30.2 i ndustrialized democraciesPresentation Transcript
LEQ: How did the United States,Western Europe, and Japan achieveeconomic prosperity and strengthendemocracy during the Cold War years?
The United States prospered during the ColdWar and played a central role in global politics.• American business expanded into markets aroundthe world.• The long postwar peace spread an economic boom.• The headquarters of the United Nations was builtin the U.S., as were those of the World Bank andInternational Monetary Fund.
• During this time period,recessions were brief.• Many Americans grew moreaffluent and moved to suburbsand to the Sunbelt. Governmentprograms made buying a houseeasier.• American culture became popularabroad and much of the worldembraced U.S. movies, music,and television.Americaexperiencedboom timesduring the1950s and1960s.• recession – a period when the economy shrinks
For example, Americadepended on oil from theMiddle East. A politicalcrisis there in the 1970sled to a drop in productionand higher prices.As the worldeconomybecame moreintegrated,some problemsarose.This led to a serious recession in the United Statesbeginning in 1974.
The promise ofopportunityand equality wasnot the realityfor minoritiesor women afterWorld War II.African Americansin particular facedsegregation anddiscrimination.• segregation – forced separation by race, sex, religion,or ethnicity• discrimination – unequal treatment or barrierssuffered by minorities
• The movement sought to extend equal rights toall Americans.• Congress outlawed segregation, protected votingrights, and made discrimination in housing andjobs illegal.The civil rights movement began in 1956 withDr. Martin Luther King, Jr., as its leader.• Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. – a gifted preacher whoemerged as a leader of the civil rights movementin the 1950s
• Its goal was to help the poor and elderly.• In the 1980s, the Republicans called for cutbacksin government spending and cuts in taxes.• Ronald Reagan was elected and cut taxes.However, the rise in military spending at thesame time increased the national budget deficit.The U.S. government expanded in the 1960sto offer social programs.
Konrad Adenauer, West Germany’s chancellor, guidedrebuilding. The nation created a modern industrial base. Whencommunism declined, the two Germanys reunited in 1990.After World War II ended, Western Europe facedthe task of rebuilding.Germany was dividedinto two separatecountries, democraticWest Germany andcommunist EastGermany.• Konrad Adenauer – West Germany’s chancellor from 1949 to1963, who guided the nation’s rebuilding
Europe underwent many changes afterWorld War II.• Britain’s economy was slow to recover, even withmoney from the U.S. through the Marshall Plan.• Britain, Belgium, France, and the Netherlands allgranted independence to many of their formercolonies overseas.• Much of Europe experienced an economic boom in the1950s and 1960s.
• Some worked to extend the welfare state, inwhich the government increases its responsibilityfor the needs of its people.• However, this system led to higher taxes. Duringthe 1980s and 1990s, most European nationsmoved to limit social welfare benefits.• The European Community was formed in 1957to establish free trade among members.European nations expanded social benefitsto their citizens and moved toward greatereconomic cooperation.• welfare state – a country with a market economy but with increasedgovernment responsibility for the social and economic needs of itspeople• European Community – an organization of European nations dedicated toestablishing free trade among all member nations for all products
• A new constitution created aparliamentary democracy.• The education system wasopened to all people, includingwomen.• Land was given to small farmersand funds from the U.S. wereused to rebuild cities.• The American occupation endedin 1952.Japan lay inruins at theend of WorldWar II, butAmericanoccupationbroughtchange.
Japan experienced an economic boomin the 1950s.• Its gross domestic product (GDP) grew yearafter year, as Japan focused on producing goodsto export.• The nation built modern factories very quicklyand didn’t spend much money on its military.The country had a disciplined and educated workforce. This created a trade surplus for Japan.• gross domestic product (GDP) – the total value of allgoods and services produced in a nation in a particularyear
The United States benefited from lack of wardamage and high global demand for goods andservices. Western Europe benefited from theMarshall Plan and social welfare programs. WestGermany and Japan were able to build modernindustries after wartime destruction. Japanbenefited from America’s military support andstrong export sales.LEQ: How did the United States, WesternEurope, and Japan achieve economic prosperityand strengthen democracy during the Cold Waryears?