How did the desire for nationalindependence among ethnic groupsweaken and ultimately destroy theAustrian and Ottoman empires?
During the early 1800s, the Hapsburg rulers of Austria tried to prevent change and ignored liberal demands.They even tried Nevertheless,to prevent factories sprungindustrialization, up by the 1840sfearing that it in Hapsburg landswould change the and causedempire’s traditional changes, includingway of life. the growth of cities.
Austria was an empire of very diverse peoplewith rival goals. Nationalist feelings grew during the mid 1800s. Nationalists made demands of the Hapsburg rulers. They wanted self-government.A nationalist revolt broke out in 1848, and the Hapsburg government crushed it.
The Hungarians wanted the right to rule themselves. Francis Joseph, who inherited the Hapsburg throne amid the 1848 uprising, made some reforms including the formation of a legislature. This did not satisfy the Hungarians, however, because the body was led by German- speaking Austrians.
A moderate HungarianAfter Austria’s leader named Ferencdefeat in its war Deák helped to workwith Prussia, out a solution.Hungarianspressured the The Dual MonarchyHapsburgs for of Austria-Hungary wasa compromise. formed in 1867.
The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary Separate Shared• Each had its own • Francis Joseph ruled both, constitution. as emperor of Austria and• Each had its own king of Hungary. parliament. • They shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs.
Hungarians wereDespite the happy, but otherscompromise, were not. Slavicnationalist unrest people still lacked acontinued to voice in government,increase in the for example, andempire. nationalist leaders called on them to unite.Unrest from nationalists paralyzed governments inthe early 1900s.
Europe wasa patchworkof differentnationalitiesbetween 1800and 1914.Nationalistspushed for self-rule, whichbrought about thedecline of theAustrian andOttoman empires.
Nationalist demandsThe Ottoman put pressure on theempire faced empire’s leaders.the sameproblem as Many revolts broke outthe Austrian against the Ottomans inempire. the 1800s as nationalist groups sought self-rule.
Some states gained independence from the Ottomans by 1878.
In addition to trouble from the nationalists, the Ottoman empire faced invasions from Europe in the mid 1800s. As a result, a series Russia pushed of wars broke out. toward Istanbul Russians fought and Austria- against the Ottomans, Hungary took and subject peoples control of two revolted. The region provinces. became known as the “Balkan powder keg.”
How did the desire for national independence among ethnic groups weaken and ultimately destroy the Austrian and Ottoman empires?In 1867 Austria formed the Dual Monarchy,giving Hungary its own constitution andparliament. Other groups continued to press fornational freedom. In the Ottoman empire,various ethnic groups demanded independence,and European powers competing for influencesupported some of these groups.