25.3 self rule for canada, australia, and new zealand
25.3 Self-Rules for Canada, Australiaand New Zealand?
LEQ: How were the British colonies ofCanada, Australia, and New Zealandsettled, and how did they win self-rule?
The population of Canada had three mainfactions in the late 1700s.• Thousands of French-speaking Catholic settlers• 30,000 British loyalists who fled to Canada afterthe American Revolution• Several groups of Native Americans
Upper Canada Lower Canada• English-speaking(now Ontario)• English laws andtraditions guidedthis province.• French-speaking(now Quebec)• The Catholic Churchand French traditionsguided this province.To ease tension between the factions, Britaincreated two separate Canadian provinces.
Leaders called for confederation of all of Britain’sNorth American colonies.The North American Act of 1867 created theDominion of Canada.Great Britain passed the Act of Union in 1840, joiningboth provinces into one and creating an electedlegislature.Unrest led to rebellion in both provinces in 1837.•confederation – unification•dominion – a self-governing nation
The Canadian Pacific Railroad opened in 1885,linking east and west.Canada expanded westward and attractednew immigrants from all over the world.
• Native Americans were forced to give up their land.• Louis Riel led the métis to revolt in 1869 and1885, but this failed and he was executed.• Canada flourished, but cultural division andAmerican influence threatened to dominate.As Canada expanded, Native Americanssuffered and cultural unity proved challenging.•métis – people of mixed Native American andFrench Canadian descent
• Australia was inhabitedby indigenous people wholived in small food-gatheringgroups and spoke 250different languages.• Britain made Australia apenal colony in the late1700s. Work gangs ofprisoners cleared the land.James Cook claimed Australia for Britain in 1770,but it was too remote to attract settlers.•indigenous – original; earliest people inhabiting a land•penal colony – a place where convicted criminals are sent tobe punished
• A gold rush in 1851helped the colony grow.• Many settlers becamesheep ranchers andwheat farmers, pushinginto the continent’srugged interior.Britain offered land and tools to free citizens whowould move to Australia in the 1800s.
Great Britainhelped thecolonies ofAustralia uniteto preventinterferencefrom otherEuropeanpowers.• The Commonwealth ofAustralia was therebyformed in 1901.• Though it recognizedthe British monarch as itshead of state, Australiawas self-governing.• Its constitution wasmodeled on those of Britainand the United States.
• Christian missionaries arrived in 1814 to convertthe indigenous Maori people.• The Maori people were settled farmers anddefended their land.• Britain annexed New Zealand in 1840. Thoughthe Maori fought wars to keep their land, in theend they were overcome.Captain Cook claimed New Zealand forBritain in 1769.•Maori – the indigenous people of New Zealand
• The nation wonindependencein 1907 but maintainedclose ties to Britain.• New Zealand formedits own parliament andelected legislature.New Zealand sought self-rule.
French and British colonists settled inCanada. Australia was first settled as apenal colony. Missionaries helped settleNew Zealand. All forced out indigenouspeople as a result of settlement. All wonself-rule from Britain fairly peacefully.LEQ: How were the British colonies of Canada,Australia, and New Zealand settled, and howdid they win self-rule?