LEQ: What were the social effects ofthe Industrial Revolution?
Background:The Industrial Revolution brought great richesfor entrepreneurs. Millions of workers, however,lived in povery. As standards of living increased,all of society benefited from industrialization.Until then, working people suffered in dangerousand unsanitary conditions, overcrowdedhousing, and unrelenting poverty.
• urbanization – the movement of people to cities The Industrial Revolution brought rapid urbanization.• Changes in farming, rising population, and the need for workers led people to migrate to cities.• Overnight, towns and cities near coal or iron mines mushroomed.• Manchester grew from 17,000 people in the 1750s to 70,000 in 1801.
The rapid growthof population andindustry changedthe distribution oftwo key resources. People and labor
What led to the massive migration ofpeople from farms to cities?Changes in farming displaced farmers, causedpopulation growth, and increased demand forworkers.
The Industrial The middle class lived in cleanRevolution neighborhoods with runningcreated a new water and paved streets.middle class, Women stayed home to raiseor bourgeoisie. their children.They included merchants, inventors, investors, and“rags-to-riches” individuals who were admired for theirhard work and “get-ahead” attitude.
• tenement – crowded, multistory building divided into apartmentsThe cities where the working class lived werecrowded, dark, dirty, and smoky.• The poor lived in tiny, crowded rooms in multistory tenements packed into vile-smelling slums.• Lack of sanitation left waste and rotting garbage in the streets, creating a terrible stench.• Raw sewage was dumped in rivers, contaminating drinking water and spreading disease.
• labor union – workers’ organizationOrganizations such as labor unions were illegal. Frustration at times turnedFrustrated workers to violence:tried to organizesecretly, but they • Between 1811 and 1813,lacked a political textile workers rioted.voice and werepowerless to affect • Groups called Ludditeschange. smashed labor-saving machines that were replacing workers.
Many workers were comforted by religions such asMethodism, founded by John Wesley in the 1700s.Wesley Meetings Methodismencouraged featured rekindledself-improve- hymns and workers’ment through sermons hopes andadopting sober stressing channeledand moral forgiveness anger intoways. and salvation. reform.
How did members of the working classreact to their new experiences inindustrial cities?Changes in farming displaced farmers, causedpopulation growth, and increased demand forworkers.
The heart of the industrial city was the factory. The technology of the machine age and the rapid pace of industrialization imposed a harsh new way of life on factory workers.
Factory workers lived and worked in unpleasant conditions. • In factories the workIn rural villages pace was rigidly set.people worked Shifts lasted 12 to 16hard, but work hours.varied by theseason. They • Tired workers werecontrolled their easily hurt by machinesown work pace. with no safety devices. Textile factory air was polluted with lint.
Most early factory workers were women.• Women could • This created a be paid half what double burden on men earned. women.• They were • After 12 hours of considered easier work, they returned to manage. home to care for• It was believed their families in they could adapt damp, crowded better than men. tenements.
Working conditions in the mines were even worse than in factories. • Crippling coal dustMiners earned filled workers’ lungs.more thanfactory workers, • There were dangersbut conditions of cave-ins, floods,were more and explosions.dangerous. • They worked long hours in darkness.
Child labor was an accepted practice.• Most children began work at age seven or eight.• Nimble-fingered, small, and quick, they crept into machines to change spools or repair thread.• They worked in dust- and lint-filled rooms.• Children in mines worked in the dark and dampness for long hours, often doing hard labor.
Child labor • Children’s workdays reform laws were reduced to called “factory 12 hours. laws” were • Children under eight passed in the were removed from early 1800s. the cotton mills.New laws in the 1830s and 1840s further reducedhours for women and children, sent inspectors into factories, and required that children be educated.
How did the Industrial Revolutionaffect the lives of men, women, andchildren?Men, women, and children worked long hours inunsafe conditions for low pay. Women also hadto feed and clothe their families, a doubleburden.
Since the 1800s people have debated whether industrialization was a blessing or a curse. The industrial Workers later age brought gained the vote great hardship. and political Pay was low, power. Wages conditions were rose in time. terrible, and The cost of new housing was products and of dismal. travel dropped.
LEQ: What were the social effects ofthe Industrial Revolution?It brought rapid urbanization and created a newindustrial middle class and industrial workingclass. It brought material benefits and newopportunities, but also brought great hardshipsto factory work- ers and miners, especiallywomen and children.