LEQ: Who were the key revolutionaries who ledthe movements for independence in LatinAmerica, and what were theiraccomplishments?
Background:Liberal ideas spread to Latin America withexplosive results. From Mexico to the tip ofSouth America, revolutionary movementsarose to overthrow the European powers.By 1825, most of Latin America was free fromcolonial rule.
After 300 years of colonial rule, therevolutionary fever of Europe also gripped Latin Americans.Many groups were unhappy with the strict social structure found across most of Latin America.
Discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political structure. Spanish-born upper class; held toppeninsulares government and church positions European descent; resented second- creoles class status; owned mines, haciendas, and ranches
Discontent was rooted in the social, racial, and political structure. (continued) A growing group of people of mixedmestizos European and Native American descent Of mixed European and Africanmulattoes descent; angry about lack of status and opportunities Many were enslaved on plantations andAfricans longed for freedom
Educated creoles read Many traveled toEnlightenment writers Europe and wereand saw the North inspired by theAmericans throw off ideals of the Frenchcolonial rule. Revolution.In 1808 Napoleon invaded Spain. They saw Spain’sweakness as an opportunity to gain independence.
• Toussaint L’Overture – self-educated former slave who led an uprising against Napoleon in Haiti Before any revolts took place in Spanish colonies, a rebellion began in French-controlled Haiti. • By 1798 the rebels had Enslaved Africans taken most of Haiti. led by Toussaint L’Ouverture • Napoleon sent an army to retake the island. began a bloody revolution in 1791. • Despite a truce, they arrested L’Ouverture, who died in France. The French were defeated and left Haiti in 1804.
• But most had noIn most of Spanish desire for economicAmerica, creoles or social disruption.wanted more • The slave revolt inpower and control. Haiti worried them, because most owned haciendas, mines, or farms. Some used slave labor.
• Father Miguel Hidalgo – a creole priest who in 1810 called for freedom and an end to slavery for Mexicans; led a revolt In September 1810 a parish priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo, called for Mexicans to fight for their independence. A ragged army of poor Despite some early mestizos and Native successes, without Americans marched creole support the on Mexico City. rebellion collapsed. Hidalgo was captured and executed.
• Father José Morelos – mestizo priest who called for wide-ranging reforms in Mexico, including an end to slavery; led a revolt Another priest, Father José Morelos, began another rebellion. He urged reforms such as the abolition of slavery, and the right to vote for all men. For four In 1815 he It looked like years, rebels was taken the rebel with Morelos prisoner and movement fought. executed. had ended.
In 1820, liberals forced the Spanish king to issue a constitution for Mexico. A conservative creole, Agustín de Iturbide,feared that the new Spanish government might impose liberal reforms on the colonies.
Aided by creoles, • Mexico was nownative Americans, free!and mestizos, • Iturbide tookIturbide the title ofoverthrew the EmperorSpanish viceroy. Agustín I.
Iturdide tried to add During the 1820s these lands to his other Spanish-ruled new Mexican empire. lands in Central America declared • Liberal Mexicans independence. toppled Iturdide and established the Republic of Mexico.These lands became the republics of Costa Rica,Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras.
• Simón Bolívar – known as “the liberator”; freed several South American nations from European rule, including Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia In 1810 Simón Bolívar led an uprising to create a republic in Venezuela. • The republic was quickly toppled by conservative forces, who forced him into exile. • However, Bolívar responded with a daring plan.
Bolívar and his army crossed the Andes; inAugust 1819, he surprised the Spanish inBogotá, now capital of Colombia.Other victories Bolívar moved onfollowed; by 1821 to Ecuador, Bolivia,Caracas was free. and Peru.Now called “The Liberator,” he joined forces withJosé de San Martín.
• José de San Martín – an Argentine creole who led armies against colonial rule in Argentina, Chile, and Peru In 1816 José • He then led an army over de San Martín the Andes to defeat the helped win Spanish in Chile. independence • Moving next to Peru, he for Argentina. turned his forces over to Bolívar, who was victorious. By 1824, the new nation of Gran Colombia was free. However, rivalries turned to civil war and it split into Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela.
• Dom Pedro – son of the king of Portugal who became emperor of an independent Brazil Under Dom Pedro, son of the Portuguese king, Brazil became an independent nation. • In 1822, Portugal threatened When to end reforms in Brazil. Napoleon conquered • Dom Pedro declared himself Portugal, emperor of a free Brazil. Dom Pedro • He accepted a constitution fled to Brazil. and many freedoms. • Brazil remained a monarchy until 1889.
LEQ: Who were the key revolutionaries who ledthe movements for independence in LatinAmerica, and what were theiraccomplishments?Simón Bolívar, Toussaint L’Ouverture, Father MiguelHidalgo, Father José Morelos, and José de San Martínhelped Latin America gain independence fromEuropean powers.