see this to mean that genetics among groups (like Blacks and Hispanics) play a role in determining intelligence scores. • HOWEVER-: – Race is much more a social category and not biological – White and black infants tend to score equally well on tests predicting future intelligence. – People raised in similar environments tend to have similar test scores Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 110 Gardner Animal
    • 111. Possible explanations for why different ethnic groups average different intelligence scores. Reason # 2: Socioeconomics Disadvantages • People who grow up in poorer communities tend to: – Have lesser nutrition and doctor’s visits – Have larger family sizes – Be from single-parent households – Are exposed to fewer books – Have less privacy to concentrate on studying – Attend poorer-quality schools – May be influenced by crime and drugs Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 111 Gardner Animal
    • 112. Possible explanations for why different ethnic groups average different intelligence scores. Reason # 3: Stereotype Threat/Vulnerability • A stereotype threat is a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype • This phenomenon appears in some instances in intelligence testing among African-Americans and among women of all colors. Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 112 Gardner Animal
    • 113. Possible explanations for why different ethnic groups average different intelligence scores. Reason # 4: Culture Unfair IQ Testing • Who creates most IQ tests? • Do IQ tests measure knowledge more than ability? • Are questions culturally specific? – Cup & Saucer, “L, el and ell” • Hungarians and Italian immigrants of the early 1900’s were seen as feeble-minded because of low IQ test scores. • Today’s tests are seen as unbiased because they put more emphasis of ability and are given in a variety of languages • How would you design a culturally nonbiased test? An example of a culturally fair IQ test question Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 113 Gardner Animal
    • 114. Section Assessment Research on stereotype threat indicates that students might not do as well as they can on a test if A. they are informed that people of their ethnicity, age, or gender usually do not perform well on the test B. the group taking the test is not ethnically diverse C. they are forced to take a test that is know to have low test-retest reliability D. other students perceive them to be of a minority ethnic group E. the test does not have standardized administration of scoring procedures Cognition Concepts Problems A.I. Creativity Intelligence I.Q. Wechsler Bias Delay Terman Heredity 114 Gardner Animal
    • 115. Learning Goal: How and why do gender and racial groups differ in mental ability scores? Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about how and why gender and racial groups differ in mental ability scores. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can explain, how and why gender and racial groups differ in mental ability scoreswith no major errors or omissions. 2.0 Developing 1.0 Beginning I can identify terms associated how and why gender and racial groups differ in mental ability scores, but need to review this concept more. I don’t understand this concept and need help! 115

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