LEQ: How did two revolutions and a civilwar bring about Communist control ofRussia?
• Rulers lived in luxury while theirpeople lived in poverty.• Corruption was rampant.• The Duma had no real power.Tsar Nicholas IIDespite talk of reform after theRevolution of 1905, Tsar Nicholasdid little to solve Russia’s problems.
WWI united many Russians, but the warstrained the country’s mismanaged resources.• Factories couldn’t produce enough military supplies.• The transportation system couldn’t deliver foodand supplies to the battlefields.• Many soldiers had no guns and no ammunition.• Millions of soldiers died.
People lost confidence in the government.• Tsar Nicholas traveled to the front but proved tobe a poor military leader.• Tsarina Alexandra ignored continued food andfuel shortages at home.• The tsarina’s reliance on the “mad monk”Rasputin further eroded public confidence in thegovernment.
In March, 1917,workers went onstrike, and peoplefilled the streetschanting, “Bread,bread!”
With disaster on the battlefield and protestsat home, Nicholas abdicated.The Duma set up atemporary governmentand began to write aconstitution to createa Russian republic.Revolutionarieshad other ideas.
There were two socialist revolutionary groupsin Russia.Mensheviks Bolsheviks• Favored gradual reform• Favored higher wages,increased suffrage, andwelfare programs• Believed in radicalchange• Favored total revolution
The Bolsheviks were led byV. I. Lenin, a Marxist, who:• Called for workers to uniteand overthrow capitalism• Spoke of unity amongworkers and farmers• Promised peace,food, and land
In November 1917, Lenin’s followers seizedpower. The Bolsheviks, renamed Communists,made changes quickly.Changes under LeninEnded private ownership of landGave land to peasantsGave control of factories and mines to workersWithdrew from WWI
In 1918, the former tsar and tsarina were shot. In1920, the Red Army won and took control of Russia.Trotsky created a Red Army using former tsarist officersled by commissars. The army was well led and wellpositioned in the center of Russia against the Whites.A brutal civil war broke out between the Communists,known as “Reds,” and their opponents, known as“Whites.”•commissar − Communist party official assigned to thearmy to teach party principles and ensure party loyalty
In the early years of the revolution, Lenin adopteda policy of “war communism” and took over banks,mines, factories, and railroads.This policybrought theeconomy to nearcollapse, andmany suffered.Lenin changed course.His New EconomicPolicy, a compromisewith capitalism, helpedthe economy recover.
• State-controlled banks,mines, factories, andrailroads• State-controlled banks,trade, and large industries• Small businesses forcedto give profits to the state• Small businesses allowedto keep some profits• Farmers forced to givecrops to feed the armyor the poor• Farmers allowed to sellsurplus crops for profitWar Communism New Economic Policy
In 1922, Lenin united Russian lands into theUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics and adopteda new constitution.• The government had an elected legislature.• Citizens were given the right to vote.• Workers were given control of the means ofproduction.•soviet − a council of workers and soldiers
Realizing that there was no proletariat in Russia,Lenin created a government where theCommunists were the leaders, not the people.• Russians lived in fear of secret police and prisoncamps.• Lenin died in 1924. His successor, Joseph Stalin,would prove to be a more ruthless dictator than anyof those before him.•proletariat − working class
The first revolution toppled tsar rule and put aprovisional government in place. The provisionalgovernment had little support, allowing it to bedeposed by the Bolsheviks in the secondrevolution. After a civil war, the Bolsheviks finallydrove their opponents out, and set up a Communistgovernment and economy.LEQ: How did two revolutions and a civil warbring about Communist control of Russia?