By 1914, most of Europe was divided into two armed camps, the Allies and the Central Powers. Millions of troops stood ready for war. Locate (a) Germany (b) Alsace- Lorraine (c) the Balkans (d) Serbia 2. Regions Why would Germans worry about the alliance between France and Russia 3. Synthesize Information Based on the information on the map, which alliance do you think had the greater military advantage in 1914?
Who started the war? During the war, each side blamed the other. Afterward the victorious Allies placed all the blame on Germany, because it invaded Belgium. Today, historians still debate who should bear the blame for a castastrophe nobody wanted. Using information from the chart, describe why Russian might feel that Germany started the war?
By 1914, Europe had enjoyed a century of relativepeace. Two alliances were formed with theintention of keeping that peace.Kicking the Hornet’s Nest…
Alliances within Europe were created in thelate nineteenth century to promote peace.Triple Alliance orCentral PowersTriple Ententeor Allies• Germany• Austria-Hungary• ItalyEventually added:• Ottoman empire• France• Russia• BritainEventually added:• Japan• entente – a nonbinding agreement to follow common policies
These alliances were based on previous wars, new economic rivalries,and competition for colonies.These rivalries increased militarism, and the great powersbegan to increase the size of their armies and navies.• militarism – glorification of the military
Austria-Hungary andthe Ottoman empirewere threatened bynationalism andstruggled to survive.Growing nationalism and economic competitionalso caused tensions within countries and acrossEuropean borders.Britain was threatenedby Germany’sindustrial advances.Germany believed thatRussian industry wasnot far behind them.
Nationalism grew in different ways in eachcountry in Europe.• France was bitter about the loss of Alsace andLorraine during the Franco-Prussian War andwanted it returned.• Russia supported Pan-Slavism, which held that allSlavic people, regardless of borders, shared acommon nationality.• Alsace and Lorraine – provinces on the border of Germany and France, lost byFrance to Germany in 1871; regained by France after WWI
The Great War began whenAustrian Archduke FrancisFerdinand and his wifeSophie were assassinatedby a Serbian nationalist.Shortly after, on July 28,1914, after issuingan ultimatum, Austriadeclared war on Serbia.• ultimatum – a final set of demandsWhen the Austrian Archdukewas assassinated a localconflict became aninternational war because ofalliance obligations.
The war between Austria and Serbia soon drew thegreat powers into the conflict.France gave backing to Russia, despite Germandemands that it stay out of the conflict.Germany declared war on Russia.Serbia sought help from its ally Russia, who beganto mobilize.• mobilize – to prepare military forces for war
With Belgium’s neutrality violated, Britain declaredwar on Germany on August 4.Days later, Germany marched through Belgium andheaded south to attack France.Germany declared war on France.• neutrality – supporting neither side in a war
At the onset, the war brought a renewedsense of patriotism.• Young men rushed toenlist in what seemed likean exciting adventure.• Patriotic fever helpedgovernments divertattention from labordisputes or nationalistdisturbances withintheir borders.
After a long period of growing antagonism betweenallied blocs, Europe’s great powers were drawninto a regional conflict by the alliances they hadformed for protection.LEQ: Why and how did World War I beginin 1914?